February 2017

Cover articles

Highlights controls:

Research articles

    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Expression of SREBP-1c Requires SREBP-2-mediated Generation of a Sterol Ligand for LXR in Livers of Mice

    Shunxing Rong et al
    SREBP-2 directly regulates genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis and indirectly regulates fatty acid synthesis through the production of a ligand responsible for the activation of LXR and SREBP-1c.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Embryonic transcription factor expression in mice predicts medial amygdala neuronal identity and sex-specific responses to innate behavioral cues

    Julieta E Lischinsky et al
    Studying the development of the medial amygdala in the mouse reveals how the brain may potentially process sex differences in innate behaviors such as mating.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Analysis of the NK2 homeobox gene ceh-24 reveals sublateral motor neuron control of left-right turning during sleep

    Juliane Schwarz, Henrik Bringmann
    A genetic analysis has identified the cholinergic SIA sublateral motor neurons, which innervate all four body wall muscles separately, as crucial regulators of turning around during sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Kinetics of the LOV domain of ZEITLUPE determine its circadian function in Arabidopsis

    Ashutosh Pudasaini et al
    In the plant circadian clock photoreceptor ZEITLUPE, evolutionarily selected residues distinguish photocycle kinetics and allosteric signal transduction pathways to permit proper circadian timing.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Ecology

    Data-driven identification of potential Zika virus vectors

    Michelle V Evans et al
    Data-driven methods predict over 35 mosquitoes are potential vectors of Zika virus, suggesting a larger geographic area and a greater human population is at risk of infection.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Molecular architecture of the 90S small subunit pre-ribosome

    Qi Sun et al
    The nearly complete architecture of the gigantic 90S precursor of small ribosomal subunit is determined by cryo-EM.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    27 T ultra-high static magnetic field changes orientation and morphology of mitotic spindles in human cells

    Lei Zhang et al
    An ultra-high static magnetic field changes mitotic spindle orientation in cells by exerting magnetic torques on both microtubules and chromosomes.
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    1. Plant Biology

    Autophagy functions as an antiviral mechanism against geminiviruses in plants

    Yakupjan Haxim et al
    Plant autophagy contributes to antiviral defense against geminiviruses by targeting one or more viral proteins for degradation.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Lipid droplet biology and evolution illuminated by the characterization of a novel perilipin in teleost fish

    James G Granneman et al
    Phylogenetic, biochemical, and genetic techniques reveal a novel and ancient member of the Perilipin family, termed Plin6, that functions to concentrate and traffic lipophilic skin pigment in teleost fish.
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    1. Cell Biology

    YOD1/TRAF6 association balances p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB

    Gisela Schimmack et al
    The deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1 binds to the E3 ligase TRAF6 to counteract p62/sequestosome1 mediated pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in response to interleukin-1.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Neural markers of predictive coding under perceptual uncertainty revealed with Hierarchical Frequency Tagging

    Noam Gordon et al
    The novel neural marker for the integration of top-down predictions and bottom-up signals in perception elucidates uncertainty in perceptual inference and provides evidence for the predictive coding account of perception.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Electrostatic anchoring precedes stable membrane attachment of SNAP25/SNAP23 to the plasma membrane

    Pascal Weber et al
    A step of contact establishment preceding stable membrane attachment by palmitoylation is identified.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    A PALB2-interacting domain in RNF168 couples homologous recombination to DNA break-induced chromatin ubiquitylation

    Martijn S Luijsterburg et al
    A new mechanism is uncovered by which the RNF168 ubiquitin ligase couples PALB2-dependent homologous recombination to H2A ubiquitylation to promote DNA repair and preserve genome integrity.
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    1. Neuroscience

    A saturation hypothesis to explain both enhanced and impaired learning with enhanced plasticity

    TD Barbara Nguyen-Vu et al
    Learning capacity depends on a dynamic interplay between the brain’s ability to change the strength of its synapses and the history of activity at those synapses.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Transient oxytocin signaling primes the development and function of excitatory hippocampal neurons

    Silvia Ripamonti et al
    Perturbation of oxytocin signaling causes alterations that may be causally involved in the etiology of oxytocin-related neurobehavioral disorders.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Single-molecule FRET unveils induced-fit mechanism for substrate selectivity in flap endonuclease 1

