A genetic analysis has identified the cholinergic SIA sublateral motor neurons, which innervate all four body wall muscles separately, as crucial regulators of turning around during sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans.
SREBP-2 directly regulates genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis and indirectly regulates fatty acid synthesis through the production of a ligand responsible for the activation of LXR and SREBP-1c.
Phylogenetic, biochemical, and genetic techniques reveal a novel and ancient member of the Perilipin family, termed Plin6, that functions to concentrate and traffic lipophilic skin pigment in teleost fish.
The novel neural marker for the integration of top-down predictions and bottom-up signals in perception elucidates uncertainty in perceptual inference and provides evidence for the predictive coding account of perception.
Structure specific nucleases that act in DNA replication, repair and recombination actively mold their DNA while transforming their own structure to achieve precise cleavage of their cognate DNA and avoid the deleterious cleavage of noncognate DNA.
A biologically plausible learning rule allows recurrent neural networks to learn nontrivial tasks, using only sparse, delayed rewards, and the neural dynamics of trained networks exhibit complex dynamics observed in animal frontal cortices.
The encoding of visual images by certain retinal ganglion cells is fundamentally altered in the context of eye-movement-like image transitions; the transitions trigger inhibitory interactions, which make these cells particularly sensitive to recurring images.
Lineage specification and commitment are synchronized in the developing trophectoderm lineage of the mouse embryo, but are asynchronous events in the maturing inner cell mass, revealing a window of plasticity in this lineage.
A computational model reveals how response properties of category-selective regions in the visual cortex reflect both bottom-up stimulus-driven signals and top-down attentional signals from the parietal cortex.
Mutations in several components of a bacterial ribosome are shown to broadly decrease antibiotic and stress sensitivity, and readily accessible reversion mutations allow these ribosomal mutations to serve as stepping stones to high level antibiotic resistance.
In filamentous fungi the AP-2 complex, which in mammals is an adaptor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is recruited to specific clathrin-independent apical endocytosis necessary for proper lipid maintenance and polar growth.
The neuroanatomical and functional analysis of genetically-identified motoneurons controlling all major steps of Drosophila proboscis extension provides new insights into the architecture of a motor circuitry controlling a reaching-like behavior.
Building on previous work (Faull et al, 2016), it shown that the different connectivity profiles of the individual columns of the human periaqueductal gray support their proposed roles in human threat behaviours, such as freezing or fight/flight.
Combined tissue clearing, 3D-immunofluorescence, and electron tomography spatially revealed the dynamics of early HIV-1 spread within lymphoid tissues of humanized mice at the resolution of single cells and individual virions.
An image-based multiplex autophagosome RNAi screen targeting all Rab GTPases as well as their GAPs and GEFs identifies the Rab GEF SMCR8 as multifaceted autophagy modulator, which regulates kinase activity and gene expression of ULK1.
Stem cell derived ventral-spinal cord excitatory neurons self-assemble into a rhythmically bursting neural network whose speed and intercellular coordination are both instructively modulated by cell-type specific interactions with inhibitory neurons.
The structure of the promising malaria blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen PfCyRPA and the characterization of a protective epitope are facilitating research on its essential role in parasite invasion, and will guide future epitope-focused vaccine design.
A genetic approach documents that mitochondrial DNA moves from donor cells to recipient mtDNA-depleted cells in whole mitochondria and that this restores mitochondrial respiration and the capacity of the cells to form tumours.
Neuron ensembles in the medial prefrontal cortex gradually develop codes for relevant, latent variables common across multiple experiences while – apparently independently – losing information about irrelevant, contextual variables unique to each experience.
The cancer-associated human ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 can adopt an auto-inhibited dimeric state, whose occupancy is regulated by competing intra- and intermolecular interactions of the dimerization region and by the tumor suppressor p14ARF.
Phasic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons transiently inhibits locomotion without influencing anxiety or producing reinforcement, but when repeated over many days a long-term facilitation of locomotion is produced.
Prostate cancer resistance to androgen receptor antagonist therapy occurs by way of tumors impeding local glucocorticoid metabolism and inactivation and thereby permitting sustained glucocorticoids to stimulate up-regulated glucocorticoid receptor.
Cognate site identification uncovers the impact of combinatorial dimerization in specifying new DNA binding sites for human bZIP transcription factors and comprehensive specificity landscapes predict the impact of SNPs on bZIP binding at previously unannotated regulatory loci.
The notion that the lumen of the ATP synthase membrane rotor is the long-sought megachannel that triggers the onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition is found to be inconsistent with its actual structural and functional properties.
Folding and unfolding pathways are described for a ribosome-binding 3' cap-independent translation enhancer at the center of a conformational rearrangement that is implicated in the transition from translation to replication of an RNA virus.
Differential eIF4E binding to transcription initiation nucleotides and alternative promoter usage of eIF1A, PABP and other genes are involved in the response of the translation machinery to energy stress.
Cognitively normal older adults show a positive relationship between neural activity during memory encoding and brain β-amyloid deposition rate over the subsequent 3-4 years, supporting preclinical data that associates neural activity with β-amyloid deposition.
Genetic studies in mice reveal the molecular and embryological mechanisms of vocal fold development and function, thereby informing our understanding of vocal communication and congenital voice defects.
Biochemical data demonstrate that the conformation of the target site DNA can dramatically modulate the kinetics and directionality of the otherwise isoenergetic transposition reaction of DDE transposases.
Direct in-vivo measurements in the human brain test validity of detailed computational models of trancranial electric stimulation and show that electric fields in the brain are weaker than currently assumed.
Phosphoproteomics identifies β-arrestin 2 phosphorylation at Thr383 by MEK as a key step of GPCR-induced Erk½ activation, thus providing new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying β-arrestin-dependent GPCR-operated signaling.
Building on previous work (Entchev et al, 2015), computational analyses reveal that the choice between redundant versus synergistic encoding in a gene expression code for food abundance is controlled by cross-talk and auto-regulation among TGF-beta and serotonin pathways.
The small subunit ribosomal protein uS7/Rps5 interacts with translation initiation factor eIF2α to stabilize first the open, and then the closed conformation of the pre-initiation complex to promote accurate start codon selection in vivo.
Accessible cholesterol levels in human red blood cells were found to be stable within individuals but vary >10-fold among individuals and this variability may contribute to differences in cholesterol trafficking among tissues.
Genetic analysis of how neuropeptides control C. elegans reproductive behavior shows how T-type calcium channels engage and disengage target neurons from these critical regulators of neural circuits and behavior.
First two transmembrane segments of Tim17 are involved in interaction with the channel and the second two with the motor of the presequence translocase suggesting how proteins are handed over during their translocation into mitochondria.
Dimers of Bak assemble into clusters without using a distinct protein-protein interface, which may explain the apparent difficulties in obtaining high resolution structures of the pore complex and in targeting dimer-dimer interactions to regulate apoptosis.
Mesoscale cortical calcium activity correlating with single cortical and thalamic cell spiking reveal rich dynamics and support a novel approach for investigating in vivo functional networks in the mammalian brain.