January 2018

Research articles

    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis of ribosomal peptide macrocyclization in plants

    Joel Haywood et al.
    The first crystal structure of an active plant asparaginyl endopeptidase reveals a tetrahedral intermediate state in its active site, which may help to explain why these enzymes have been independently recruited to perform peptide macrocyclization.
    1. Neuroscience

    The representational dynamics of task and object processing in humans

    Martin N Hebart et al.
    Task representations emerge rapidly throughout human cortex, with parallel object representations in occipitotemporal cortex that are increasingly dominated by task in higher visual areas.
    1. Neuroscience

    The lawful imprecision of human surface tilt estimation in natural scenes

    Seha Kim, Johannes Burge
    Human tilt estimation in natural scenes is predicted by an image-computable Bayes optimal model that is grounded in the statistics of natural images and scenes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Activity-induced Ca2+ signaling in perisynaptic Schwann cells of the early postnatal mouse is mediated by P2Y1 receptors and regulates muscle fatigue

    Dante J Heredia et al.
    A genetic strategy reveals that the perisynaptic glial response to neural activity in one population of these glia regulates postsynaptic function and therefore muscle fatigue.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Targeting posttranslational modifications of RIOK1 inhibits the progression of colorectal and gastric cancers

    Xuehui Hong et al.
    A Methylation-Phosphorylation Switch Determines RioK1 Stability and Function in CRC and GC Progression.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neuronal activity determines distinct gliotransmitter release from a single astrocyte

    Ana Covelo, Alfonso Araque
    A single astrocyte can decode neuronal activity and, consequently, release distinct gliotransmitters that differentially regulate neurotransmission at single hippocampal synapses.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Therapeutic effects of telomerase in mice with pulmonary fibrosis induced by damage to the lungs and short telomeres

    Juan Manuel Povedano et al.
    Telomerase gene therapy represents a novel effective treatment for pulmonary fibrosis associated with short telomeres by improving pulmonary function, decreasing inflammation and accelerating fiber disappearance in fibrotic lungs.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    COX16 promotes COX2 metallation and assembly during respiratory complex IV biogenesis

    Abhishek Aich et al.
    Biochemical analyses show that mitochondrial COX16 assists in the process of copper insertion into COX2 and reveal a second COX16 function in linking assembly routes of the redox center-containing COX1 and COX2 subunits.
    1. Cell Biology

    NADPH oxidase mediates microtubule alterations and diaphragm dysfunction in dystrophic mice

    James Anthony Loehr et al.
    Reative oxygen species modulate microtubules and diaphragm function.
    1. Neuroscience

    Multivesicular bodies mediate long-range retrograde NGF-TrkA signaling

    Mengchen Ye et al.
    Multivesicular bodies deliver long-range retrograde nerve growth factor (NGF) signals and serve as essential signaling and sorting platforms in the cell soma, and multivesicular body (MVB) cargoes dictate their vesicular fate.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Unique molecular events during reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) at naïve state

    Yixuan Wang et al.
    During reprogramming of human fibroblasts to naïve iPSCs there is transient reactivation of transcripts with the characteristics of 8-cell-stage-embryos.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Hsp70-associated chaperones have a critical role in buffering protein production costs

    Zoltán Farkas et al.
    Protein biosynthesis and protein quality control jointly determine protein production costs.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Cell volume changes contribute to epithelial morphogenesis in zebrafish Kupffer’s vesicle

    Agnik Dasgupta et al.
    During Kupffer's vesicle morphogenesis, cell volume anisotropy impacts cell shape changes.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Prediction of enzymatic pathways by integrative pathway mapping

    Sara Calhoun et al.
    A computational method identifies the functions of orphan enzymes by organizing them into metabolic pathways; the prediction of a new l-gulonate catabolic pathway is experimentally tested and confirmed.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids

