February 2018

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Opposite regulation of inhibition by adult-born granule cells during implicit versus explicit olfactory learning

    Nathalie Mandairon et al.
    While both implicit and explicit learning augment neurogenesis, adult-born cells differ in their morphology, functional coupling and inhibitory action impacting differentially the olfactory bulb output.
    1. Neuroscience

    Shorter cortical adaptation in dyslexia is broadly distributed in the superior temporal lobe and includes the primary auditory cortex

    Sagi Jaffe-Dax et al.
    BOLD activity throughout the cortex, including auditory cortex and associative regions, reveals that adaptation is shorter in dyslexia.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    The transcription factors Runx3 and ThPOK cross-regulate acquisition of cytotoxic function by human Th1 lymphocytes

    Yasmina Serroukh et al.
    The acquisition of cytotoxic function by human CD4 T cells is an integral part of the T helper 1 differentiation pathway and is limited by the transcription factor ThPOK.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The small molecule ISRIB rescues the stability and activity of Vanishing White Matter Disease eIF2B mutant complexes

    Yao Liang Wong et al.
    Vanishing White Matter Disease mutations compromise the function of the essential translation initiation factor eIF2B by destabilizing the holoenzyme, and the small molecule ISRIB reverses their pathogenic effect by promoting complex formation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Explosive mutation accumulation triggered by heterozygous human Pol ε proofreading-deficiency is driven by suppression of mismatch repair

    Karl P Hodel et al.
    When mismatch repair is compromised heterozygous loss of Pol ε proofreading is sufficient to drive a subset of the observed clinical characteristics of Pol ε tumors.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Conjunction of factors triggering waves of seasonal influenza

    Ishanu Chattopadhyay et al.
    Three complementary computational approaches reveal a set of putative causes of initiation of pan-USA waves of influenza.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A randomised double blind placebo controlled phase 2 trial of adjunctive aspirin for tuberculous meningitis in HIV-uninfected adults

    Nguyen TH Mai et al.
    Adjunctive aspirin may reduce new brain infarcts and deaths in the first 60 days of treatment for HIV-uninfected adults with tuberculous meningitis.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Why plants make puzzle cells, and how their shape emerges

    Aleksandra Sapala et al.
    Puzzle-shape cells in the epidermis of many plants form due to a development constraint based on mechanical forces.
    1. Neuroscience

    Frontal cortex selects representations of the talker’s mouth to aid in speech perception

    Muge Ozker et al.
    During speech perception, if auditory speech is not informative the frontal cortex will enhance responses in visual regions that represent the mouth of the talker to improve perception.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A randomized feasibility trial comparing four antimalarial drug regimens to induce Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia in the controlled human malaria infection model

    Isaie J Reuling et al.
    Controlled human malaria infection model allows the study of gametocyte biology and dynamics providing novel insights and tools in malaria transmission and elimination efforts.
    1. Neuroscience

    Alterations of in vivo CA1 network activity in Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome model mice

    Matthieu Raveau et al.
    CA1 physiology is altered in the hippocampus of Down syndrome mice during both spatial exploration and rest, paralleled by an increase in populations of interneurons responsible for single cell and network synchronization.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Automated analysis of long-term grooming behavior in Drosophila using a k-nearest neighbors classifier

    Bing Qiao et al.
    Drosophila grooming is driven by two internal programs.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Vibrator and PI4KIIIα govern neuroblast polarity by anchoring non-muscle myosin II

    Chwee Tat Koe et al.
    Vibrator and PI4KIIIα that stimulate the synthesis of PI(4)P anchor non-muscle myosin II RLC (Sqh) to the plasma membrane and conversely Sqh associates with PI(4)P and facilitates its membrane localization during asymmetric division of neuroblasts.
    1. Neuroscience

    The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Suyi Zhang et al.
    The brain has a central cortico-striatal learning circuit that suppresses ongoing pain after injury when actively learning about things that could remove the cause of the pain.
    1. Neuroscience

    Early alterations of social brain networks in young children with autism

    Holger Franz Sperdin et al.
    Toddlers with autism spectrum disorders have alterations in gaze patterns together with frequency specific network atypicalities between key brain areas of the social brain when freely exploring naturalistic and ecologically valid dynamic social stimuli.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Serine is the major residue for ADP-ribosylation upon DNA damage

