The general principles that underlie the mechanism of action of the COP9-Signalosome, a key regulator of the largest family of ubiquitin ligase enzymes in human cells, have been identified using structural and kinetic techniques.
The poorly characterized BTB-protein SPOPL is required to maintain the function of the late endosomal system and the endocytic adaptor EPS15 is therein targeted by the SPOPL/Cullin-3 ubiquitin ligase complex for degradation.
Training enables adult humans to rapidly adapt their sound localization abilities to unilateral hearing loss by combining different strategies that rely on partially distinct neurophysiological substrates.
The signaling lipid PI(3,5)P2 supports the formation of the myelin sheath, by regulating trafficking of myelin building blocks within oligodendrocytes and communication between oligodendrocytes and neuronal axons.
Structural and computational analyses of germline antibody/HIV-1 gp120 complexes provide both general principles relevant to the unusual evolution of potent CD4-binding site antibodies and guidelines for structure-based immunogen design.
Controlled neo-glycosylation of antigens can influence intracellular routing of antigens and the nature and strength of immune response, and should therefore be considered as a major determinant in the design of vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases.
The functional relevance of stem cell niche perturbation in sarcomagenesis is defined and the mouse model presented provides a rationale for the use of combination therapy for the treatment of genetically heterogeneous sarcomas.
Microtubule binding by the Spindle and Kinetochore Associated (Ska) complex concentrates protein phosphatase 1 at metaphase kinetochores to overcome the spindle checkpoint thus driving anaphase onset and mitotic exit.
A protein called RNF10 relays messages from synapses to neuron cell nuclei, and is responsible for long-lasting modifications of dendritic spines as observed after activation of synaptic glutamate receptors.
Mapping individual neural stem cells to their corresponding embryonic and postembryonic progeny shows that these sets of neurons have profound molecular and anatomical similarities despite building different central nervous systems.
A fluoroquinolone resistant variant of Salmonella Typhi has emerged that is likely to be widespread in the Indian subcontinent; therefore fluoroquinolones should not be recommended for empirical typhoid fever therapy in this setting.
Loss-of-function screening identified transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) as a putative tumor suppressor in the TP53 pathway and revealed that TGM2-mediated autophagy and CDKN1A-mediated cell cycle arrest are two critical barriers that prevent oncogenic transformation.
Delivering specific patterns of electrical activity to the median nerve of the arm triggers reliable sensations of texture, suggesting that it may ultimately be possible to restore complex tactile information to users of prosthetic limbs.
Interventions in feedlots and abattoirs place selective pressure on the beef cattle resistome, which differentially impacts the public health risk of antimicrobial resistance from beef production sources.
Endogenous virus sequences in the genomes of modern mammals reveal the global spread of an ancient virus lineage, including frequent interspecies transmission, adaptation, and emergence spanning several million years of mammalian evolution
A pathway controlling non-apoptotic developmental cell death engages non-canonical death-promoting activities of the stress factor HSF-1, which, in turn, activates specific components of the ubiquitin-mediated degradation machinery.
An enrichable cross-linker with optional isotope labeling quadruples the number of cross-linked peptides identified from high-complexity samples, enhancing proteome-wide analysis of protein-protein interactions and protein conformational changes by mass spectrometry.
Changes to sensory predictions are encoded by beta oscillations, surprise due to prediction violations by gamma oscillations, and alpha oscillations may have a role in controlling the precision of predictions.
The Volta phase plate enables in-focus single particle analysis at near atomic resolutions, which could expand the capabilities of cryo-EM, especially for small, flexible or heterogeneous macromolecular samples.
The ectodomain of the human polymeric Ig receptor maintains a closed triangular shape that binds and excludes bacteria in mucosa, or opens to bind and transport polymeric Ig ligands across epithelial cells.
Parvalbumin-containing inhibitory neurons are crucial for expression of plasticity in adult visual cortex that supports visual recognition memory, but not for expression of ocular dominance plasticity that results from monocular deprivation.