    Christopher John Schlicksup et al.
    Small molecule antivirals that drive assembly of HBV capsid protein can also bind to pre-assembled capsids causing them to change morphology or even break, suggesting a complex transduction of binding effects across the capsid.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Mitochondria-specific photoactivation to monitor local sphingosine metabolism and function

    Suihan Feng et al.
    Caged, photoactivatible sphingosine localized to mitochondria permits demonstration of the importance of subcellular localization on lipid metabolism and signaling.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Activating the regenerative potential of Müller glia cells in a regeneration-deficient retina

    Katharina Lust, Joachim Wittbrodt
    Müller glia cells in the medaka (Oryzias latipes) retina act as lineage restricted progenitors which only regenerate photoreceptors but can be activated to perform as potent stem cells using Sox2.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    TGF-β uses a novel mode of receptor activation to phosphorylate SMAD1/5 and induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Anassuya Ramachandran et al.
    SMAD1/5 signaling is essential for the full transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced transcriptional program and physiological responses and is induced via a novel receptor activation mechanism, involving two distinct type I receptors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Suppression and facilitation of human neural responses

    Michael-Paul Schallmo et al.
    Spatial suppression during motion perception reflects reduced neural response magnitudes in visual areas but is not primarily driven by neural inhibition.
    1. Neuroscience

    The modulation of neural gain facilitates a transition between functional segregation and integration in the brain

    James M Shine et al.
    The flexible network architecture of the brain is sensitive to the modulation of neural gain, which may be mediated by ascending arousal nuclei, such as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The genome of the Hi5 germ cell line from Trichoplusia ni, an agricultural pest and novel model for small RNA biology

    Yu Fu et al.
    The genome sequence of Trichoplusia ni enables the use of this widespread lepidopteran pest as a model for both the study of small RNA pathways and insecticide resistance.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    CtBP impedes JNK- and Upd/STAT-driven cell fate misspecifications in regenerating Drosophila imaginal discs

    Melanie I Worley et al.
    The CtBP protein stabilizes cell fates in regenerating tissue.
    1. Neuroscience

    BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity

    Juan Ramón Martínez-François et al.
    Altered activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels underlies the metabolic seizure resistance produced by genetic manipulation of the BAD protein in mice.
    1. Developmental Biology

    aPKC-mediated displacement and actomyosin-mediated retention polarize Miranda in Drosophila neuroblasts

    Matthew Robert Hannaford et al.
    The actomyosin network and phospho-regulation combine to polarize fate determinants at the Drosophila neuroblast cell cortex.
    1. Ecology

    Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age

    J Graham Ruby et al.
    Unlike all other mammals studied to date, the age-specific risk of mortality for naked mole-rats did not increase over decades of life, identifying this species as a non-aging mammal.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Heg1 and Ccm1/2 proteins control endocardial mechanosensitivity during zebrafish valvulogenesis

    Stefan Donat et al.
    The cerebral cavernous malformations complex is controlled in a blood-flow sensitive manner and affects cardiac valve leaflet morphogenesis by regulating the expression of Klf2 and of Notch signalling activity.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Activation of Toll-like receptors nucleates assembly of the MyDDosome signaling hub

    Sarah Louise Latty et al.
    The strength of Toll-like receptor signalling depends on the number and size of MyDDosomes formed as well as on how quickly these structures assemble.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Cleavage activates Dispatched for Sonic Hedgehog ligand release

    Daniel P Stewart et al.
    Dispatched cleavage, mediated by Furin, regulates Dispatched membrane trafficking and release of Sonic Hedgehog ligand.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distributed rhythm generators underlie Caenorhabditis elegans forward locomotion

    Anthony D Fouad et al.
    The forward locomotor circuit of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans consists of multiple rhythm-generating units coupled to one another in a bidirectional manner.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Targeting RAS-driven human cancer cells with antibodies to upregulated and essential cell-surface proteins

    Alexander J Martinko et al.
    Proteomics and functional genomics coupled to an antibody discovery pipeline revealed the influence of oncogenic RAS signaling on the cell-surface proteome and resulted in the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for RAS-driven cancers.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Dynamic clustering of dynamin-amphiphysin helices regulates membrane constriction and fission coupled with GTP hydrolysis