    Luca Palazzo et al.
    Serine residues in proteins are the primary targets for PARP-dependent ADP-ribosylation signalling upon DNA damage.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    NRF2 regulates core and stabilizing circadian clock loops, coupling redox and timekeeping in Mus musculus

    Ryan S Wible et al.
    NRF2 is the mechanism through which oxidative signals directly input into the circadian clockwork to link metabolism and timekeeping in Mus musculus.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Fidaxomicin jams Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase motions needed for initiation via RbpA contacts

    Hande Boyaci et al.
    Cryo-electron microscopy structures show how the clinically used antimicrobial fidaxomicin binds and inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase by acting like a doorstop to jam the enzyme in an open conformation via the general transcription factor RbpA.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Identification of PNG kinase substrates uncovers interactions with the translational repressor TRAL in the oocyte-to-embryo transition

    Masatoshi Hara et al.
    The threonine kinase controls maternal mRNA translation phosphorylate components of the translational machinery, including translational repressors, which appear to inactivate to promote the oocyte-to-embryo transition.
    1. Neuroscience

    A neural circuit for gamma-band coherence across the retinotopic map in mouse visual cortex

    Richard Hakim et al.
    A neural circuit between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons synchronizes spatially separated regions of the visual cortex to gamma rhythms.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    CATaDa reveals global remodelling of chromatin accessibility during stem cell differentiation in vivo

    Gabriel N Aughey et al.
    A new method for in vivo cell-specific profiling of chromatin accessibility reveals local and global chromatin dynamics during the differentiation of neural and gut stem cell lineages.
    1. Neuroscience

    A kinase-dependent feedforward loop affects CREBB stability and long term memory formation

    Pei-Tseng Lee et al.
    Through an image and behavioral screen based on MiMIC technology, we identified a novel kinase, CG11221 renamed Meng-Po (MP), and showed that flies that lack MP in mushroom bodies can learn but cannot remember as MP is required for the protein stability of CREBB.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Haploinsufficiency of Trp53 dramatically extends the lifespan of Sirt6-deficient mice

    Shrestha Ghosh et al.
    The dramatic extension of lifespan in Sirt6-deficient mice by Trp53 haploinsufficiency suggests that SIRT6 has distinct biological function from SIRT1 in regulating p53 activity and preventing cells from senescence/apoptosis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Efficient and accurate extraction of in vivo calcium signals from microendoscopic video data

    Pengcheng Zhou et al.
    A new open-source computational toolbox for processing in vivo microendoscopic calcium imaging data performs signal demixing and denoising much more accurately than previously available methods, significantly improving the utility of this imaging modality.
    1. Cell Biology

    Rab5 and Alsin regulate stress-activated cytoprotective signaling on mitochondria

    FoSheng Hsu et al.
    Oxidative stress leads to the translocation of Rab5 from endosome to mitochondria, regulated by ALS/Alsin, a component associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, leading to mitochondrial-endosomal physical contacts and a cytoprotective response.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    MreB filaments align along greatest principal membrane curvature to orient cell wall synthesis

    Saman Hussain et al.
    MreB filaments bind, orient, and move along the direction of greatest membrane curvature, thus orienting the insertion of new glycan strands around the cell circumference in a manner that may help establish and maintain rod shape.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    C/EBPδ drives interactions between human MAIT cells and endothelial cells that are important for extravasation

    Chang Hoon Lee et al.
    The bZIP transcription factor C/EBPδ enhances expression both of selectin ligands and the chemokine receptor CCR6 on human mucosal-associated invariant T cells, supporting their efficient extravasation into inflamed tissue.
    1. Cell Biology

    GRAM domain proteins specialize functionally distinct ER-PM contact sites in human cells

    Marina Besprozvannaya et al.
    Functionally distinct ER-PM domains in human cells are defined by conserved GRAM domain containing proteins.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tumor initiating cells induce Cxcr4-mediated infiltration of pro-tumoral macrophages into the brain

    Kelda Chia et al.
    Pre-neoplastic cells in the brain release SDF1, which mediates an immediate infiltration of macrophages that differentiate into microglia-like cells and promote proliferation of pre-neoplastic cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Learning place cells, grid cells and invariances with excitatory and inhibitory plasticity

