How the autophagy-related E3 complex localizes to pre-autophagosomal structures and a non-E3 function of the complex were revealed, significantly advancing our understanding of the nucleation step in autophagosome formation.
Single molecule DNA-binding trajectories and deterministic modeling analyses demonstrate a functional role for high energy partly folded states in Transcription Activator-Like Effectors that could improve future TALEN design.
While antimicrobial cocktails are highly effective for defence against pathogenic microbes, the innate immune response may instead employ highly specific peptidic antibiotics to combat certain natural enemies.
A new computational framework provides a flexible and general approach for single and collective biological motion characterisation and phenotyping ideally suited for high-throughput timelapse screens.
Cancer is a consequence of the release of basal cellular functions inherited from our unicellular ancestors from the control of regulatory networks that evolved during the emergence of multicellularity.
Consolidation of long-term courtship memory in Drosophila is mediated by a novel class of sleep promoting neurons that reactivates dopaminergic neurons engaged earlier in memory acquisition during post-learning sleep.
Experiments reveal mechanisms through which Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes depleted of Aurora A or lacking centrosomes spontaneously establish two posterior PAR-2 domains, one at each pole, in a curvature-dependent manner.
RIM binding UNC-13L C2A domain releases UNC-13L from an autoinhibitory homodimeric complex to become fusion-competent, and regulates probability of synaptic vesicle release in the post-priming process.
Newly forming descending pathways are arranged to function in parallel to existing ones and contribute to increasingly sophisticated locomotor behaviors that emerge postnatally with suitable connectivity patterns and biophysical properties.
Quasi-enveloped hepatitis A virions undergo clathrin-mediated endocytosis, followed by ALIX-dependent trafficking to lysosomes where the quasi-envelope is degraded, triggering uncoating of the RNA genome in association with lysosomal membrane rupture.
Diverse sophisticated phylogenetic analyses update the phylogeny of the Alphaproteobacteria and show that the parasitic Holosporales is a derived group within the Rhodospirillales order which comprises primarily free-living alphaproteobacteria.
Competition between neurons for postsynaptic ephrin-B3 controls distribution of a limited pool of synapses and defines a novel trans-synaptic mechanism enabling neurons to set the number of synapses they receive.
A combined FRET- and electrophysiology-based approach is used to study ATP/ADP ADP binding to the stimulatory nucleotide binding site of ATP-sensitive K+ channels and investigate their activation mechanism.
UBIAD1 mediates a unique geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate-sensing mechanism that when disrupted, inhibits degradation of HMG CoA reductase and triggers overproduction of corneal cholesterol that characterizes the eye disease Schnyder Corneal Dystrophy.
Structural research, supplemented by biochemical experiments and enzymatic assays, unravels the sequence-dependent molecular mechanism by which SETD3 recognizes β-actin and methylates His73 of β-actin.
While activated by a common mechanism, both functions in TMEM16F - lipid scrambling and ion conduction - are likely mediated by alternate protein conformations that are at equilibrium in the ligand-bound state.
Allelic MLA immune receptors have an exceptional propensity to directly detect sequence-unrelated pathogen effectors and this feature might have facilitated functional diversification of the receptor in the host population.
Common nuclear genetic variants are associated with fundamental biological processes occurring in human mitochondria and potentially point to novel roles for nuclear genes in transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial genome.
A molecular profiling approach to quantify transcripts and proteins from identical samples allows study of molecular effects of maturation, sexual differentiation and the endogenous circalunar clock in a marine worm.
Embryonic macrophages encourage early kidney development, interact with developing renal blood vessels, are enriched for mRNAs linked to vascular development, and promote endothelial cross-connections.
Consideration of signal detection theory shows how decision ecology relates to optimal collective decisions, helping explain the prevalence of quorum-sensing in even the simplest collective systems, such as bacterial communities.
A computational model of collective physical interaction reveals that individuals infer the collective's movement goal in order to enhance the group's overall performance and coordinate with several partners in seconds.
A detailed description of the structure of procentriole MT triplet by cryoET, along with its associated non-tubulin proteins and its assembly intermediates, reveals possible molecular mechanism for the procentriole assembly.
Leave-One-Trial-Out (LOTO) is a general, efficient and easily implementable approach for inferring trial-by-trial measures of computational model parameters in order to link these measures to neural mechanisms.
Second-order guidance, a novel mechanism by which an initial guidance cue controls expression of a second guidance receptor, is required for precise refinement of axon trajectories during PNS development.
Single-cell RNA sequencing resolves inter- and intra-population heterogeneity, identifies rare cell types, and reconstructs specification trajectories during early neurogenesis of the mouse cerebellum.
A periosteal Bmp2 signaling center couples bone length to bone width during development and must be reactivated by clinical bone anabolic therapies to reduce fracture risk and accelerate fracture repair.
Tissue damage induces a reversible cell cycle arrest in G2, which promotes survival and mitogenic signals to facilitate tissue regeneration but drives senescence-like phenotypes under chronic stress conditions.
Targeted recordings from subcortical projection neurons in the auditory cortex reveal two cell classes with distinct signatures of sensory processing and different patterns of local and long-range connectivity.
Long noncoding RNA Norad performs an essential function in mammalian physiology by inhibiting the activity of PUMILIO RNA binding proteins, thereby suppressing a multi-system degenerative phenotype resembling premature aging.
Using iPSCs as a model to study neurodevelopmental differences between human and nonhuman primates lays the groundwork for understanding aspects of human brain evolution and neurological disease susceptibility.
The Real-Time Experimental Control with Graphical User Interface (REC-GUI) framework can facilitate cutting-edge neuroscience research by providing precise experimental control using high-level programming environments familiar to many experimentalists.
Decision-makers are able to intentionally control neural excitability to strategically bias sensory evidence accumulation towards the decision bound that maximizes reward within a given ecological context.
A systematic high-throughput neurohistological and computational pipeline for marmoset which establishes a foundational setup in brain mapping and circuit tracing to support current and emerging research in primate studies.
By inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, HIV-1 Vpu exerts much broader immunosuppressive effects than previously anticipated and may be an important determinant of chronic inflammation in HIV-1 infected individuals.
The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes spreads infection using a two-tiered strategy, where most bacteria spread locally but a few 'pioneers' move further, increasing the likelihood of a persistent infection.
Cryo-EM structures of heparin-induced tau filaments differ from those observed in neurodegenerative disease, illustrating their structural versatility, and prompting questions about the relevance of in vitro amyloid models.
The MondoA transcription factor localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane where it coordinates an adaptive transcriptional response to elevated cellular energy represented by high cytoplasmic glucose and high mitochondrial ATP.
Genetic change among enzyme orthologous with similar phenotypic properties can cause substantial differences in evolutionary response to a new enzyme function in terms of their molecular and fitness outcomes.
Correlative microscopy and electron cryo-tomography on apoptotic HeLa cells reveal remodeling of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, Bax cluster ultrastructure and ATP synthase reorganization in ruptured mitochondria.
Phototrophic growth laws are elucidated by combining computational modeling and experiments for quantitative evaluation of cellular physiology, morphology and proteome allocation across a wide range of light conditions.
Nramp-family transporters adapt a common fold to a novel mechanism in which the spatial and temporal separation of like-charge transition metal and proton co-substrates circumvents the expected electrostatic repulsion.
In the context of an organism's ecology, physiology, and macroevolutionary history, inheritance and gene loss can yield emergent patterns of trait variability that give the appearance of gene acquisition.