    Fahad Rashid et al
    Structure specific nucleases that act in DNA replication, repair and recombination actively mold their DNA while transforming their own structure to achieve precise cleavage of their cognate DNA and avoid the deleterious cleavage of noncognate DNA.
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    1. Plant Biology

    Phloem unloading in Arabidopsis roots is convective and regulated by the phloem-pole pericycle

    Timothy J Ross-Elliott et al
    A study of solute and macromolecule trafficking in plants reveals a previously undescribed route for carbon distribution in growing root tissues.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Biologically plausible learning in recurrent neural networks reproduces neural dynamics observed during cognitive tasks

    Thomas Miconi
    A biologically plausible learning rule allows recurrent neural networks to learn nontrivial tasks, using only sparse, delayed rewards, and the neural dynamics of trained networks exhibit complex dynamics observed in animal frontal cortices.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Sensitivity to image recurrence across eye-movement-like image transitions through local serial inhibition in the retina

    Vidhyasankar Krishnamoorthy et al
    The encoding of visual images by certain retinal ganglion cells is fundamentally altered in the context of eye-movement-like image transitions; the transitions trigger inhibitory interactions, which make these cells particularly sensitive to recurring images.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Distinct contributions of the thin and thick filaments to length-dependent activation in heart muscle

    Xuemeng Zhang et al
    The Frank–Starling law of the heart and its underlying mechanism of length-dependent activation involve distinctive structural changes in both the thin and thick filaments of cardiac muscle cells.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Transient inflammatory response mediated by interleukin-1β is required for proper regeneration in zebrafish fin fold

    Tomoya Hasegawa et al
    The Interleukin 1 beta signaling and tissue inflammation act as a double-edged sword: they are required for regeneration, but when in excess, they impair tissue regeneration and induce apoptosis.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    CatSperζ regulates the structural continuity of sperm Ca2+ signaling domains and is required for normal fertility

    Jean-Ju Chung et al
    A new component, CatSper zeta, is required for continuous alignment of the calcium channel along the sperm's tail and is crucial for normal sperm swimming behavior and fertility.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Position- and Hippo signaling-dependent plasticity during lineage segregation in the early mouse embryo

    Eszter Posfai et al
    Lineage specification and commitment are synchronized in the developing trophectoderm lineage of the mouse embryo, but are asynchronous events in the maturing inner cell mass, revealing a window of plasticity in this lineage.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Structural basis for the hijacking of endosomal sorting nexin proteins by Chlamydia trachomatis

    Blessy Paul et al
    Chlamydia hijacks membrane trafficking proteins of the human host via the cytoplasmic domain of a secreted transmembrane protein.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Plasmodium falciparum ligand binding to erythrocytes induce alterations in deformability essential for invasion

    Xavier Sisquella et al
    Interaction of P. falciparum with the erythrocyte activates a phosphorylation cascade altering the viscoelastic properties of this area of the host membrane conditioning it for successful invasion.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Bottom-up and top-down computations in word- and face-selective cortex

    Kendrick N Kay, Jason D Yeatman
    A computational model reveals how response properties of category-selective regions in the visual cortex reflect both bottom-up stimulus-driven signals and top-down attentional signals from the parietal cortex.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Perceptual decisions are biased by the cost to act

    Nobuhiro Hagura et al
    When choosing between stimuli, the effort required to act on the resulting decision influences the processing of the stimuli themselves.
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    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Ribosomal mutations promote the evolution of antibiotic resistance in a multidrug environment

    James E Gomez et al
    Mutations in several components of a bacterial ribosome are shown to broadly decrease antibiotic and stress sensitivity, and readily accessible reversion mutations allow these ribosomal mutations to serve as stepping stones to high level antibiotic resistance.
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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Impaired respiration elicits SrrAB-dependent programmed cell lysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    Ameya A Mashruwala et al
    The absence of oxygen prompts Staphylococcus aureus cells to rupture resulting in increased formation of biofilms, which are the etiological agents of recurrent infections.
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    1. Cell Biology

    The AP-2 complex has a specialized clathrin-independent role in apical endocytosis and polar growth in fungi

    Olga Martzoukou et al
    In filamentous fungi the AP-2 complex, which in mammals is an adaptor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is recruited to specific clathrin-independent apical endocytosis necessary for proper lipid maintenance and polar growth.
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    1. Cell Biology