    Simon Nikolaus Weber, Henning Sprekeler
    A large variety of spatial representations implied in rodent navigation could arise robustly and rapidly from inputs with a weak spatial structure, by an interaction of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    A dynamic mechanism for allosteric activation of Aurora kinase A by activation loop phosphorylation

    Emily F Ruff et al.
    Phosphorylation of Aurora A does not trigger a population shift to the active state as previously thought, but instead switches the kinase on by tuning the structure and dynamics of a dynamically sampled subpopulation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Molecular coordination of Staphylococcus aureus cell division

    Victoria A Lund et al.
    Morphological constraints dictate division mode in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Impact of the scale-up of piped water on urogenital schistosomiasis infection in rural South Africa

    Frank Tanser et al.
    Scale-up of safe water supplies decreases a child's risk of urogenital schistosomiasis infection by eight-fold in a typical rural African population.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    3.3-Å resolution cryo-EM structure of human ribonucleotide reductase with substrate and allosteric regulators bound

    Edward J Brignole et al.
    Cryo-electron microscopy structures of human ribonucleotide reductase reveal molecular details of substrate selection and allosteric inhibition through assembly of its large subunit into a ring that excludes its small subunit.
    1. Neuroscience

    Preserving neuromuscular synapses in ALS by stimulating MuSK with a therapeutic agonist antibody

    Sarah Cantor et al.
    An agonist antibody to MuSK, delivered after disease onset, decreases the loss of neuromuscular synapses, improves motor function and extends the lifespan of ALS mice.
    1. Ecology

    Implications of being born late in the active season for growth, fattening, torpor use, winter survival and fecundity

    Britta Mahlert et al.
    Being born late in the active season is associated with a fast life history in a hibernating species, the garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus).
    1. Neuroscience

    PTEN negatively regulates the cell lineage progression from NG2+ glial progenitor to oligodendrocyte via mTOR-independent signaling

    Estibaliz González-Fernández et al.
    OPC-specific genetic inhibition of Akt upstream and downstream molecules in the mouse, and simultaneous OPC fate analysis reveal that PTEN-AKT-GSK3b forms a persistent negative signaling pathway for OL development, in parallel with the AKT-mTORC1 pathway.
    1. Cell Biology

    SAC1 degrades its lipid substrate PtdIns4P in the endoplasmic reticulum to maintain a steep chemical gradient with donor membranes

    James P Zewe et al.
    SAC1 is unable to adopt an efficient "trans" mode of action in living cells.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Conserved conformational selection mechanism of Hsp70 chaperone-substrate interactions

    Ashok Sekhar et al.
    NMR-based flux measurements show that both bacterial and human Hsp70 chaperones interact with helical, as well as sheet substrates predominantly through a conformational selection mechanism.
    1. Plant Biology

    LPCAT1 controls phosphate homeostasis in a zinc-dependent manner

    Mushtak Kisko et al.
    Phosphate accumulation in zinc-deficient Arabidobsis shoots is regulated by a pathway involving the transcription factor bZIP23, the phospholipid-remodelling enzyme LPCAT1 and the transporter PHT1;1.
    1. Neuroscience

    A spatial memory signal shows that the parietal cortex has access to a craniotopic representation of space

    Mulugeta Semework et al.
    Neural recordings and analyses illustrate a unique lateral intraparietal area (LIP) response that may contribute to how primates can establish a memory of the environment in a useful coordinate frame, and maintain this representation of the environment over time.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Single-cell transcriptional dynamics of flavivirus infection

    Fabio Zanini et al.
    A novel virus-inclusive single cell RNA-Seq approach enables identification of novel pro- and antiviral host factors in human cells in response to dengue and Zika virus infection.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    ERα promotes murine hematopoietic regeneration through the Ire1α-mediated unfolded protein response

    Richard H Chapple et al.
    Estrogen is a systemic factor that promotes hematopoietic regeneration by activating the unfolded protein responses.
    1. Neuroscience

    The relationship between spatial configuration and functional connectivity of brain regions

    Janine Diane Bijsterbosch et al.
    Connectivity network matrices, as estimated with masking or dual regression against group-level parcellations, reflect little or no unique cross-subject information that is not also captured by spatial topographical variability.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Extreme heterogeneity of influenza virus infection in single cells

