Resting-state MEG-activity and MRS-GABA/Glx measurements reveal that there is a significant shift in excitability during the course of schizophrenia, involving hyperexcitability during the onset and a reduction at chronic stages.
Mathematical models with experimental validation show that chloride transporters in the cell membrane, and not negatively charged impermeant molecules, generate the driving force used by GABA receptors to silence neurons.
Sodium ions control the rates of both substrate binding and dissociation of an archaeal homologue of glutamate transporters in a manner that minimizes binding intermediates and maximizes transport efficiency.
Feedback sensing of the intracellular calcium concentration suffices to reproduce the diversity of ionic conductances underlying normal cardiac electromechanical function in a genetically diverse population of mice.
The glycine T-box riboswitch recognizes tRNAgly and senses its aminoacylation state by first interacting with the anticodon region and subsequently probing the 3' end of the ligand using both specific structural elements and conformational dynamics.
Simultaneous EEG-fMRI reveals neural representations of decision confidence unfolding prior to explicit perceptual choices, in a region of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex typically linked to reward processing and value-based decisions.
Immune expulsion of helminth parasites is driven by two key pathways mediated by soluble cytokines ligating to the IL-4 and IL-25 receptors acting on innate effector cells throughout the course of infection.
High levels of nuclear YAP are sufficient to drive squamous cell carincoma formation and frequently also drive progression to spindle cell carcinoma by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition after tissue damage.
Ezrin, an important actin-membrane linker, can zip adjacent membranes, be enriched to positively-curved membranes when phosphorylated and to negatively-curved membranes through a direct interaction with membrane curvature sensor I-BAR domain proteins.
Quantitative analyses associating the morphology of developing organs with dynamic gene expression patterns can reveal biological phenomena that cause malformations and malfunction but remain elusive to traditional qualitative assessments.
Cereblon-based small-molecule degraders rely on the sequential action of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UBE2G1 and UBE2D3 to assemble K48-linked polyubiquitin chains on cereblon neomorphic substrates, resulting in their proteasomal degradation.
Modifying the recurrent connectivity of spiking networks provides sufficient flexibility to generate arbitrarily complex recurrent dynamics, suggesting that individual neurons in a recurrent network have the capability to support near universal dynamics.
Contrary to the generally accepted model, condensin maintains proper gene expression by promoting the accurate segregation of chromosomes and the partitioning of the RNA-exosome throughout mitosis, instead of directly regulating transcription.
Genetic predisposition to uterine leiomyomas arises from variation at loci for genetic stability and genitourinary development, and in part explains the frequent occurrence of the condition in women with African origin.
Experiments in ex-germ-free mice establish a measurable effect of colonization history on gut microbiota assembly, illuminating a potential cause for the high levels of unexplained individuality in host-associated microbial communities.
The machinery that carries out programmed DNA rearrangements is composed of domesticated transposases. One is catalytically active, five play architectural function essential for the accuracy of the process.
Biochemical and genetic approaches show that the XMAP215 homolog Stu2 directly interacts with the small gamma-tubulin complex and its recruitment factor Spc72 to instigate functions in cytoplasmic microtubule organization.
Computational model reveals how the fast exchange of neurotransmitter receptors between synapses induces a competition leading to a transient form of heterosynaptic plasticity and shaping the induction of homosynaptic plasticity.
Analysis of the global genetic requirements and gene expression changes in E. coli in the presence of a simple microbiome revealed pairwise and higher-order interactions, and underlying molecular mechanisms.
In triple-layered rotavirus particles, strong interaction between the external and middle layers provides high mechanical strength for protection tasks, while weaker interaction between the middle and inner layers favors transcription.
The 'missing' class of Caenorhabditis elegans excitatory motor neurons, AS, contribute to propagation and coordination of body waves, integrating information from, and feeding back to premotor interneurons byelectrical signaling.
Pulsed-labeling hydrogen exchange on the ribonuclease H family show that the major folding intermediate is conserved over three billion years of evolution, but the path leading to this intermediate varies.
Adult male, but not female, rats showed altered neuronal function, inhibited synaptic plasticity and diminished social behavior following cannabinoid exposure during gestation in a model of cannabis use during pregnancy.
Standing genetic variation for disease resistance may be continuously lost during recurring warm water episodes because of widespread susceptibility of disease-resistant genotypes to bleaching and the independence between these two traits.
Ultrastructural and loss-of-function experiments show that oligodendrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 is located near active axonal structures, including within myelin inner tongue, and has critical functions to promote axonal activity and preserve integrity.
The proteins found in the mitochondria of apicomplexan parasites, including key proteins involved in energy generation, are very different from mitochondrial proteins of the animals these parasites infect.
Cooperativity between two transcription regulators occurs through protein-protein interactions with a general transcription factor complex and potentiates the parallel evolution of their DNA binding sites.
Two structurally-unrelated regulatory proteins utilize parallel molecular mechanisms to selectively tune calcium and calmodulin feedback of calcium and sodium ion channels and reveals a novel strategy to engineer synthetic channel modulators.
Electron-cryomicroscopy structures of the supercomplex of NSF, αSNAP, and neuronal SNAREs in the presence of ATP under non-hydrolyzing conditions at 3.9 Å resolution reveal interactions between the N-terminal residues of SNAP-25 and NSF.
Syngeneic tp53-null zebrafish develop a wide range of tumors that engraft into recipient animals with loss of Tp53 leading to increased metastasis in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS), likely accounting for increased aggression in TP53-inactivated human ERMS.
Endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis factors enhance the mutational tolerance of influenza hemagglutinin, a model secretory pathway protein and therapeutic target, particularly improving the fitness of temperature-sensitive variants.
Genome-wide integration of transcriptome, accessible chromatin, and DNA methylome data from vascular endothelial cells lays the foundation for understanding the gene regulatory circuits that generate organ-specific vascular specialization.
A generally applicable two-hybrid assay demonstrates that MHC class I heavy chains devoid of beta-2 microglobulin associate within and across allotypes, with implications for endocytosis and autoimmunity.
Heterodyne low-coherence interferometry demonstrates that the latency of the sound-induced reticular lamina vibration is significantly greater than that of the basilar membrane vibration in living gerbil cochleae.
Remaining focused on the topic at hand when speaking depends on effective selection of task-relevant semantic knowledge, and declines in this ability account for increases in off-topic speech in older people.
Temperature and ionic conditions control the mechanical properties of virally encapsidated DNA and act as a switch between synchronized and desynchronized genome ejection dynamics in a phage population.
The percentage of a tumor’s genome with alterations in copy number is correlated with increased mortality across a range of tumor types and can be measured using a clinically approved sequencing assay.
The BB model explains spatial cognition in terms of interactions between specific neuronal populations, providing a common computational framework for the human neuropsychological and in vivo animal electrophysiological literatures.