    Human Nup98 regulates the localization and activity of DExH/D-box helicase DHX9

    Juliana S Capitanio et al
    Mechanistic insight into the role of intranuclear Nup98 in gene expression is revealed by functional interactions with the helicase DHX9.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    An essential dual-function complex mediates erythrocyte invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake in malaria parasites

    Daisuke Ito et al
    Gene knockdowns reveal that the conserved RhopH protein complex functions in both host cell invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake in malaria.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    De-repression of the RAC activator ELMO1 in cancer stem cells drives progression of TGFβ-deficient squamous cell carcinoma from transition zones

    Heather A McCauley et al
    A new mechanism connects the loss of TGFβ signaling with invasion and metastasis in highly malignant transition zone tumors.
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    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    High performance communication by people with paralysis using an intracortical brain-computer interface

    Chethan Pandarinath et al
    New computer algorithms have allowed people with paralysis to achieve the highest reported typing performance using a brain-computer interface.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Blood transcriptome based biomarkers for human circadian phase

    Emma E Laing et al
    An unbiased modelling approach shows that only a few blood transcriptome samples are required to accurately assess the human circadian melatonin phase, even during altered sleep schedules.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior

    Olivia Schwarz et al
    The neuroanatomical and functional analysis of genetically-identified motoneurons controlling all major steps of Drosophila proboscis extension provides new insights into the architecture of a motor circuitry controlling a reaching-like behavior.
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Neuroscience

    FlpStop, a tool for conditional gene control in Drosophila

    Yvette E Fisher et al
    FlpStop is a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue and enables critical experiments examining the interactions between genes, circuits, and computation.
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    1. Neuroscience

    The cortical connectivity of the periaqueductal gray and the conditioned response to the threat of breathlessness

    Olivia K Faull, Kyle TS Pattinson
    Building on previous work (Faull et al, 2016), it shown that the different connectivity profiles of the individual columns of the human periaqueductal gray support their proposed roles in human threat behaviours, such as freezing or fight/flight.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    One reporter for in-cell activity profiling of majority of protein kinase oncogenes

    Iva Gudernova et al
    A new luciferase and fluorescent reporter system enables rapid and efficient in-cell profiling of the majority of protein kinase oncogenes known to date.
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    1. Neuroscience

    A role for cerebellum in the hereditary dystonia DYT1

    Rachel Fremont et al
    The most common inherited dystonia, DYT1, is likely caused primarily by the dysfunction of the cerebellum rather than the basal ganglia.
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    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A phylogenetic transform enhances analysis of compositional microbiota data

    Justin D Silverman et al
    The PhILR transform uses an evolutionary model to overcome statistical challenges associated with microbiota surveys.
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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Longitudinal imaging of HIV-1 spread in humanized mice with parallel 3D immunofluorescence and electron tomography

    Collin Kieffer et al
    Combined tissue clearing, 3D-immunofluorescence, and electron tomography spatially revealed the dynamics of early HIV-1 spread within lymphoid tissues of humanized mice at the resolution of single cells and individual virions.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Speed and segmentation control mechanisms characterized in rhythmically-active circuits created from spinal neurons produced from genetically-tagged embryonic stem cells

    Matthew J Sternfeld et al
    Stem cell derived ventral-spinal cord excitatory neurons self-assemble into a rhythmically bursting neural network whose speed and intercellular coordination are both instructively modulated by cell-type specific interactions with inhibitory neurons.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Multiplex image-based autophagy RNAi screening identifies SMCR8 as ULK1 kinase activity and gene expression regulator

    Jennifer Jung et al
    An image-based multiplex autophagosome RNAi screen targeting all Rab GTPases as well as their GAPs and GEFs identifies the Rab GEF SMCR8 as multifaceted autophagy modulator, which regulates kinase activity and gene expression of ULK1.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Structure of the malaria vaccine candidate antigen CyRPA and its complex with a parasite invasion inhibitory antibody

    Paola Favuzza et al
    The structure of the promising malaria blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen PfCyRPA and the characterization of a protective epitope are facilitating research on its essential role in parasite invasion, and will guide future epitope-focused vaccine design.
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    1. Cancer Biology

