August 2016

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Individual differences in selective attention predict speech identification at a cocktail party

    Daniel Oberfeld, Felicitas Klöckner-Nowotny
    Cocktail-party listening performance in normal-hearing listeners is associated with the ability to focus attention on a target stimulus in the presence of distractors.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Dissecting the pre-placodal transcriptome to reveal presumptive direct targets of Six1 and Eya1 in cranial placodes

    Nick Riddiford, Gerhard Schlosser
    RNA sequencing of the African clawed frog has identified hundreds of putative direct Six1 and Eya1 target genes, including transcriptional regulators of neuronal progenitors and neuronal/sensory differentiation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Phylogenomic analysis supports the ancestral presence of LPS-outer membranes in the Firmicutes

    Luisa CS Antunes et al.
    Phylogenomics provides support for the Gram-positive type of bacterial cell envelope being a derived character that arose independently multiple times through loss of an ancestral outer membrane.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Allosteric activation of SENP1 by SUMO1 β-grasp domain involves a dock-and-coalesce mechanism

    Jingjing Guo, Huan-Xiang Zhou
    Simulations of molecular dynamics suggest how the binding of the β-grasp domain of SUMO1 induces conformational and dynamic effects to activate SENP1.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    The amyloid-beta forming tripeptide cleavage mechanism of γ-secretase

    David M Bolduc et al.
    The protease γ-secretase generates amyloid-beta peptides using a mechanism that is driven by the stabilization of an enzyme-substrate scisson complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional integration of a serotonergic neuron in the Drosophila antennal lobe

    Xiaonan Zhang, Quentin Gaudry
    Serotonergic cells innervating the Drosophila antennal lobe are inhibited by odors and modulate olfactory responses in conjunction with the entire serotonergic network.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology

    Acute exposure to apolipoprotein A1 inhibits macrophage chemotaxis in vitro and monocyte recruitment in vivo

    Asif J Iqbal et al.
    Mechanistic insights show how treatment with apoA1 is anti-inflammatory by rapidly disrupting macrophage chemotaxis and monocyte recruitment.
    1. Neuroscience

    Grid-cell representations in mental simulation

    Jacob LS Bellmund et al.
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging performed while people imagined directions from stationary viewpoints supports theories suggesting that spatially tuned cells such as grid cells underlie mental simulation for future thinking.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Chromosome-wide mechanisms to decouple gene expression from gene dose during sex-chromosome evolution

    Bayly S Wheeler et al.
    A chromosome-wide mechanism balances X-linked gene expression between the sexes in C. elegans, but no similar chromosome-wide mechanism balances gene expression between X chromosomes and autosomes.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Serotonin signaling mediates protein valuation and aging

    Jennifer Ro et al.
    Serotonin modulates diet-dependent lifespan in flies.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    The Ki-67 and RepoMan mitotic phosphatases assemble via an identical, yet novel mechanism

    Ganesan Senthil Kumar et al.
    Building on previous work (Booth et al, 2014), we show how two mitotic phosphatases are formed, how they are regulated by opposing kinases during the cell cycle and reveal a novel opportunity for the development of cancer therapeutics.
    1. Neuroscience

    Associative learning changes cross-modal representations in the gustatory cortex

    Roberto Vincis, Alfredo Fontanini
    Cross-modal stimuli are represented in the primary gustatory cortex according to their sensory identity, associability and predictive value.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Proton currents constrain structural models of voltage sensor activation

    Aaron L Randolph et al.
    Electrophysiological and computational techniques provide a structural basis for understanding the conformational changes that are required to activate Hv1 proton channels.
    1. Cell Biology

    Seipin is required for converting nascent to mature lipid droplets

    Huajin Wang et al.
    Seipin oligomers dynamically interact with small, nascent lipid droplets near the endoplasmic reticulum to convert them into larger, mature lipid droplets in a newly identified step of lipid droplet formation.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Overall energy conversion efficiency of a photosynthetic vesicle

    Melih Sener et al.
    The overall energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a bacterial vesicle that harvests solar energy for ATP production on the basis of an atomic-detail structural model.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional diversity of excitatory commissural interneurons in adult zebrafish

    E Rebecka Björnfors, Abdeljabbar El Manira
    A detailed electrophysiological analysis reveals a new principle for how commissural excitatory interneurons are organised in an adult vertebrate.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cancer Biology

