October 2016

Research articles

    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Analysis of cellular behavior and cytoskeletal dynamics reveal a constriction mechanism driving optic cup morphogenesis

    María Nicolás-Pérez et al.
    High-resolution live imaging analysis shows a constriction mechanism that drives zebrafish optic cup morphogenesis and highlights the role of the extracellular matrix in transmitting tensions beyond the cellular level.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    PtdInsP2 and PtdSer cooperate to trap synaptotagmin-1 to the plasma membrane in the presence of calcium

    Ángel Pérez-Lara et al.
    Two acidic membrane lipids increase synaptotagmin-1 dwell time and penetration into the membrane, reducing the membrane dissociation of synaptotagmin-1.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Plant Biology

    Identification and reconstitution of the rubber biosynthetic machinery on rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis

    Satoshi Yamashita et al.
    The first de novo synthesis of polyisoprenoids correspond to natural rubber in vitro with the recombinant proteins is achieved by identification and cell-free translation-coupled reconstitution of the rubber biosynthetic machinery on rubber particles.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    bicoid mRNA localises to the Drosophila oocyte anterior by random Dynein-mediated transport and anchoring

    Vítor Trovisco et al.
    The localisation of bicoid mRNA depends on its microtubule-independent anchoring at the oocyte anterior.
    1. Neuroscience

    The influence of evidence volatility on choice, reaction time and confidence in a perceptual decision

    Ariel Zylberberg et al.
    A single framework of bounded evidence accumulation resolves the seemingly paradoxical effects of noise on accuracy, reaction time and confidence.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards

    Armin Lak et al.
    When learning the reward probability of novel cues, dopamine neurons convey dissociable value and novelty signals.
    1. Biochemistry

    Regulation of mTORC1 by lysosomal calcium and calmodulin

    Ruo-Jing Li et al.
    The multipronged chemical biology approach unraveled a novel mechanism by which mTOR is regulated by the second messenger calcium.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Structural determinants of adhesion by Protocadherin-19 and implications for its role in epilepsy

    Sharon R Cooper et al.
    Structural and binding studies provide insight into the molecular mechanism of protocadherin-19-mediated adhesion and into the biochemical basis of neurodevelopmental disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Lognormal firing rate distribution reveals prominent fluctuation–driven regime in spinal motor networks

    Peter C Petersen, Rune W Berg
    Neuronal participation in generation of motor patterns in the spinal circuits is lognormal, which is an indication of a rich diversity of activity within the mean-driven as well as the fluctuation-driven regimes.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 plays distinct roles at the mRNA entry and exit channels of the ribosomal preinitiation complex

    Colin Echeverría Aitken et al.
    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is required to stabilize the binding of mRNA at the exit channel of the small ribosomal subunit and acts at the entry channel to accelerate mRNA recruitment to the translation preinitiation complex.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Neuroscience

    Proteolytic maturation of α2δ represents a checkpoint for activation and neuronal trafficking of latent calcium channels

    Ivan Kadurin et al.
    Multiple roles of the auxiliary calcium channel α2δ subunits require proteolytic cleavage of the precursor protein into α2 and δ.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Dpp dependent Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to Hh dependent blood progenitors in larval lymph gland of Drosophila

    Nidhi Sharma Dey et al.
    Identification of Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the genetically amenable organism Drosophila melanogaster paves the path to address HSC biology, both in normal and pathophysiological conditions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Release-dependent feedback inhibition by a presynaptically localized ligand-gated anion channel

    Seika Takayanagi-Kiya et al.
    An anion-selective ligand gated channel acts as a presynaptic auto-receptor to modulate vesicle release and neuronal excitation.
    1. Cell Biology

    Increasing β-catenin/Wnt3A activity levels drive mechanical strain-induced cell cycle progression through mitosis

    Blair W Benham-Pyle et al.
    Mechanicals forces and local (Wnt) signaling can synergize to increase β-catenin signaling and produce unique growth phenotypes.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    γ-Protocadherin structural diversity and functional implications

    Kerry Marie Goodman et al.
    Crystal structures of γ-protocadherin cell-cell recognition dimers reveal the determinants of clustered protocadherin homophilic specificity and cis interaction region structures alongside mutagenesis data identify the putative cis interface.
    1. Neuroscience

    Loss of MeCP2 disrupts cell autonomous and autocrine BDNF signaling in mouse glutamatergic neurons