    Horizontal transfer of whole mitochondria restores tumorigenic potential in mitochondrial DNA-deficient cancer cells

    Lan-Feng Dong et al
    A genetic approach documents that mitochondrial DNA moves from donor cells to recipient mtDNA-depleted cells in whole mitochondria and that this restores mitochondrial respiration and the capacity of the cells to form tumours.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Generalizable knowledge outweighs incidental details in prefrontal ensemble code over time

    Mark D Morrissey et al
    Neuron ensembles in the medial prefrontal cortex gradually develop codes for relevant, latent variables common across multiple experiences while – apparently independently – losing information about irrelevant, contextual variables unique to each experience.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Transient inhibition and long-term facilitation of locomotion by phasic optogenetic activation of serotonin neurons

    Patrícia A Correia et al
    Phasic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons transiently inhibits locomotion without influencing anxiety or producing reinforcement, but when repeated over many days a long-term facilitation of locomotion is produced.
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    Paternal nicotine exposure alters hepatic xenobiotic metabolism in offspring

    Markus P Vallaster et al
    A novel paternal effect based on nicotine exposure reveals that offspring exhibit an adaptive, yet nonspecific, resistance to multiple toxins.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Structural basis for inhibition of erythrocyte invasion by antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum protein CyRPA

    Lin Chen et al
    The crystal structures of the key vaccine candidate CyRPA alone and in complex with antibody Fab fragment was solved and this will be important information for designing a vaccine.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    A conformational switch regulates the ubiquitin ligase HUWE1

    Bodo Sander et al
    The cancer-associated human ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 can adopt an auto-inhibited dimeric state, whose occupancy is regulated by competing intra- and intermolecular interactions of the dimerization region and by the tumor suppressor p14ARF.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)5 ameliorates influenza infection via inhibition of EGFR signaling

    Lukasz Kedzierski et al
    The intracellular SOCS5 protein has a unique and key role in restraining influenza A infection by regulating epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in airway epithelial cells.
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    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    Distinct modes of SMAD2 chromatin binding and remodeling shape the transcriptional response to NODAL/Activin signaling

    Davide M Coda et al
    NODAL/Activin-induced SMAD2 binding directly drives remodeling of both open and closed chromatin and does not directly correlate with temporal patterns of gene expression upon prolonged signaling.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    The Ndc80 complex bridges two Dam1 complex rings

    Jae ook Kim et al
    The ability of the Ndc80 complex to bind two Dam1 complex rings is important for chromosome attachment, and the distance between the two rings is vital for supporting growth.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cancer Biology

    Aberrant corticosteroid metabolism in tumor cells enables GR takeover in enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer

    Jianneng Li et al
    Prostate cancer resistance to androgen receptor antagonist therapy occurs by way of tumors impeding local glucocorticoid metabolism and inactivation and thereby permitting sustained glucocorticoids to stimulate up-regulated glucocorticoid receptor.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Spatiotemporal correlation of spinal network dynamics underlying spasms in chronic spinalized mice

    Carmelo Bellardita et al
    Spinal excitatory interneurons trigger persistent neural activity in spinal network to generate muscle spasms after spinal cord injury.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Spontaneous activation of visual pigments in relation to openness/closedness of chromophore-binding pocket

    Wendy Wing Sze Yue et al
    Visual pigments with a longer peak-absorption wavelength or an open chromophore-binding pocket are generally noisier, being more prone to spontaneous activity.
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    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Control of immune ligands by members of a cytomegalovirus gene expansion suppresses natural killer cell activation

    Ceri A Fielding et al
    The human cytomegalovirus US12 gene family work co-operatively to degrade large numbers of immune ligands and prevent recognition by natural killer cells.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Combinatorial bZIP dimers display complex DNA-binding specificity landscapes

    José A Rodríguez-Martínez et al
    Cognate site identification uncovers the impact of combinatorial dimerization in specifying new DNA binding sites for human bZIP transcription factors and comprehensive specificity landscapes predict the impact of SNPs on bZIP binding at previously unannotated regulatory loci.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Atomistic simulations indicate the c-subunit ring of the F1Fo ATP synthase is not the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Wenchang Zhou et al
    The notion that the lumen of the ATP synthase membrane rotor is the long-sought megachannel that triggers the onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition is found to be inconsistent with its actual structural and functional properties.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Folding behavior of a T-shaped, ribosome-binding translation enhancer implicated in a wide-spread conformational switch