    Tetsuya Takeda et al.
    A new approach using combination of electron microscopy (EM) and high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) clearly demonstrates dynamics of dynamin-amphiphysin complexes during membrane constriction and fission suggesting a novel 'clusterase' model of the dynamin-mediated membrane fission.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    FoxP2 isoforms delineate spatiotemporal transcriptional networks for vocal learning in the zebra finch

    Zachary Daniel Burkett et al.
    Basal ganglia gene coexpression patterns shift across the sensorimotor critical period for vocal learning.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    ketu mutant mice uncover an essential meiotic function for the ancient RNA helicase YTHDC2

    Devanshi Jain et al.
    The mouse gene Ythdc2 exemplifies an evolutionarily ancient family of crucial regulators of the transition from germline stem cell divisions to meiosis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Crk proteins transduce FGF signaling to promote lens fiber cell elongation

    Tamica N Collins et al.
    Crk proteins are critical mediators of FGF signaling to control cell shape changes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Excitatory motor neurons are local oscillators for backward locomotion

    Shangbang Gao et al.
    Motor neurons are rhythm generators for backward locomotion.
    1. Cell Biology

    Endosomal Rab cycles regulate Parkin-mediated mitophagy

    Koji Yamano et al.
    Parkin ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria recruits the Rab GEF, RABGEF1, to regulate downstream Rab cycles and ATG9A recruitment to growing phagophores that are participating in mitophagy.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Variation in natural exposure to anopheles mosquitoes and its effects on malaria transmission

    Wamdaogo M Guelbéogo et al.
    Heterogeneity in exposure to malaria vectors, including sporozoite-infected mosquitoes, contributes to the variation in human infection risk and amplifies the local transmission potential.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Mutations in L-type amino acid transporter-2 support SLC7A8 as a novel gene involved in age-related hearing loss

    Meritxell Espino Guarch et al.
    SLC7A8 a neutral amino acid transporter has a key role in the maintenance of hearing during aging and its absence causes early onset of hearing loss.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Sorting of a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complex in the endolysosome system

    Xi Yang et al.
    A single transmembrane E3 ligase complex can regulate protein ubiquitination at multiple organelles using interchangeable targeting subunits.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    A single, continuous metric to define tiered serum neutralization potency against HIV

    Peter Hraber et al.
    To quantify serum or antibody activity against HIV-1, logistic regression of single-dilution neutralization outcomes can efficiently summarize neutralization potency and indicate which samples may lack sufficient statistical support, for high-throughput screening in large-scale vaccine trials.
    1. Cell Biology

    A disassembly-driven mechanism explains F-actin-mediated chromosome transport in starfish oocytes

    Philippe Bun et al.
    On entry to meiosis, chromosomes scattered in the large oocyte nucleus of starfish are collected by an F-actin network, which contracts by an unexpected, myosin-independent mechanism based on local assembly and global disassembly of actin filaments.
    1. Developmental Biology

    FGF mediated MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signals make distinct contributions to pluripotency and the establishment of Neural Crest

    Lauren Geary, Carole LaBonne
    A role for FGF-mediated Map Kinase signaling in the retention of pluripotency underlying genesis of Neural Crest is revealed, along with a striking switch in the signaling cascades activated by FGF signaling as cells commence lineage restriction.
    1. Cancer Biology

    LIPG signaling promotes tumor initiation and metastasis of human basal-like triple-negative breast cancer

    Pang-Kuo Lo et al.
    LIPG, a lipoprotein lipase, executes its oncogenic function in human basal-like triple-negative breast cancer through its functional involvement in DTX3L-ISG15 signaling, an interferon-related pathway that regulates protein functionality by ISGylation.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Functional role of the type 1 pilus rod structure in mediating host-pathogen interactions