    Alistair B Russell et al.
    Single-cell mRNA sequencing shows that the impact of infection with influenza virus varies dramatically from one cell to another.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Molecular mechanism to target the endosomal Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex to the pre-autophagosomal structure

    Jieqiong Gao et al.
    The endosomal GEF Mon1-Ccz1 binds to Atg8 on autophagosomes, and recruits its substrate, the Rab7-like Ypt7, which then mediates fusion of the autophagosomes with the lysosome.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Allosteric mechanism of the V. vulnificus adenine riboswitch resolved by four-dimensional chemical mapping

    Siqi Tian et al.
    A new biochemical method tests whether or not the pre-existing RNA structural correlations couple small molecule binding to gene expression in a paradigmatic riboswitch.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Time- and polarity-dependent proteomic changes associated with homeostatic scaling at central synapses

    Christoph T Schanzenbächer et al.
    Metabolic labelling and quantitative proteomics reveal the temporal evolution of cellular and neuronal responses to global activity manipulations.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Role of framework mutations and antibody flexibility in the evolution of broadly neutralizing antibodies

    Victor Ovchinnikov et al.
    Computer simulations of the evolution of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV suggest that non-traditional pathways involving framework mutations which lead initially to increased antibody flexibility do occur, but can be avoided by appropriate vaccine design.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Spatial structure of disordered proteins dictates conductance and selectivity in nuclear pore complex mimics

    Adithya N Ananth et al.
    Biomimetic nanopores reveal that the sequence-dependent spatial distribution of intrinsically disordered proteins plays a crucial role in establishing the selective permeability barrier of the nuclear pore complex.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Polycystin-2 is an essential ion channel subunit in the primary cilium of the renal collecting duct epithelium

    Xiaowen Liu et al.
    The primary cilia polycystin proteins, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, affect cilia length in the kidney collecting duct epithelia, but only polycystin-2 is required for the functional ion channel in this organelle.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone

    Elizabeth A Gould et al.
    Mild myelin disruption leads to early axonal pathology, a novel pathological response in neural stem cells, regionally increased oligodendrocytes and altered behavior.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    AMPK signaling to acetyl-CoA carboxylase is required for fasting- and cold-induced appetite but not thermogenesis

    Sandra Galic et al.
    A single mutation in acetyl-CoA carboxylase blocking AMPK regulation inhibits food intake in mice in response to cold exposure or fasting causing them to lose weight.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Transgenerational dynamics of rDNA copy number in Drosophila male germline stem cells

    Kevin L Lu et al.
    rDNA copy number is shown to dynamically change during aging and through generations, and is actively maintained in male germline of Drosophila.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    YTH-RNA-binding protein prevents deleterious expression of meiotic proteins by tethering their mRNAs to nuclear foci

    Yuichi Shichino et al.
    A YTH-domain protein Mmi1 prevents deleterious expression of meiotic proteins by tethering their mRNAs to nuclear foci.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Dynamics of venom composition across a complex life cycle

    Yaara Y Columbus-Shenkar et al.
    Different developmental stages of a venomous animal (e.g. Nematostella vectensis) with a complex life cycle produce vastly different venoms that can serve in different antagonistic interactions with other species.
    1. Neuroscience

    A sleep state in Drosophila larvae required for neural stem cell proliferation

    Milan Szuperak et al.
    A role for sleep in developmental neurogenesis is revealed using a new system for studying sleep during nascent periods.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Architecture of the human mTORC2 core complex

    Edward Stuttfeld et al.
    The structure of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) reveals the architecture of the complex and explains the structural basis of rapamycin insensitivity.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Pi-Pi contacts are an overlooked protein feature relevant to phase separation

    Robert McCoy Vernon et al.
    Statistics on the frequencies of pi interactions in folded protein structures enable successful prediction of intrinsically disordered protein phase separation, with clear implications for a physical understanding of cellular organization.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Global morphogenetic flow is accurately predicted by the spatial distribution of myosin motors

    Sebastian J Streichan et al.
    Epithelial tissue remodeling during Drosophila embryonic development is quantitatively described by a simple law relating myosin activity and cell flow.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Gene-specific mechanisms direct glucocorticoid-receptor-driven repression of inflammatory response genes in macrophages