    Y-box protein 1 is required to sort microRNAs into exosomes in cells and in a cell-free reaction

    Matthew J Shurtleff et al.
    A cell-free reaction that reconstitutes the selective sorting of a miRNA into exosomes reveals an RNA-binding protein, YBX1, as a critical sorting factor.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal

    Yiming Chen et al.
    Hunger neurons promote feeding by triggering a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Muscle contraction is required to maintain the pool of muscle progenitors via YAP and NOTCH during fetal myogenesis

    Joana Esteves de Lima et al.
    A novel mechanism links mechanical signals with the molecular YAP and NOTCH signals operating during developmental myogenesis.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    An integrative transcriptomic atlas of organogenesis in human embryos

    Dave T Gerrard et al.
    Integrating human embryonic transcriptomes from 15 sites during organogenesis identifies novel expression signatures linked to congenital disorders and a new programme of non-coding gene expression.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Tim29 is a novel subunit of the human TIM22 translocase and is involved in complex assembly and stability

    Yilin Kang et al.
    A novel and metazoan-specific protein, Tim29, is identified as a subunit of the human TIM22 complex and shown to function in the assembly of hTim22 and facilitate contacts with the TOM complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Impairment of cocaine-mediated behaviours in mice by clinically relevant Ras-ERK inhibitors

    Alessandro Papale et al.
    Two cell-penetrating peptides that inhibit Ras-ERK signalling and a potent clinically relevant MEK inhibitor block cocaine conditioned place preference and accelerate extinction of cocaine self-administration upon a single administration in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Behavioral-state modulation of inhibition is context-dependent and cell type specific in mouse visual cortex

    Janelle MP Pakan et al.
    The three main types of inhibitory neurons in mouse primary visual cortex respond differently to locomotion in darkness and during visual stimulation, revealing context-dependent responses to changes in behavioral state.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Mapping transiently formed and sparsely populated conformations on a complex energy landscape

    Yong Wang et al.
    Molecular simulations can capture key aspects of the conformational exchange in a protein.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice

    Alessandro Bitto et al.
    Three months treatment with the drug rapamycin increases lifespan, alters cancer prevalence, remodels the microbiome, and improves functional measures of health in middle aged mice in a dose- and sex-dependent manner.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Patched1 and Patched2 inhibit Smoothened non-cell autonomously

    Brock Roberts et al.
    Ptch1/2 can lower the sensitivity of Smo to activation by Shh via the secretion of a sterol precursor.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Probing the functional impact of sub-retinal prosthesis

    Sébastien Roux et al.
    Existing artificial retinas produce distorted and imprecise activation of the visual system, but reverse engineering promises to refine the induced activation patterns.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    Co-transcriptional R-loops are the main cause of estrogen-induced DNA damage

    Caroline Townsend Stork et al.
    The transcriptional response elicited by the hormone estrogen leads to DNA double-strand breaks by promoting R-loop formation in breast cancer cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    Robbert Havekes et al.
    The loss of neuronal connectivity in a brain region called the hippocampus significantly contributes to the cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation.
    1. Neuroscience

    High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Jian Qiu et al.
    Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus release peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters that work together to coordinate the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and subsequent release of reproductive hormones.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synergistic plasticity of intrinsic conductance and electrical coupling restores synchrony in an intact motor network

    Brian J Lane et al.
    Neural networks like the crustacean cardiac ganglion employ multi-faceted compensatory mechanisms to achieve the stability and robustness that are critical to long-term function.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    bMERB domains are bivalent Rab8 family effectors evolved by gene duplication

    Amrita Rai et al.
    A human three-helix Rab-binding domain can potentially bind to two Rab proteins simultaneously with different affinities at binding sites generated by gene duplication.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    A new motor synergy that serves the needs of oculomotor and eye lid systems while keeping the downtime of vision minimal

    Mohammad Farhan Khazali et al.
    Involuntary eye movements that keep images positioned over the center of the retina are synchronized with blinks to minimize disruption to vision.
    1. Neuroscience

    Subthalamic, not striatal, activity correlates with basal ganglia downstream activity in normal and parkinsonian monkeys

    Marc Deffains et al.
    The spiking activity of the subthalamic nucleus, rather than the activity of striatal projection neurons, orchestrates basal ganglia downstream activity and output commands in health and Parkinson’s disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Revealing the neural fingerprints of a missing hand