    Charanya Sampathkumar et al.
    In mouse models of Rett syndrome, the impaired cell autonomous BDNF feed forward signaling pathway results in abnormalities in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation in excitatory neurons.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT crystal structures implicate the bHLH-PAS family as multi-ligand binding transcription factors

    Dalei Wu et al.
    Detailed structural analysis of NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT complexes, and further comparisons with other bHLH-PAS protein structures, show that this family of mammalian transcription factors have distinct ligand-binding pockets within their molecular architectures.
    1. Neuroscience

    MEF2C regulates cortical inhibitory and excitatory synapses and behaviors relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders

    Adam J Harrington et al.
    Mice that lack the autism- and schizophrenia-linked gene MEF2C in cortical neurons have an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and impaired social and cognitive abilities.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Using evolution to generate sustainable malaria control with spatial repellents

    Penelope Anne Lynch, Mike Boots
    The evolution of insecticide-avoidance behaviour can be used to generate new spatial repellents to keep malaria vectors out of homes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct neural mechanisms underlie the success, precision, and vividness of episodic memory

    Franziska R Richter et al.
    Combining fMRI with continuous model-based measures of retrieval enables the behavioral and neural dissociation of multiple components of episodic memory.
    1. Neuroscience

    TRIM28 regulates the nuclear accumulation and toxicity of both alpha-synuclein and tau

    Maxime WC Rousseaux et al.
    Convergent screens targeting the levels of alpha-synuclein and tau identify TRIM28 as a driver of their stability, nuclear accumulation and subsequent toxicity.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Live imaging reveals the progenitors and cell dynamics of limb regeneration

    Frederike Alwes et al.
    Long-term live imaging reveals the dynamic cell behaviors and progenitor cells that underpin the regeneration of adult limbs in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence

    Micah Allen et al.
    Changes in physiological arousal – as revealed by pupil dilation and heart rate – shape our confidence in decisions about uncertain perceptual information.
    1. Neuroscience

    Plasticity-dependent, full detonation at hippocampal mossy fiber–CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses

    Nicholas P Vyleta et al.
    Activity-dependent enhancement of transmitter release makes the hippocampal mossy fiber synapse a full detonator in rats.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Plant Biology

    Long non-coding RNA produced by RNA polymerase V determines boundaries of heterochromatin

    Gudrun Böhmdorfer et al.
    Genome-wide identification of long non-coding RNAs produced by RNA Polymerase V identifies their role in heterochromatin maintenance on the boundaries of repressed regions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Internal states drive nutrient homeostasis by modulating exploration-exploitation trade-off

    Verónica María Corrales-Carvajal et al.
    A quantitative video tracking analysis reveals that to gain the nutrients they need, flies change their decisions to exploit foods with different nutrient contents and explore the environment according to their internal amino acid and reproductive states.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    A computational interactome and functional annotation for the human proteome

    José Ignacio Garzón et al.
    A machine-learning approach is used to predict 1.35 million interactions for 85% of the human proteome.
    1. Biochemistry

    Characterization of human translesion DNA synthesis across a UV-induced DNA lesion

    Mark Hedglin et al.
    Quantitative binding and kinetic assays on DNA polymerases η and δ define the mechanism for polymerase exchange during human translesion DNA synthesis across a UV-induced lesion on the lagging strand.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sub-synaptic, multiplexed analysis of proteins reveals Fragile X related protein 2 is mislocalized in Fmr1 KO synapses

    Gordon X Wang et al.
    The development of a novel, high throughput method for the sub-synaptic analysis of protein localization in molecularly classified synapse classes allows sub-compartment, multiplexed detection of proteins in synapses using wide-field microscopes.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Factors essential for L,D-transpeptidase-mediated peptidoglycan cross-linking and β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli

    Jean-Emmanuel Hugonnet et al.
    Production of the L,D-transpeptidase YcbB and elevated synthesis of the (p)ppGpp alarmone reveals a new mode of peptidoglycan polymerization that bypasses the D,D-transpeptidase activity of PBPs and leads to broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli.
    1. Neuroscience

    Regulation of neuronal axon specification by glia-neuron gap junctions in C. elegans

    Lingfeng Meng et al.
    Genetic study of C. elegans neural development reveals the function of glia-neuron gap junctions in neuronal axon specification, and shows that glial cells regulate neuronal intracellular pathways through gap junctions.
    1. Immunology