    Maria A Sacta et al.
    A comprehensive analysis of the glucocorticoid-sensitive pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages reveals fundamental differences between the temporal events and components of transcriptional machinery that the glucocorticoid receptor targets to repress their transcription.
    1. Neuroscience

    LRRTM1 underlies synaptic convergence in visual thalamus

    Aboozar Monavarfeshani et al.
    The synaptic cell adhesion molecule, leucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1 (LRRTM1), plays an important role in the establishment of retinal convergence onto relay cells in mouse visual thalamus.
    1. Cancer Biology

    MELK expression correlates with tumor mitotic activity but is not required for cancer growth

    Christopher J Giuliano et al.
    Cancer cells can grow in vitro and in vivo in the absence of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK).
    1. Neuroscience

    Orphan receptor GPR158 controls stress-induced depression

    Laurie P Sutton et al.
    The orphan receptor GPR158 is highly regulated by stress exposure and acts on key neuronal signaling pathways in the prefrontal cortex to control depressive-like behaviors.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Bipolar filaments of human nonmuscle myosin 2-A and 2-B have distinct motile and mechanical properties

    Luca Melli et al.
    Individual nonmuscle myosin 2 filaments in cells may differ their mechanical and kinetic properties depending on the myosin paralog composition giving the cells a mechanism for fine tuning the output of a given nonmuscle myosin filament.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Jak-Stat pathway induces Drosophila follicle elongation by a gradient of apical contractility

    Hervé Alégot et al.
    A morphogen gradient can trigger tissue elongation via a control of apical cell pulsing and without a planar cell polarity requirement.
    1. Neuroscience

    Role of the visual experience-dependent nascent proteome in neuronal plasticity

    Han-Hsuan Liu et al.
    A screen of visual-experience induced changes in newly-synthesized proteins in Xenopus optic tectum identifies unexpected candidate plasticity proteins.
    1. Neuroscience

    Salient experiences are represented by unique transcriptional signatures in the mouse brain

    Diptendu Mukherjee et al.
    Inducible transcription in the brain encodes detailed aspects of recent experience.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Translational control of ERK signaling through miRNA/4EHP-directed silencing

    Seyed Mehdi Jafarnejad et al.
    ERK/MAPK activity is regulated by the cap-binding protein 4EHP, via translational control of the DUSP6 phosphatase.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Micropattern differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells recapitulates embryo regionalized cell fate patterning

    Sophie M Morgani et al.
    Micropatterned differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells gives rise to regionally distinct cell types arising in embryos at gastrulation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Simultaneous two-photon imaging and two-photon optogenetics of cortical circuits in three dimensions

    Weijian Yang et al.
    An all-optical 3D two-photon imaging and photostimulation platform was demonstrated, with the capability to precisely stimulate a large group of cells in mice cortex in vivo with low laser power.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Integration of human pancreatic islet genomic data refines regulatory mechanisms at Type 2 Diabetes susceptibility loci

    Matthias Thurner et al.
    Human pancreatic islet high-resolution chromatin state maps generated from DNA methylation, open chromatin and ChIP-seq mark data facilitate the characterisation of regulatory mechanisms at type 2 diabetes genome-wide association study loci.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The last common ancestor of animals lacked the HIF pathway and respired in low-oxygen environments

    Daniel B Mills et al.
    Sponges and ctenophores lack hypoxia-inducible factors, suggesting that the metazoan last common ancestor could have lived aerobically under severe hypoxia and did not need to regulate its transcription in response to oxygen availability.
    1. Neuroscience

    Thalamocortical and corticothalamic pathways differentially contribute to goal-directed behaviors in the rat

    Fabien Alcaraz et al.
    Adaptive decision-making critically depends on antiparallel flows conveying distinct information within thalamocortical circuits, highlighting directionality of functional exchanges as a neural principle potentially at play in virtually any brain circuit with reciprocal projections.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Developmental evolution of the forebrain in cavefish, from natural variations in neuropeptides to behavior

    Alexandre Alié et al.
    A comparative approach shows that developmental evolution of neuropeptidergic neuronal groups in the hypothalamus of blind cavefish drives adaptive behavioral evolution.
    1. Developmental Biology

    An FGF-driven feed-forward circuit patterns the cardiopharyngeal mesoderm in space and time