    Sanne Kikkert et al.
    The brain continues to represent individual fingers in primary somatosensory cortex decades after the amputation of a hand, indicating that cortical maps do not require ongoing sensory input from the body.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    A conserved quality-control pathway that mediates degradation of unassembled ribosomal proteins

    Min-Kyung Sung et al.
    Tom1 is the ubiquitin ligase in yeast that anchors a protein quality control pathway that rapidly eliminates ribosomal proteins that fail to assemble into ribosomes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Attention operates uniformly throughout the classical receptive field and the surround

    Bram-Ernst Verhoef, John HR Maunsell
    A spatially-tuned normalization model accounts for neuronal responses to attended or unattended stimuli that are presented inside the classical receptive field or the surround, and explains various other observations.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    The impact of pyrethroid resistance on the efficacy and effectiveness of bednets for malaria control in Africa

    Thomas S Churcher et al.
    Mosquitoes with high levels of pyrethroid resistance reduce the ability of bednets to protect those using them and the wider community, which is predicted to substantially increase malaria cases.
    1. Cell Biology

    Exosome complex orchestrates developmental signaling to balance proliferation and differentiation during erythropoiesis

    Skye C McIver et al.
    An RNA-regulatory machine confers expression and function of a receptor tyrosine kinase to dictate a developmental signaling transition.
    1. Cell Biology

    Histidine phosphorylation relieves copper inhibition in the mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1

    Shekhar Srivastava et al.
    The mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1, which is important for T- and B-cell activation, is inhibited by cytoplasmic copper, mediated by a histidine residue (His358) that is phosphorylated to activate the channel.
    1. Biochemistry

    The mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP) coordinates mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis with iron sulfur cluster biogenesis

    Jonathan G Van Vranken et al.
    The essential function of ACP is not related to mitochondrial fatty acid and lipoic acid synthesis, but rather an evolutionarily-conserved role in iron sulfur cluster biogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Physical determinants of vesicle mobility and supply at a central synapse

    Jason Seth Rothman et al.
    Hydrodynamic and steric interactions slow vesicle mobility and are predicted to ultimately limit vesicle supply to the active zone during sustained high-frequency signalling at a central synapse.
    1. Cell Biology

    Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation

    Somya Mani, Mukund Thattai
    A screen of tens of thousands of vesicle traffic networks in silico shows that Golgi-like cisternal maturation is a natural outcome of vesicle traffic homeostasis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    The exon junction complex regulates the splicing of cell polarity gene dlg1 to control Wingless signaling in development

    Min Liu et al.
    The exon junction complex regulates the cell polarity determinant Discs large 1, which acts independently from its role in cell polarity to protect Dishevelled protein from lysosomal degradation in Wingless/Wnt signaling.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    A hyperspectral method to assay the microphysiological fates of nanomaterials in histological samples

    Elliott D SoRelle et al.
    A new technique for biodistribution and targeted uptake studies of nanoparticle imaging agents is demonstrated and used to achieve levels of detail that are inaccessible through existing methods.
    1. Neuroscience

    Similar GABAA receptor subunit composition in somatic and axon initial segment synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells

    Katalin Kerti-Szigeti, Zoltan Nusser
    All perisomatic GABAergic synpases on hippocampal pyramidal cells have a similar GABAA receptor subunit composition.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human pyramidal to interneuron synapses are mediated by multi-vesicular release and multiple docked vesicles

    Gábor Molnár et al.
    The compactness of synaptic release sites coupled with their four-fold number in humans compared to rats provides unprecedented scaleability in operation of human synapses.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Stochastic and deterministic dynamics of intrinsically irregular firing in cortical inhibitory interneurons

    Philipe RF Mendonça et al.
    A-type potassium conductances influence the distinctive firing behaviour of irregular-spiking interneurons.
    1. Biochemistry

    Role of Nfu1 and Bol3 in iron-sulfur cluster transfer to mitochondrial clients

    Andrew Melber et al.
    Mitochondrial proteins Nfu1 and BolA3 mediate the transfer of preformed [4Fe-4S] clusters within the mitochondria to recipient proteins to shield clusters from oxidative damage during transfer.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cancer Biology

    Mitochondrial Bol1 and Bol3 function as assembly factors for specific iron-sulfur proteins