    Caitlin N Spaulding et al.
    The helical rod structure and dynamic spring-like properties of the type 1 pilus are evolutionarily fine-tuned for functioning in host-pathogen interactions during urinary tract infection and gut colonization.
    1. Neuroscience

    Output variability across animals and levels in a motor system

    Angela Wenning et al.
    Population output variability in a motor control system varies across levels (CPG, motor neurons, muscles) and can be ascribed to life history differences among animals and in some cases to differences between bilaterally homologous elements.
    1. Neuroscience

    miR-9 regulates basal ganglia-dependent developmental vocal learning and adult vocal performance in songbirds

    Zhimin Shi et al.
    Gene manipulation combined with behavior analysis reveals a role of miR-9 in modulating basal-ganglia-dependent developmental vocal learning and adult vocal performance via regulating the FOXP1/FOXP2 gene network and dopamine signaling in songbirds.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibition of oxidative stress in cholinergic projection neurons fully rescues aging-associated olfactory circuit degeneration in Drosophila

    Ashiq Hussain et al.
    Drosophila genetics and behavior reveal that oxidative stress induced axonal degeneration in a single class of neurons drives the functional decline of an entire neural network and the behavior it controls.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Loss of functional BAP1 augments sensitivity to TRAIL in cancer cells

    Krishna Kalyan Kolluri et al.
    Loss of BAP1 function is associated with increased sensitivity to TRAIL and other death receptor agonists in malignant mesothelioma, where this is a frequent event, with immediate and actionable therapeutic implications.
    1. Cell Biology

    NECAPs are negative regulators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex

    Gwendolyn M Beacham et al.
    Endocytosis is regulated by a protein family that recycles the AP2 clathrin adaptor by restoring the inactive form of complex.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Stromule extension along microtubules coordinated with actin-mediated anchoring guides perinuclear chloroplast movement during innate immunity

    Amutha Sampath Kumar et al.
    Stromules induced during plant innate immunity dynamically interact and use the cytoskeleton to form and to direct the movement of chloroplasts.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neuronal populations in the occipital cortex of the blind synchronize to the temporal dynamics of speech

    Markus Johannes Van Ackeren et al.
    Blind people re-purpose the brain's visual areas for tracking speech rhythm.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    MERS-CoV spillover at the camel-human interface

    Gytis Dudas et al.
    MERS-CoV infections in the Arabian Peninsula are the result of several hundred spillover events from viruses circulating in camels into the human population.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Revised roles of ISL1 in a hES cell-based model of human heart chamber specification

    Roberto Quaranta et al.
    Loss and gain-of-function investigation uncovers a regulatory network controlling human heart chamber specification in which the cardiac precursor gene ISL1 accelerates ventricular induction and antagonizes retinoic acid-driven atrial commitment.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Inferring joint sequence-structural determinants of protein functional specificity

    Andrew F Neuwald et al.
    A statistical approach for predicting non-active site residues responsible for allostery, cooperativity, or other subtle but functionally important interactions is described and applied to various protein families.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor signaling inhibits melanoma and improves response to immune checkpoint blockade

    Christopher A Natale et al.
    Driving melanoma differentiation through G protein-coupled estrogen receptor signaling decreases proliferative capacity, decreases expression of the oncodriver and stem cell marker c-Myc, and increases the effectiveness of immunotherapy.
    1. Neuroscience

    Keratinocytes mediate innocuous and noxious touch via ATP-P2X4 signaling

    Francie Moehring et al.
    Keratinocytes are critical for normal innocuous and noxious touch through their mechanically evoked ATP release and subsequent signaling to P2X4 channels on sensory neurons.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tuning of in vivo cognate B-T cell interactions by Intersectin 2 is required for effective anti-viral B cell immunity

    Marianne Burbage et al.
    Intersectin2 deficiency is associated with impaired humoral responses to viral infection and B-cell-intrisic defects in germinal centre formation, resulting from the reduced ability of intersectin2-KO B cells to establish cognate interactions with helper T cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    Damage-induced reactive oxygen species regulate vimentin and dynamic collagen-based projections to mediate wound repair

