RNA sequencing of the African clawed frog has identified hundreds of putative direct Six1 and Eya1 target genes, including transcriptional regulators of neuronal progenitors and neuronal/sensory differentiation.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging performed while people imagined directions from stationary viewpoints supports theories suggesting that spatially tuned cells such as grid cells underlie mental simulation for future thinking.
Building on previous work (Booth et al, 2014), we show how two mitotic phosphatases are formed, how they are regulated by opposing kinases during the cell cycle and reveal a novel opportunity for the development of cancer therapeutics.
Seipin oligomers dynamically interact with small, nascent lipid droplets near the endoplasmic reticulum to convert them into larger, mature lipid droplets in a newly identified step of lipid droplet formation.
Two cell-penetrating peptides that inhibit Ras-ERK signalling and a potent clinically relevant MEK inhibitor block cocaine conditioned place preference and accelerate extinction of cocaine self-administration upon a single administration in mice.
The three main types of inhibitory neurons in mouse primary visual cortex respond differently to locomotion in darkness and during visual stimulation, revealing context-dependent responses to changes in behavioral state.
Three months treatment with the drug rapamycin increases lifespan, alters cancer prevalence, remodels the microbiome, and improves functional measures of health in middle aged mice in a dose- and sex-dependent manner.
Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus release peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters that work together to coordinate the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and subsequent release of reproductive hormones.
The spiking activity of the subthalamic nucleus, rather than the activity of striatal projection neurons, orchestrates basal ganglia downstream activity and output commands in health and Parkinson’s disease.
The brain continues to represent individual fingers in primary somatosensory cortex decades after the amputation of a hand, indicating that cortical maps do not require ongoing sensory input from the body.
A spatially-tuned normalization model accounts for neuronal responses to attended or unattended stimuli that are presented inside the classical receptive field or the surround, and explains various other observations.
The mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1, which is important for T- and B-cell activation, is inhibited by cytoplasmic copper, mediated by a histidine residue (His358) that is phosphorylated to activate the channel.
The exon junction complex regulates the cell polarity determinant Discs large 1, which acts independently from its role in cell polarity to protect Dishevelled protein from lysosomal degradation in Wingless/Wnt signaling.
Cell biological, biochemical and structural studies reveal the mechanistic roles of two new mitochondrial iron-sulfur protein assembly factors, explaining the patho-biochemical defects of affected patients.
A new purification method for stereocilia membranes enables efficient immunoaffinity purification of rare protein complexes from hair cell stereocilia, including the newly described complex of deafness genes PDZD7 and MYO7A.
A conserved alternative splicing program is specific to planarian stem cells and is controlled by the highly conserved splicing factors CELF and MBNL; therefore, this mode of regulating stem cells is likely ancestral to all animals.
HIV co-infection does not affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rates and does not drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance within patients in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America to date.
A newly identified component in the architecture of the axon/myelin-unit – the septin/anillin scaffold – maintains the structure of myelin in the central nervous system, thereby preventing myelin outfoldings.
A newly discovered membrane structure associates with one of the centrioles and affects two important centrosomal events in epidermal cells – ciliary positioning and spindle orientation – through a physical interaction.
A novel regulatory cascade downstream of Tau and spectraplakins ensures that synaptic proteins are delivered to axonal terminals in the developing and ageing brain, providing potential explanations for precocious synapse loss in dementias.
Endocannabinoid activation of the CB1 receptor on retinal ganglion cells in the eye results in enhanced excitability and responsiveness to visual stimulation through a novel mechanism involving intracellular chloride regulation.
High resolution structures of the essential human AAA+ ATPase TorsinA and its disease mutant in complex with an activator reveal details of the interaction that will guide drug design and further functional characterization.
Computations based on detailed atomic models explain how the ATP-driven sodium-potassium pump avoids transporting the wrong type of ions in order to maintain the physiological concentration of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane.
Measuring the equilibrium dimerization of a polytopic membrane protein in lipid bilayers forms the basis of a new system for studying the physical forces that stabilize membrane protein association in membranes.
Crystal structures of Nanos bound to Pumilio and target RNAs demonstrate how Nanos forms a molecular clamp to alter Pumilio RNA regulation and specificity in embryonic development and germline maintenance.