    My-Tra Le et al
    Folding and unfolding pathways are described for a ribosome-binding 3' cap-independent translation enhancer at the center of a conformational rearrangement that is implicated in the transition from translation to replication of an RNA virus.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Requirement of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion for skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    Qingnian Goh, Douglas P Millay
    Myomaker is activated on muscle stem cells to promote their fusion with myofibers, which is essential for induction of pro-growth signaling pathways and physiological muscle hypertrophy.
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    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    The interplay of stiffness and force anisotropies drives embryo elongation

    Thanh Thi Kim Vuong-Brender et al
    Elongation of C. elegans embryos requires stiffness and force to be specifically oriented in a coordinated manner in different cells.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Sloppy morphological tuning in identified neurons of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion

    Adriane G Otopalik et al
    Reliable neuronal physiology can arise from variable and inefficient morphologies.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Hippocampal activation is associated with longitudinal amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline

    Stephanie L Leal et al
    Cognitively normal older adults show a positive relationship between neural activity during memory encoding and brain β-amyloid deposition rate over the subsequent 3-4 years, supporting preclinical data that associates neural activity with β-amyloid deposition.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Cap-proximal nucleotides via differential eIF4E binding and alternative promoter usage mediate translational response to energy stress

    Ana Tamarkin-Ben-Harush et al
    Differential eIF4E binding to transcription initiation nucleotides and alternative promoter usage of eIF1A, PABP and other genes are involved in the response of the translation machinery to energy stress.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Cilia-mediated Hedgehog signaling controls form and function in the mammalian larynx

    Jacqueline M Tabler et al
    Genetic studies in mice reveal the molecular and embryological mechanisms of vocal fold development and function, thereby informing our understanding of vocal communication and congenital voice defects.
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    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Copy-number and gene dependency analysis reveals partial copy loss of wild-type SF3B1 as a novel cancer vulnerability

    Brenton R Paolella et al
    Partial copy loss of spliceosome genes are common non-driver gene dependencies in cancer.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Mechanistic insights into neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity from the crystal structure of Munc13-1 C1C2BMUN

    Junjie Xu et al
    The crystal structure of a large C-terminal fragment of Munc13-1 provides a key framework to understand how Munc13-1 mediates neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Target DNA bending by the Mu transpososome promotes careful transposition and prevents its reversal

    James R Fuller, Phoebe A Rice
    Biochemical data demonstrate that the conformation of the target site DNA can dramatically modulate the kinetics and directionality of the otherwise isoenergetic transposition reaction of DDE transposases.
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    1. Ecology

    The golden mimicry complex uses a wide spectrum of defence to deter a community of predators

    Stano Pekár et al
    A mimetic complex composed of at least 140 species of ants, wasps, spiders, true bugs and treehoppers, all with conspicuous golden bodies, has been discovered.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation

    Yu Huang et al
    Direct in-vivo measurements in the human brain test validity of detailed computational models of trancranial electric stimulation and show that electric fields in the brain are weaker than currently assumed.
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    1. Cell Biology

    Phosphorylation of β-arrestin2 at Thr383 by MEK underlies β-arrestin-dependent activation of Erk1/2 by GPCRs

    Elisabeth Cassier et al
    Phosphoproteomics identifies β-arrestin 2 phosphorylation at Thr383 by MEK as a key step of GPCR-induced Erk½ activation, thus providing new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying β-arrestin-dependent GPCR-operated signaling.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Design principles of autocatalytic cycles constrain enzyme kinetics and force low substrate saturation at flux branch points

    Uri Barenholz et al
    The stability of metabolic autocatalytic cycles that are widespread in central metabolism limits the affinities of enzymes at flux branch points and explains excess expression of these enzymes.
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    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Plant Biology

    Generation of shape complexity through tissue conflict resolution

    Alexandra B Rebocho et al
    Genetic modulation in patterns of tissue conflict play a major role in the development and evolution of shape diversity.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A long-term epigenetic memory switch controls bacterial virulence bimodality

    Irine Ronin et al
    Hysteretic switching between virulence states has been observed in a human pathogen.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Genetic control of encoding strategy in a food-sensing neural circuit