    Danny LeBert et al.
    Live real time imaging and perturbation experiments reveal how vimentin integrates with early damage induced reactive oxygen species to mediate collagen rearrangements and epithelial cell projections during wound repair and regeneration.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    p53 orchestrates DNA replication restart homeostasis by suppressing mutagenic RAD52 and POLθ pathways

    Sunetra Roy et al.
    p53 suppresses genome instability by direct role at stalled replication forks for pathway regulation that explains transcription-independent p53 tumor-suppressor functions.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Differential requirements of androgen receptor in luminal progenitors during prostate regeneration and tumor initiation

    Chee Wai Chua et al.
    Analyses of genetically engineered mouse models reveal the androgen receptor-independent properties of a luminal stem/progenitor cell in the prostate epithelium, and its ability to serve as a cell of origin for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Detection of human disease conditions by single-cell morpho-rheological phenotyping of blood

    Nicole Toepfner et al.
    The morphology and deformability of all blood cells can be measured continuously and with high throughput directly in whole blood without prior enrichment or separation.
    1. Neuroscience

    The presynaptic ribbon maintains vesicle populations at the hair cell afferent fiber synapse

    Lars Becker et al.
    The auditory hair cell synaptic ribbon maintains vesicle pools near release sites in order to support sustained and timed vesicle release.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The synaptic ribbon is critical for sound encoding at high rates and with temporal precision

    Philippe Jean et al.
    The synaptic ribbon regulates calcium channel clustering and proper vesicle dynamics at cochlear inner hair cells to ensure precise sound encoding.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Autocatalytic microtubule nucleation determines the size and mass of Xenopus laevis egg extract spindles

    Franziska Decker et al.
    Quantitative microscopy and theory show that the size of Xenopus laevis egg extract spindles is controlled by a spatially-regulated autocatalytic growth mechanism driven by microtubule-stimulated microtubule nucleation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    MukB ATPases are regulated independently by the N- and C-terminal domains of MukF kleisin

    Katarzyna Zawadzka et al.
    In Escherichia coli structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complex, MukBEF, a dimeric MukF kleisin binds and activates MukB SMC ATPases through two independent interfaces provided by distinct MukF N- and C-terminal domains.
    1. Cell Biology

    An optimized method for 3D fluorescence co-localization applied to human kinetochore protein architecture

    Aussie Suzuki et al.
    An optimized 3D fluorescence co-localization method is a useful toolkit to obtain cellular 3D separations between green and red labeled protein domains with nanometer-scale accuracy using light microscopy.
    1. Neuroscience

    Persistent activity in a recurrent circuit underlies courtship memory in Drosophila

    Xiaoliang Zhao et al.
    Persistent activity of dopaminergic neurons in a mushroom recurrent circuit lays the foundation for courtship memory in Drosophila.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Automated cell-type classification in intact tissues by single-cell molecular profiling

    Monica Nagendran et al.
    The ability to rapidly stain for any combination of genes in intact tissue with automated quantification of transcripts in individual cells and spatial re-mapping affords new insights into lung biology, and will greatly accelerate progress in scientific and medical research.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Synthesizing artificial devices that redirect cellular information at will

    Yuchen Liu et al.
    A novel RNA-based trans-regulatory system that control gene expression in mammalian cells has been developed and they can be coupled to endogenous signals.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mouse color and wavelength-specific luminance contrast sensitivity are non-uniform across visual space

    Daniel J Denman et al.
    Mice can detect changes in hue independent of luminance, with differing sensitivity to hue and luminance in different parts of visual space.
    1. Ecology

    No general relationship between mass and temperature in endothermic species

    Kristina Riemer et al.
    Data analysis of a large number of species indicates that a negative temperature-mass relationship is not common among species, which has been an ecological assumption for over a century.
    1. Neuroscience