    Endothelial cell-derived CD95 ligand serves as a chemokine in induction of neutrophil slow rolling and adhesion

    Liang Gao et al.
    The cell surface protein CD95 mediates neutrophil slow rolling and adhesion during inflammation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Decreased motor cortex excitability mirrors own hand disembodiment during the rubber hand illusion

    Francesco della Gatta et al.
    An illusion in which individuals feel that their own hand no longer belongs to them may reflect a temporary reduction in the brain’s ability to control the movement of the hand.
    1. Neuroscience

    Intramuscular Neurotrophin-3 normalizes low threshold spinal reflexes, reduces spasms and improves mobility after bilateral corticospinal tract injury in rats

    Claudia Kathe et al.
    Delayed intramuscular gene therapy with neurotrophin-3 after corticospinal tract injury reduces spasticity and improves locomotion by treating underlying causes of spasticity.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Methylglyoxal, a glycolysis side-product, induces Hsp90 glycation and YAP-mediated tumor growth and metastasis

    Marie-Julie Nokin et al.
    Carbonyl stress mediated by Methylglyoxal affects Hsp90 activity, inhibits the Hippo pathway and promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations produce separation of function isoforms with pro-tumorigenic functions

    Nitin H Shirole et al.
    Genetic and molecular analysis of TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations reveal that these mutations, contrary to current belief, promote tumorigenesis and point towards strategies for treating cancers driven by these prevalent mutations.
    1. Neuroscience

    Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner

    Hideyuki Matsumoto et al.
    Dopamine neurons signal value prediction errors (VPEs) integrating information about both reward and aversion, in low reward contexts, whereas VPEs in some dopamine neurons are distorted in high reward contexts.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    HID-1 is required for homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules during maturation

    Wen Du et al.
    HID-1 is a novel player mediating homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Continuous lateral oscillations as a core mechanism for taxis in Drosophila larvae

    Antoine Wystrach et al.
    Analysis of crawling Drosophila larva and agent based simulations suggest that an intrinsic rhythm rather than distinct actions underlie taxis behaviour, providing a core mechanism on which both sensory and memory pathways can converge.
    1. Cell Biology

    Ubiquitin-dependent folding of the Wnt signaling coreceptor LRP6

    Elsa Perrody et al.
    A novel folding machinery assists transmembrane proteins from the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum.
    1. Neuroscience

    Direct modulation of GFAP-expressing glia in the arcuate nucleus bi-directionally regulates feeding

    Naiyan Chen et al.
    Glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing glia in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus modulate feeding in mice.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Control of the structural landscape and neuronal proteotoxicity of mutant Huntingtin by domains flanking the polyQ tract

    Koning Shen et al.
    The polyQ tract of pathogenic Huntingtin causes aggregation when expanded in Huntington’s disease, but its two flanking domains control its conformational landscape, proteostasis and neurotoxicity.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Klf5 regulates muscle differentiation by directly targeting muscle-specific genes in cooperation with MyoD in mice

    Shinichiro Hayashi et al.
    The regulatory programs governing skeletal muscle regeneration that are controlled by Klf5 in cooperation with MyoD and Mef2 provide a potential avenue for intervention into muscle regeneration through modulation of Klf5.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Frazzled promotes growth cone attachment at the source of a Netrin gradient in the Drosophila visual system

    Orkun Akin, S Lawrence Zipursky
    Direct observation in the developing fly brain indicates that the response of a growth cone in a gradient of a guidance cue is adhesion to the source of the cue rather than attraction by the gradient.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    The Glide/Gcm fate determinant controls initiation of collective cell migration by regulating Frazzled

    Tripti Gupta et al.
    The role of the Frazzled chemoattractant receptor is to triggers migration initiation as part of the glial developmental program induced by the Glide/Gcm transcription factor.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Neuronal cell fate diversification controlled by sub-temporal action of Kruppel

    Johannes Stratmann et al.
    A combination of temporal and sub-temporal genes combine to move the stem cell through different competence windows to generate different cell types at different time-points in Drosophila.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Cyclin Kinase-independent role of p21CDKN1A in the promotion of nascent DNA elongation in unstressed cells

    Sabrina F Mansilla et al.
    A new tumor suppressor function of p21, needed at each undamaged duplication cycle, ensures the adequate execution of the DNA replication program thereby protecting the genome integrity.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    A cellular and regulatory map of the GABAergic nervous system of C. elegans