    Giovanni Diana et al
    Building on previous work (Entchev et al, 2015), computational analyses reveal that the choice between redundant versus synergistic encoding in a gene expression code for food abundance is controlled by cross-talk and auto-regulation among TGF-beta and serotonin pathways.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Interface between 40S exit channel protein uS7/Rps5 and eIF2α modulates start codon recognition in vivo

    Jyothsna Visweswaraiah, Alan G Hinnebusch
    The small subunit ribosomal protein uS7/Rps5 interacts with translation initiation factor eIF2α to stabilize first the open, and then the closed conformation of the pre-initiation complex to promote accurate start codon selection in vivo.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Functional double dissociation within the entorhinal cortex for visual scene-dependent choice behavior

    Seung-Woo Yoo, Inah Lee
    The medial and lateral subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex are important for deciding "where to go from here" and "what to do to this object" in a visual context, respectively.
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    1. Neuroscience

    ERG-28 controls BK channel trafficking in the ER to regulate synaptic function and alcohol response in C. elegans

    Kelly H Oh et al
    An endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein regulates synaptic transmission, alcohol sensitivity, and gene expression by controlling the trafficking of a calcium-activated potassium channel.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Variability of cholesterol accessibility in human red blood cells measured using a bacterial cholesterol-binding toxin

    Rima S Chakrabarti et al
    Accessible cholesterol levels in human red blood cells were found to be stable within individuals but vary >10-fold among individuals and this variability may contribute to differences in cholesterol trafficking among tissues.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibitory peptidergic modulation of C. elegans serotonin neurons is gated by T-type calcium channels

    Kara E Zang et al
    Genetic analysis of how neuropeptides control C. elegans reproductive behavior shows how T-type calcium channels engage and disengage target neurons from these critical regulators of neural circuits and behavior.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Role of Tim17 in coupling the import motor to the translocation channel of the mitochondrial presequence translocase

    Keren Demishtein-Zohary et al
    First two transmembrane segments of Tim17 are involved in interaction with the channel and the second two with the motor of the presequence translocase suggesting how proteins are handed over during their translocation into mitochondria.
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    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Disordered clusters of Bak dimers rupture mitochondria during apoptosis

    Rachel T Uren et al
    Dimers of Bak assemble into clusters without using a distinct protein-protein interface, which may explain the apparent difficulties in obtaining high resolution structures of the pore complex and in targeting dimer-dimer interactions to regulate apoptosis.
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    1. Neuroscience

    When complex neuronal structures may not matter

    Adriane G Otopalik et al
    Animal-to-animal variability in neuronal geometry may be compensated for by compact electrotonic structure.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Long-range projection neurons in the taste circuit of Drosophila

    Heesoo Kim et al
    Taste pathways to higher brain are critical for learned responses to taste compounds.
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    1. Ecology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    A fitness trade-off between seasons causes multigenerational cycles in phenotype and population size

    Gustavo S Betini et al
    Seasonal variation in resources causes opposing episodes of selection on body size, which interact with density dependence to influence population dynamics.
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    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Elucidation of a four-site allosteric network in fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases

    Huaibin Chen et al
    A four-switch long-range allosteric network controls FGF receptor kinase conformational dynamics as well as activity and is applicable to other receptor tyrosine kinases.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Mapping cortical mesoscopic networks of single spiking cortical or sub-cortical neurons

    Dongsheng Xiao et al
    Mesoscale cortical calcium activity correlating with single cortical and thalamic cell spiking reveal rich dynamics and support a novel approach for investigating in vivo functional networks in the mammalian brain.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Similar synapse elimination motifs at successive relays in the same efferent pathway during development in mice

    Shu-Hsien Sheu et al
    A similar pattern of developmental synaptic refinement leads two consecutive synaptic relays to have the same organization suggesting that some general principle of neural organization is at play.
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    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Codon optimization underpins generalist parasitism in fungi

    Thomas Badet et al
    Codon optimization through biased synonymous substitutions is a characteristic feature of the genomes of generalist fungal parasites and is associated with the colonization of multiple hosts.
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    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Modelling primaquine-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency

    James Watson et al
    In silico modelling of all available data shows that a twenty-day ascending-dose primaquine regimen could be safe to administer to G6PD deficient patients for the radical cure of vivax malaria.
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