    Astrocytic modulation of excitatory synaptic signaling in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Benjamin Rakela et al.
    Astrocytes impact neuronal signaling in brain dependent on status of the transcriptional repressor, Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2.
    1. Neuroscience

    Associability-modulated loss learning is increased in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Vanessa M Brown et al.
    Veterans with PTSD show increased attention to a history of unexpected outcomes during loss learning, both as measured by computational model-derived behavioral parameters and in increased neural signaling in amygdala and insula.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Destructive disinfection of infected brood prevents systemic disease spread in ant colonies

    Christopher D Pull et al.
    Upon detecting a fatal infection using chemical cues, ants puncture the cuticle of sick brood and inject antimicrobial poison that disrupts the pathogen's life cycle and prevents it from reproducing, thus protecting the colony from disease.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Replication Study: Transcriptional amplification in tumor cells with elevated c-Myc

    L Michelle Lewis et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study has reproduced important parts of the original paper, but it also contains results that are not consistent with some parts of the original paper.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    KIF2A regulates the development of dentate granule cells and postnatal hippocampal wiring

    Noriko Homma et al.
    Postnatal KIF2A is a key regulator for axon/dendrite determination of developing dentate granule cells, and its loss developed apical axons in dentate molecular layer, broke hippocampal wiring, and induced temporal lobe epilepsy.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: Systematic identification of genomic markers of drug sensitivity in cancer cells

    John P Vanden Heuvel et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study has reproduced some parts of the original paper but other parts could not be interpreted.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Nonsense mRNA suppression via nonstop decay

    Joshua A Arribere, Andrew Z Fire
    Nonstop mRNA decay degrades mRNAs with a premature stop codon after such mRNAs are targeted by the nonsense-mediated decay machinery.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Inverted formin 2 regulates intracellular trafficking, placentation, and pregnancy outcome

    Katherine Young Bezold Lamm et al.
    Loss of Inverted Formin-2 impairs intracellular trafficking and trophoblast invasion, resulting in maternal hypertension and intrauterine growth restriction, which represents a novel model of impaired placental invasion that encompasses critical aspects of the great obstetrical syndromes.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Inferring multi-scale neural mechanisms with brain network modelling

    Michael Schirner et al.
    Hybrid brain network models predict neurophysiological processes that link structural and functional empirical data across scales and modalities in order to better understand neural information processing and its relation to brain function.
    1. Cell Biology

    LINE-1 protein localization and functional dynamics during the cell cycle

    Paolo Mita et al.
    A combination of functional, biochemical and imaging studies show that LINE-1/L1 proteins and mRNA enter the nucleus through mitotic nuclear membrane breakdown, interact with components of the DNA replication fork and mediate retrotransposition during S phase.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Cdc48 regulates a deubiquitylase cascade critical for mitochondrial fusion

    Tânia Simões et al.
    A signaling pathway—comprising a linear sequence of the ubiquitin-selective chaperone Cdc48/p97 and the deubiquitylases Ubp12 and Ubp2—synergistically regulates mitochondrial fusion, thereby fine-tuning ubiquitylation of the mitofusin Fzo1.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Dissection of affinity captured LINE-1 macromolecular complexes

    Martin S Taylor et al.
    The range of molecular forms adopted by L1 retrotransposons reflect a tapestry of lifecycle-permissive and -restrictive host-parasite interactions occurring within cells.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    In vitro FRET analysis of IRE1 and BiP association and dissociation upon endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Megan C Kopp et al.
    Quantitative FRET UPR induction assay is used to measure IRE1 and BIP association and dissociation by a variety of ER misfolded proteins and by an important BiP substrate-binding domain mutant, significantly enhancing the evidence for the allosteric UPR induction model.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    RNA-dependent RNA targeting by CRISPR-Cas9

    Steven C Strutt et al.
    Divergent Cas9 enzymes direct site-specific single-stranded RNA cleavage, reducing infection by RNA phage in vivo and enabling programmable, PAM-independent repression of gene expression in bacteria.
    1. Neuroscience