    Marie Gendrel et al.
    GABAergic neurons in the nervous system of C. elegans have been comprehensively mapped allowing analysis of regulatory factors that program GABAergic neuron identity.
    1. Cell Biology

    Curvature-induced expulsion of actomyosin bundles during cytokinetic ring contraction

    Junqi Huang et al.
    Cytokinetic actomyosin ring disassembly occurs through a novel mechanism in which the increased ring curvature, generated through contraction, itself promotes the disassembly process.
    1. Neuroscience

    NMNAT1 inhibits axon degeneration via blockade of SARM1-mediated NAD+ depletion

    Yo Sasaki et al.
    Axonal metabolic flux analysis demonstrates that expression of NMNAT1 blocks axonal degeneration in cultured mouse neurons not by altering NAD+ synthesis, but rather by inhibiting injury-induced, SARM1-dependent NAD+ consumption.
    1. Neuroscience

    Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences

    Fabian Grabenhorst et al.
    Neurons in the amygdala, a brain system usually associated with emotion, track progress during sequential reward-directed choices according to an internal plan in Rhesus macaques.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) diffraction data processing applied to the crystal structure of the synaptotagmin-1 / SNARE complex

    Artem Y Lyubimov et al.
    Building on previous work (Uervirojnangkoorn et al., 2015), we demonstrate how improved methods for processing XFEL diffraction data enable the determination of structures from poorly diffracting crystals.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    The Drosophila formin Fhos is a primary mediator of sarcomeric thin-filament array assembly

    Arkadi Shwartz et al.
    Actin is incorporated into the thin-filament arrays of skeletal muscle sarcomeres in discrete steps, and Fhos, the Drosophila homolog of FHOD-family formins, is an essential player in the process.
    1. Neuroscience

    Eco-HAB as a fully automated and ecologically relevant assessment of social impairments in mouse models of autism

    Alicja Puścian et al.
    An innovative, fully computerized approach for measuring spontaneous social behavior in mice closely follows murine ethology, eliminates crucial sources of data irreproducibility and enables fast, inexpensive assessment of sociability in group-housed subjects.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Insights into HIV-1 proviral transcription from integrative structure and dynamics of the Tat:AFF4:P-TEFb:TAR complex

    Ursula Schulze-Gahmen et al.
    The crystal structure of the trans-activation response region (TAR) bound to HIV-1 Tat and an elongation factor, together with HDX, SHAPE, SAXS, and integrative modeling, shows how TAR binds this complex in two ways.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Calcium handling precedes cardiac differentiation to initiate the first heartbeat

    Richard CV Tyser et al.
    High-resolution live imaging reveals how and when the mouse heart first starts to beat during development and how the onset of beating impacts on heart muscle cell maturation and heart formation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sensory dynamics of visual hallucinations in the normal population

    Joel Pearson et al.
    A new method for inducing, measuring and modelling visual hallucinations in healthy people reveals that hallucinations share common underlying mechanisms with normal sensory perception.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Dynamics of mTORC1 activation in response to amino acids

    Maria Manifava et al.
    Activation by amino acids causes mTORC1 to translocate transiently to the lysosomal surface.
    1. Neuroscience

    An excitatory cortical feedback loop gates retinal wave transmission in rodent thalamus

    Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T Colonnese
    The absence of functional inhibition is a developmentally transient circuit property of corticothalamic feedback that is essential for the central transmission of spontaneous retinal waves.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Myofiber-specific TEAD1 overexpression drives satellite cell hyperplasia and counters pathological effects of dystrophin deficiency

    Sheryl Southard et al.
    For skeletal muscle in mice, the size of the stem cell pool can be uncoupled from overall tissue size allowing for a dramatic increase in stem cell number.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sexually dimorphic neuronal responses to social isolation

    Laura Senst et al.
    Male and female mice react differently to social isolation but not to an acute physical stress.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Diabetes regulates fructose absorption through thioredoxin-interacting protein

    James R Dotimas et al.
    Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein binds directly to fructose transporters and regulates fructose metabolism, both acutely and chronically.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    A bioengineered niche promotes in vivo engraftment and maturation of pluripotent stem cell derived human lung organoids