    Marta A Uzarska et al.
    Cell biological, biochemical and structural studies reveal the mechanistic roles of two new mitochondrial iron-sulfur protein assembly factors, explaining the patho-biochemical defects of affected patients.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Physical limits to magnetogenetics

    Markus Meister
    Recent reports on the ability of biological molecules to sense magnetic fields are found to be inconsistent with basic physical principles.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    PTRF/Cavin-1 promotes efficient ribosomal RNA transcription in response to metabolic challenges

    Libin Liu, Paul F Pilch
    PTRF (Cavin-1) mediates metabolism-regulated ribosomal transcription in mature adipocytes, independent of its role in caveolae formation.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    A Cryptochrome 2 mutation yields advanced sleep phase in humans

    Arisa Hirano et al.
    A missense mutation in the human Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) gene leads to the condition of familial advanced sleep phase.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structural characterization of encapsulated ferritin provides insight into iron storage in bacterial nanocompartments

    Didi He et al.
    Encapsulin-associated ferritin proteins form metal-dependent decamers that are active as ferroxidase enzymes, but require encapsulation to form an iron store.
    1. Biochemistry

    The aspartyl protease DDI2 activates Nrf1 to compensate for proteasome dysfunction

    Shun Koizumi et al.
    Peptidase activity of DDI2 is required to activate Nrf1 in order to enable proteasome recovery in response to proteasome inhibition.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    BubR1 alterations that reinforce mitotic surveillance act against aneuploidy and cancer

    Robbyn L Weaver et al.
    Strengthening of spindle assembly checkpoint activity and attachment error correction through BubR1 manipulation preserves genomic integrity and protects against tumor formation.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Defining key roles for auxiliary proteins in an ABC transporter that maintains bacterial outer membrane lipid asymmetry

    Shuhua Thong et al.
    Auxiliary proteins play functional roles in modulating the assembly and activity of a non-canonical ABC transporter that is important for the maintenance of outer membrane lipid asymmetry.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Proteasome dysfunction triggers activation of SKN-1A/Nrf1 by the aspartic protease DDI-1

    Nicolas J Lehrbach, Gary Ruvkun
    Post-translational processing of the SKN-1A/Nrf1 transcription factor regulates proteasome expression.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Odd-paired controls frequency doubling in Drosophila segmentation by altering the pair-rule gene regulatory network

    Erik Clark, Michael Akam
    The organisation of the Drosophila embryo into segmental units is orchestrated by combinatorial regulatory interactions between spatially patterned and temporally patterned transcription factors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery

    Rebekah Elizabeth Mahoney et al.
    By regulating protein translation within the neuron, insulin signaling can control neuronal activity by altering the release of neurotransmitter molecules.
    1. Neuroscience

    Uniting functional network topology and oscillations in the fronto-parietal single unit network of behaving primates

    Benjamin Dann et al.
    Oscillatory synchronized hub neurons coordinate neural network activity across multiple brain areas.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    A shunt pathway limits the CaaX processing of Hsp40 Ydj1p and regulates Ydj1p-dependent phenotypes

    Emily R Hildebrandt et al.
    A branch to the protein prenylation pathway has been previously overlooked.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Minimized human telomerase maintains telomeres and resolves endogenous roles of H/ACA proteins, TCAB1, and Cajal bodies

    Jacob M Vogan et al.
    The Cajal body chaperone TCAB1 and scaffold protein Coilin are not required for telomerase activity in human cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cellular resolution circuit mapping with temporal-focused excitation of soma-targeted channelrhodopsin

    Christopher A Baker et al.
    Combining spatial restriction of channelrhodopsin to the neuronal cell body with two photon excitation and calcium imaging will enable production of high resolution maps of neural circuitry.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A systematic view on influenza induced host shutoff

    Adi Bercovich-Kinori et al.
    During host shut-off caused by the Influenza A virus, cellular genes that play important housekeeping roles for the virus are still efficiently translated.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Rewiring MAP kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to regulate novel targets through ubiquitination

    Benjamin Groves et al.
    Two sets of modular components are sufficient to rewire MAPKs to regulate proteins through ubiquitination – a complementary pair of protein interaction domains and a phosphodegron.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    PDZD7-MYO7A complex identified in enriched stereocilia membranes