    A postsynaptic PI3K-cII dependent signaling controller for presynaptic homeostatic plasticity

    Anna G Hauswirth et al.
    A screen encompassing all kinases and phosphatases reveals that PI3K-cII, PI3K-cIII and Rab11-dependent recycling endosomes comprise a novel, postsynaptic 'signaling controller' that is part of an integrated, trans-synaptic signaling system necessary for presynaptic homeostatic plasticity.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A gonad-expressed opsin mediates light-induced spawning in the jellyfish Clytia

    Gonzalo Quiroga Artigas et al.
    Gamete release in the jellyfish Clytia is mediated by an opsin photopigment expressed in neurosecretory cells of the gonad ectoderm, which release an oocyte maturation hormone in response to light.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Intrinsic adaptive value and early fate of gene duplication revealed by a bottom-up approach

    Guillermo Rodrigo, Mario A Fares
    Gene duplication is a useful strategy to reduce intrinsic noise in gene expression, which can provide a selective advantage in scenarios of cost-benefit analysis of expression.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Systemic and local cues drive neural stem cell niche remodelling during neurogenesis in Drosophila

    Pauline Spéder, Andrea H Brand
    Cross talk between neural stem cells and their glial niche enables the niche to adapt to the evolving needs of the stem cells throughout development.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Robust model-based analysis of single-particle tracking experiments with Spot-On

    Anders S Hansen et al.
    Spot-On is an easy-to-use website that makes a rigorous and bias-corrected modeling framework for analysis of single-molecule tracking experiments available to all.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Myeloid cell recruitment versus local proliferation differentiates susceptibility from resistance to filarial infection

    Sharon M Campbell et al.
    Macrophage dynamics are fundamentally different between two commonly used inbred mouse strains and differences in local resident cell expansion versus monocyte recruitment determine the outcome of tissue nematode infection.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Cis-regulatory evolution integrated the Bric-à-brac transcription factors into a novel fruit fly gene regulatory network

    Maxwell J Roeske et al.
    The conserved biochemical activity of the duplicate Bab transcription factors were integrated into the regulatory hierarchy of an evolving gene regulatory network by binding site gains in a target gene's cis-regulatory region.
    1. Neuroscience

    Multi-neuron intracellular recording in vivo via interacting autopatching robots

    Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah et al.
    A robot capable of automatically obtaining blind whole cell patch clamp recordings from multiple neurons simultaneously guides four interacting electrodes in a coordinated fashion, avoiding mechanical coupling in the brain.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Telomere repeats induce domains of H3K27 methylation in Neurospora

    Kirsty Jamieson et al.
    Vast regions of facultative heterochromatin marked by methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 depend on their proximity to chromosome ends and can be induced ectopically by insertion of telomere repeats.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Context-dependent deposition and regulation of mRNAs in P-bodies

    Congwei Wang et al.
    An unbiased screen using various stresses reveals selective mRNA transport into P-bodies, in which mRNAs are either stored or decayed in a process that may promote chronological lifespan in yeast.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Cell-type heterogeneity in the early zebrafish olfactory epithelium is generated from progenitors within preplacodal ectoderm

    Raphaël Aguillon et al.
    Several neuronal subtypes found in the early zebrafish olfactory placode are not derived from the neural crest, as previously thought, but from the preplacodal ectoderm.
    1. Cell Biology

    Alternative RNA splicing in the endothelium mediated in part by Rbfox2 regulates the arterial response to low flow

    Patrick A Murphy et al.
    Transcriptome analysis reveals an alternative splicing program induced in the arterial endothelium under low-flow inflammatory conditions by platelet and macrophage recruitment and dependent upon the RNA-binding splice factor Rbfox2.

Magazine

    1. Ecology

    Life Expectancy: Age is just a number

    Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Caleb Finch
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor Systems: Variability in neural networks

    Daniel R Kick, David J Schulz