    Briana R Dye et al.
    Building on previous work (Dye et al., 2015) showing that pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids were immature/fetal, the current study shows that in vivo transplantation leads to mature tissue, reminiscent of adult airways.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    Robert S Illingworth et al.
    Polycomb enables lineage priming in mouse embryonic stem cells by establishing a barrier to commitment.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Cortical flow aligns actin filaments to form a furrow

    Anne-Cecile Reymann et al.
    Compressing the actomyosin network by cortical flow causes filaments to align and form a constricting ring.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    BLOS2 negatively regulates Notch signaling during neural and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development

    Wenwen Zhou et al.
    The conserved mechanism of Notch down-regulation by endo-lysosomal trafficking plays important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells during embryogenesis or organogenesis in vertebrates.
    1. Neuroscience

    Asymmetric effects of activating and inactivating cortical interneurons

    Elizabeth AK Phillips, Andrea R Hasenstaub
    The consequences of manipulating neuronal activity with techniques such as optogenetics are highly sensitive to methodological details, highlighting the need for caution when interpreting results.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Live-cell single-molecule tracking reveals co-recognition of H3K27me3 and DNA targets polycomb Cbx7-PRC1 to chromatin

    Chao Yu Zhen et al.
    Live-cell single-molecule tracking reveals that hierarchical cooperation within the Polycomb Cbx7 protein between the low-affinity H3K27me3-binding module and the high-affinity DNA-binding cassette targets Polycomb repressive complex 1 to chromatin.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Ankyrin-B is a PI3P effector that promotes polarized α5β1-integrin recycling via recruiting RabGAP1L to early endosomes

    Fangfei Qu et al.
    Ankyrin-B – through interactions with PI3P lipids, dynactin and RabGAP1L – functions as a critical node in the protein circuitry underlying polarized recycling of α5β1-integrin to enable haptotaxis along fibronectin gradients.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    A widely employed germ cell marker is an ancient disordered protein with reproductive functions in diverse eukaryotes

    Michelle A Carmell et al.
    GCNA proteins comprise a previously unnoticed family of proteins that has been enriched in cells carrying a heritable genome since the invention of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes, and has had reproductive function for at least 600 million years.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Unique membrane properties and enhanced signal processing in human neocortical neurons

    Guy Eyal et al.
    Models and experiments reveal that human L2/3 pyramidal neurons have distinctively low specific membrane capacitance which might have a significant impact on signal processing in human neocortex.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Atomic mutagenesis in ion channels with engineered stoichiometry

    John D Lueck et al.
    Building on previous work (Pless, 2013), we argue that side-chain 'flip out' is a key event in potassium channel C-type inactivation, and propose a new method for encoding multiple noncanonical amino acids and controlling protein stoichiometry.
    1. Neuroscience

    An event map of memory space in the hippocampus

    Lorena Deuker et al.
    Evidence suggests a common coding mechanism underlies spatial and temporal aspects of episodic memory in the human hippocampus.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    The isolated voltage sensing domain of the Shaker potassium channel forms a voltage-gated cation channel

    Juan Zhao, Rikard Blunck
    Expression of the isolated voltage sensing domain significantly alters its structural conformation as well as its gating kinetics, indicating the importance of studying the biological assembly in its entirety.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Active suppression of a leaf meristem orchestrates determinate leaf growth

    John Paul Alvarez et al.
    A meristem acting at the margins of Arabidopsis leaves is suppressed by factors acting primarily in leaves and other determinate organs.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    C. elegans GLP-1/Notch activates transcription in a probability gradient across the germline stem cell pool

    ChangHwan Lee et al.
    Analyzing the readout of Notch signaling with single RNA precision reveals that active transcription sites are the most accurate measure of Notch-dependent transcriptional activation.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    RYBP stimulates PRC1 to shape chromatin-based communication between Polycomb repressive complexes

    Nathan R Rose et al.
    The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of polycomb repressive complex 1 is stimulated by RYBP to support a histone modification-dependent communication between polycomb repressive complexes in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Autocorrelation structure at rest predicts value correlates of single neurons during reward-guided choice

    Sean E Cavanagh et al.
    Variability in individual neurons' temporal receptive fields of integration is found to explain the heterogeneity of neuronal responses observed in prefrontal cortex during reward-guided decision making.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Cholesterol activates the G-protein coupled receptor Smoothened to promote Hedgehog signaling