    Clive P Morgan et al.
    A new purification method for stereocilia membranes enables efficient immunoaffinity purification of rare protein complexes from hair cell stereocilia, including the newly described complex of deafness genes PDZD7 and MYO7A.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    The composition and organization of Drosophila heterochromatin are heterogeneous and dynamic

    Joel M Swenson et al.
    Identification of novel components and regulators of heterochromatin reveals a spatially complex and dynamic organization.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hippocampal pattern completion is linked to gamma power increases and alpha power decreases during recollection

    Bernhard P Staresina et al.
    Direct recordings from the human hippocampus reveal the neural mechanisms that orchestrate recollection of past experiences.
    1. Neuroscience

    A circuit motif in the zebrafish hindbrain for a two alternative behavioral choice to turn left or right

    Minoru Koyama et al.
    Competition between neurons on the left and right sides of the brain drives the decision to turn left versus right in zebrafish, and potentially all vertebrates.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    Kasmir Ramo et al.
    The kinase JNK is required in endothelial cells for the development of native collateral arteries.
    1. Neuroscience

    A shared numerical representation for action and perception

    Giovanni Anobile et al.
    Adapting to rapid or slow finger tapping selectively biases the apparent numerosity of sequences or arrays of visual stimuli.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Conserved functional antagonism of CELF and MBNL proteins controls stem cell-specific alternative splicing in planarians

    Jordi Solana et al.
    A conserved alternative splicing program is specific to planarian stem cells and is controlled by the highly conserved splicing factors CELF and MBNL; therefore, this mode of regulating stem cells is likely ancestral to all animals.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Impact of HIV co-infection on the evolution and transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Vegard Eldholm et al.
    HIV co-infection does not affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rates and does not drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance within patients in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America to date.
    1. Neuroscience

    Adaptive learning and decision-making under uncertainty by metaplastic synapses guided by a surprise detection system

    Kiyohito Iigaya
    Computational modeling offers an explanation for why animals learn more quickly or slowly when their environment becomes more variable or stable.
    1. Neuroscience

    Septin/anillin filaments scaffold central nervous system myelin to accelerate nerve conduction

    Julia Patzig et al.
    A newly identified component in the architecture of the axon/myelin-unit – the septin/anillin scaffold – maintains the structure of myelin in the central nervous system, thereby preventing myelin outfoldings.
    1. Neuroscience

    The hominoid-specific gene TBC1D3 promotes generation of basal neural progenitors and induces cortical folding in mice

    Xiang-Chun Ju et al.
    Introducing a hominoid-specific gene into mice induces cortical folding.
    1. Neuroscience

    Complementary mechanisms create direction selectivity in the fly

    Juergen Haag et al.
    Uniting two principles that have been thought of being mutually exclusive in the past can explain how neurons become sensitive to the direction of motion.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Physical association between a novel plasma-membrane structure and centrosome orients cell division

    Takefumi Negishi et al.
    A newly discovered membrane structure associates with one of the centrioles and affects two important centrosomal events in epidermal cells – ciliary positioning and spindle orientation – through a physical interaction.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Tau and spectraplakins promote synapse formation and maintenance through Jun kinase and neuronal trafficking

    Andre Voelzmann et al.
    A novel regulatory cascade downstream of Tau and spectraplakins ensures that synaptic proteins are delivered to axonal terminals in the developing and ageing brain, providing potential explanations for precocious synapse loss in dementias.
    1. Neuroscience

    Endocannabinoid signaling enhances visual responses through modulation of intracellular chloride levels in retinal ganglion cells

    Loïs S Miraucourt et al.
    Endocannabinoid activation of the CB1 receptor on retinal ganglion cells in the eye results in enhanced excitability and responsiveness to visual stimulation through a novel mechanism involving intracellular chloride regulation.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Homozygous YME1L1 mutation causes mitochondriopathy with optic atrophy and mitochondrial network fragmentation

    Bianca Hartmann et al.
    Mutations affecting a nuclear encoded metalloprotease cause of a new form of mitochondriopathy, highlighting the importance of this protease for mitochondrial function in humans.
    1. Biochemistry

    Coupling between the DEAD-box RNA helicases Ded1p and eIF4A

    Zhaofeng Gao et al.
    Ded1p and eIF4A, two RNA helicases that function in eukaryotic translation initiation, interact physically with each other and with the scaffolding protein eIF4G.
    1. Neuroscience