    Florian Razy-Krajka et al.
    A gene network for heart versus head muscle specification has been identified in the tunicate Ciona.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    R-spondins can potentiate WNT signaling without LGRs

    Andres M Lebensohn, Rajat Rohatgi
    R-spondins 2 and 3 can potentiate WNT signaling in the absence of LGRs through interactions with ZNRF3/RNF43 E3 ubiquitin ligases and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, defining two alternative modes of R-spondin-mediated signaling.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Mitochondrial CoQ deficiency is a common driver of mitochondrial oxidants and insulin resistance

    Daniel J Fazakerley et al.
    Lower mitochondrial coenzyme Q was a consistent feature across multiple in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance and was sufficient to cause insulin resistance through increased mitochondrial oxidants.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hypocretin underlies the evolution of sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish

    James B Jaggard et al.
    The identification of evolutionarily-derived changes in Hypocretin function within the brains of short-sleeping Mexican cavefish provides a system for investigating the mechanistic basis of sleep differences throughout the animal kingdom.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Wilms Tumor 1b defines a wound-specific sheath cell subpopulation associated with notochord repair

    Juan Carlos Lopez-Baez et al.
    Wound-specific notochord sheath cell subpopulations associate with notochord repair and adult vertebrae formation.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Spatially resolved RNA-sequencing of the embryonic heart identifies a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in autonomic control of heart rate

    Silja Barbara Burkhard, Jeroen Bakkers
    A genome wide transcriptome dataset of the embryonic zebrafish heart with high spatial resolution was established and used to identify a novel mechanism regulating pacemaker function.
    1. Cell Biology

    TRAIN (Transcription of Repeats Activates INterferon) in response to chromatin destabilization induced by small molecules in mammalian cells

    Katerina Leonova et al.
    Type I interferon signaling protects cells from the loss of epigenetic integrity, since it is activated in cells in response to accumulation of transcripts originating from normally silenced heterochromatin, caused by small-molecule-mediated nucleosome unfolding.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    YAP and TAZ regulate adherens junction dynamics and endothelial cell distribution during vascular development

    Filipa Neto et al.
    Endothelial YAP/TAZ shape the developing vasculature by orchestrating mechanical inputs with BMP signalling to promote junctional VE-Cadherin turnover and cellular rearrangements.
    1. Neuroscience

    Integrative and distinctive coding of visual and conceptual object features in the ventral visual stream

    Chris B Martin et al.
    Perirhinal cortex, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe, uniquely supports the integration of visual and conceptual object information.
    1. Neuroscience

    Internal amino acid state modulates yeast taste neurons to support protein homeostasis in Drosophila

    Kathrin Steck et al.
    Two different classes of taste receptor neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster proboscis play distinct roles in yeast feeding and are both modulated by the fly's internal amino acid state in order to promote protein-specific appetite.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Hsf1 and Hsp70 constitute a two-component feedback loop that regulates the yeast heat shock response

    Joanna Krakowiak et al.
    Dynamic regulation of the heat shock response depends on a negative feedback loop in which Hsf1 activates expression of Hsp70 and Hsp70 specifically and directly represses Hsf1 transactivation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Gq activity- and β-arrestin-1 scaffolding-mediated ADGRG2/CFTR coupling are required for male fertility

    Dao-Lai Zhang et al.
    ADGRG2, an orphan GPCR, when coupled to CFTR via a regional Gq signaling on the apical membrane, acts to regulate efferent duct fluid reabsorption making it essential for male fertility.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Multiple kinases inhibit origin licensing and helicase activation to ensure reductive cell division during meiosis

    David V Phizicky et al.
    Meiotic cells inhibit two distinct steps of replisome assembly with multiple kinases to prevent DNA replication between Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Dopamine-dependent scaling of subthalamic gamma bursts with movement velocity in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    Roxanne Lofredi et al.
    Bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease may be associated to a dopamine-dependent recruitment failure of subthalamic activity in short bursts of gamma synchrony.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Novel ATP-cone-driven allosteric regulation of ribonucleotide reductase via the radical-generating subunit

    Inna Rozman Grinberg et al.
    Structural and functional characterization of an unanticipated mode of allosteric activity regulation in ribonucleotide reductases controlled by an ATP-cone in the radical-generating subunit.