    Giovanni Luchetti et al.
    Cholesterol regulates cell-cell communication by activating the Hedgehog pathway, a central signaling system in development, regeneration and cancer.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    A multi-protein receptor-ligand complex underlies combinatorial dendrite guidance choices in C. elegans

    Wei Zou et al.
    LECT-2 guides dendrite growth and branching via a unique ligand-receptor complex.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Stochasticity in the miR-9/Hes1 oscillatory network can account for clonal heterogeneity in the timing of differentiation

    Nick E Phillips et al.
    Stochasticity introduced computationally into a gene expression oscillator creates heterogeneity in the time of differentiation of identical cells and offers robustness to the progenitor state and the outcome of cell division.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    A near atomic structure of the active human apoptosome

    Tat Cheung Cheng et al.
    A cryo-electron microscopy model of the active human apoptosome illuminates how this "wheel of death" binds the protease procaspase-9 to initiate programmed cell death.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibiting poly(ADP-ribosylation) improves axon regeneration

    Alexandra B Byrne et al.
    In C. elegans and mouse neurons, the balance between poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases regulates axon regeneration downstream of DLK-1/MAPKKK signaling.
    1. Immunology
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    An electrostatic selection mechanism controls sequential kinase signaling downstream of the T cell receptor

    Neel H Shah et al.
    A high-throughput technique to characterize the substrate specificities of tyrosine kinases identifies the key features of kinases and substrates that enforce accurate signaling from T cell receptors.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Plant Biology

    The Arabidopsis transcription factor ABIG1 relays ABA signaled growth inhibition and drought induced senescence

    Tie Liu et al.
    Arabidopsis plants slow growth and jettison leaves in response to drought via a mechanism that involves the transcription factor ABIG1.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Rac1-mediated membrane raft localization of PI3K/p110β is required for its activation by GPCRs or PTEN loss

    Onur Cizmecioglu et al.
    A unique two-step mechanism of plasma membrane recruitment and activation governs G-protein-coupled receptor mediated PI3K signaling.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    NusG inhibits RNA polymerase backtracking by stabilizing the minimal transcription bubble

    Matti Turtola, Georgiy A Belogurov
    NusG enhances transcription elongation by stabilizing DNA base pairs immediately upstream of the RNA-DNA hybrid but does not measurably affect the nucleotide incorporation and the forward translocation by RNA polymerase.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Plant Biology

    Limitations to photosynthesis by proton motive force-induced photosystem II photodamage

    Geoffry A Davis et al.
    Storage of solar energy in the thylakoid electrical field by photosynthesis in vivo can substantially destabilize charge-separated states in photosystem II, leading to singlet oxygen production and photodamage, contributing to loss of productivity, especially under fluctuating light experienced in the field.
    1. Neuroscience

    Social observation enhances cross-environment activation of hippocampal place cell patterns

    Xiang Mou, Daoyun Ji
    Place cells associated with track-running are activated in rats staying in a nearby box while another rat running on the track, suggesting that social observation facilitates spatial memory representations.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    The novel SH3 domain protein Dlish/CG10933 mediates fat signaling in Drosophila by binding and regulating Dachs

    Yifei Zhang et al.
    The Fat-regulated scaffolding protein Dlish controls the activity, levels and cortical localization of Warts-inhibiting myosin Dachs by linking Dachs to a critical Dachs regulator, the DHHC palmitoyltransferase Approximated, and to the Fat-mediated regulation of Dachs stability.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Phenotypic plasticity as an adaptation to a functional trade-off

    Xiao Yi, Antony M Dean
    A plastic behavior in Escherichia coli is enabled by a single amino acid replacement in adaption to changing environments.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sparse activity of identified dentate granule cells during spatial exploration

    Maria Diamantaki et al.
    Morphologically-mature granule cells with complex dendritic trees contribute to a sparse representation of space in the rat dentate gyrus.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Macrophage PPARγ inhibits Gpr132 to mediate the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone

    Wing Yin Cheng et al.
    The PPARγ protein acts in macrophages to inhibit breast cancer progression and mediate the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone by suppressing Gpr132 – a pro-tumor and pro-inflammatory factor in macrophages.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    ATPase activity of the DEAD-box protein Dhh1 controls processing body formation

    Christopher Frederick Mugler et al.
    The ATPase Dhh1 controls processing body formation and disassembly in yeast cells, and processing body dynamics can be recapitulated in vitro with recombinant Dhh1, ATP and RNA.