    Drosophila larval to pupal switch under nutrient stress requires IP3R/Ca2+ signalling in glutamatergic interneurons

    Siddharth Jayakumar et al.
    The transformation of fruit fly larvae into pupae provides insights into the processes that enable animals to survive periods of food shortage.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Enhanced exercise and regenerative capacity in a mouse model that violates size constraints of oxidative muscle fibres

    Saleh Omairi et al.
    The concepts that oxidative muscle fibres cannot be large and that satellite cell number is the major determinant for effective regeneration are fundamentally challenged.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Structures of TorsinA and its disease-mutant complexed with an activator reveal the molecular basis for primary dystonia

    F Esra Demircioglu et al.
    High resolution structures of the essential human AAA+ ATPase TorsinA and its disease mutant in complex with an activator reveal details of the interaction that will guide drug design and further functional characterization.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    MYC activation and BCL2L11 silencing by a tumour virus through the large-scale reconfiguration of enhancer-promoter hubs

    C David Wood et al.
    Epstein-Barr virus controls B-cell growth and survival through large-scale reorganization of the enhancers of the MYC and BCL2L11 genes, and may promote MYC translocations as a result.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    The selectivity of the Na+/K+-pump is controlled by binding site protonation and self-correcting occlusion

    Huan Rui et al.
    Computations based on detailed atomic models explain how the ATP-driven sodium-potassium pump avoids transporting the wrong type of ions in order to maintain the physiological concentration of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct roles of visual, parietal, and frontal motor cortices in memory-guided sensorimotor decisions

    Michael J Goard et al.
    Visual, parietal, and frontal motor cortices play distinct and necessary roles in mapping sensory features to future motor action.
    1. Immunology

    Migratory and adhesive cues controlling innate-like lymphocyte surveillance of the pathogen-exposed surface of the lymph node

    Yang Zhang et al.
    A group of innate-like lymphocytes surveys the lymph node subcapsular sinus for bacterial and fungal invaders using a novel combination of chemoattractant and adhesion molecules.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatial tuning and brain state account for dorsal hippocampal CA1 activity in a non-spatial learning task

    Kevin Q Shan et al.
    Recordings in freely-moving rats show that hippocampal dorsal CA1 pyramidal cells signal only spatial information, even in a non-spatial task such as trace eyeblink conditioning.
    1. Neuroscience

    Gating of reafference in the external cuneate nucleus during self-generated movements in wake but not sleep

    Alexandre Tiriac, Mark S Blumberg
    A neural gating mechanism in the external cuneate nucleus of the rat brain is engaged during wake movements and disengaged during sleep-related twitches.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    The dimerization equilibrium of a ClC Cl/H+ antiporter in lipid bilayers

    Rahul Chadda et al.
    Measuring the equilibrium dimerization of a polytopic membrane protein in lipid bilayers forms the basis of a new system for studying the physical forces that stabilize membrane protein association in membranes.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Real-time imaging of Huntingtin aggregates diverting target search and gene transcription

    Li Li et al.
    Live imaging captures dynamics of Huntingtin aggregates plaguing the genome and waylaying target search.
    1. Cancer Biology

    A nonrandomized cohort and a randomized study of local control of large hepatocarcinoma by targeting intratumoral lactic acidosis

    Ming Chao et al.
    Local infusion of bicarbonate into hepatocellular carcinoma markedly enhances local tumor control by transarterial chemoembolization.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Ecology

    Place recognition using batlike sonar

    Dieter Vanderelst et al.
    Echolocating bats may recognize locations in the environment (and navigate to them) by remembering the specific echo signature of those locations.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology

    Lineage tracing of human B cells reveals the in vivo landscape of human antibody class switching

    Felix Horns et al.
    A comprehensive map of patterns of class switching reveals how antibodies of every class are created in humans.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Drosophila Nanos acts as a molecular clamp that modulates the RNA-binding and repression activities of Pumilio

    Chase A Weidmann et al.
    Crystal structures of Nanos bound to Pumilio and target RNAs demonstrate how Nanos forms a molecular clamp to alter Pumilio RNA regulation and specificity in embryonic development and germline maintenance.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

    Maulik R Patel et al.
    A 'male-harming' mtDNA mutation has been identified in Drosophila and impairs male fertility without impairing other male or female functions.