June 2017

Research articles

    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Human embryonic lung epithelial tips are multipotent progenitors that can be expanded in vitro as long-term self-renewing organoids

    Marko Z Nikolić et al.
    Improved characterisation of human embryonic lung development highlights human-mouse differences and facilitates the development of defined culture conditions for the expansion of self-renewing, multipotent human lung epithelial progenitor cells.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Moderate nucleotide diversity in the Atlantic herring is associated with a low mutation rate

    Chungang Feng et al.
    The Atlantic herring has the lowest mutation rate yet estimated in a vertebrate species and this partially explains its moderate nucleotide diversity given the large population size.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Meru couples planar cell polarity with apical-basal polarity during asymmetric cell division

    Jennifer J Banerjee et al.
    Meru is a factor that provides tissue-specific information to the core polarity machinery by linking planar to apical-basal polarity in asymmetrically dividing sensory organ precursors.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Proximal clustering between BK and CaV1.3 channels promotes functional coupling and BK channel activation at low voltage

    Oscar Vivas et al.
    Super-resolution imaging reveals a novel multi-channel arrangement that explains how big potassium (BK) channel activation closely tracks the opening of low-voltage-activated L-type calcium channels.
    1. Cell Biology

    ESCRTs function directly on the lysosome membrane to downregulate ubiquitinated lysosomal membrane proteins

    Lu Zhu et al.
    The lysosome membrane is a new functional location for the ESCRTs in yeast.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortex-dependent recovery of unassisted hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal cord injury in adult rats

    Anitha Manohar et al.
    After complete spinal transection in adult rats, careful combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies create a novel cortical sensorimotor circuit that may bypass the lesion through biomechanical coupling, allowing animals to recover unassisted hindlimb locomotion.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Pharmacological evidence for a metabotropic glutamate receptor heterodimer in neuronal cells

    David Moreno Delgado et al.
    Innovative approaches were used to identify the specific pharmacological properties of heterodimeric metabotropic glutamate receptors composed of mGlu2 and mGlu4 subunits, and reveal their existence in a neuronal cell line and in perforant path terminals.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Non-Canonical G-quadruplexes cause the hCEB1 minisatellite instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Aurèle Piazza et al.
    A combination of genetics and biophysical approaches identifies an overlapping set of sequences that form non-canonical G-quadruplex structures in vitro and induce genomic instability in cells.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Systematic bacterialization of yeast genes identifies a near-universally swappable pathway

    Aashiq H Kachroo et al.
    Despite billions of years of divergence, a majority of prokaryotic genes can functionally replace their essential eukaryotic counterparts, revealing broad preservation of ancestral functions and identifying heme biosynthesis as a near-universally swappable pathway.
    1. Cell Biology

    The complex of TRIP-Br1 and XIAP ubiquitinates and degrades multiple adenylyl cyclase isoforms

    Wenbao Hu et al.
    XIAP/TRIP-Br1-mediated degradation of multiple adenylyl cyclase isoforms is a previously unrecognised general mechanism for controlling adenylyl cyclase expression and the homeostasis of cAMP signalling.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Corrupted adipose tissue endogenous myelopoiesis initiates diet-induced metabolic disease

    Elodie Luche et al.
    Adipose tissue derived hematopoietic stem cells from diabetic mice transplanted into healthy animals on a normal diet increase inflammation in adipose tissue and trigger the development of a diabetic state in the recipient animals.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: Inhibition of BET recruitment to chromatin as an effective treatment for MLL-fusion leukaemia

    Xiaochuan Shan et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study has reproduced important parts of the original paper.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Olfactory receptor neurons use gain control and complementary kinetics to encode intermittent odorant stimuli

    Srinivas Gorur-Shandilya et al.
    Olfactory receptor neurons adapt to odorant mean and variance and use complementary kinetics to preserve the timing of odorant encounters, despite adaptation slowing down transduction.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure and in situ organisation of the Pyrococcus furiosus archaellum machinery

    Bertram Daum et al.
    Using both electron cryo-tomography and helical reconstruction, the first structure of the entire archaellum machinery with an assembled filament has been determined, providing the structural basis for our understanding of archaeal motility.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Lineage commitment of embryonic cells involves MEK1-dependent clearance of pluripotency regulator Ventx2

    Pierluigi Scerbo et al.
    Degradation and asymmetric inheritance during cell division of a core pluripotency regulator contributes to lineage commitment in the early Xenopus embryo.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Affimer proteins are versatile and renewable affinity reagents

    Christian Tiede et al.
    The Affimer technology represents renewable binding reagents for molecular biology, which provides research scientists and industry with an alternative to the recently criticised use of animal-produced antibodies.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: The common feature of leukemia-associated IDH1 and IDH2 mutations is a neomorphic enzyme activity converting alpha-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate

    Megan Reed Showalter et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study has reproduced important parts of the original paper.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Poly(A) tail length regulates PABPC1 expression to tune translation in the heart

    Sandip Chorghade et al.
    A poly(A) tail-based regulatory mechanism dynamically controls PABPC1 protein synthesis in cardiomyocytes and thereby titrates cellular translation in response to developmental and hypertrophic cues.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Parallel evolution of influenza across multiple spatiotemporal scales

    Katherine S Xue et al.
    Influenza evolution within infected hosts recapitulates many evolutionary dynamics observed at the global scale.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cryo-electron tomography reveals novel features of a viral RNA replication compartment

    Kenneth J Ertel et al.
    Cryo-electron tomography unveils striking new structural components of positive-strand virus RNA replication compartments, greatly advancing mechanistic insights into the structure, assembly, function and control of these critical complexes.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rv3723/LucA coordinates fatty acid and cholesterol uptake in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Evgeniya V Nazarova et al.
    The integral membrane protein LucA facilitates fatty acid and cholesterol uptake into Mycobacterium tuberculosis by stabilizing the Mce1 and Mce4 transporters, respectively, and Mce1 functions as a fatty acid transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Semen amyloids participate in spermatozoa selection and clearance

    Nadia R Roan et al.
    Ex vivo characterization of the interaction of human sperm with semen factors reveals that semen amyloids, previously discovered due to their ability to enhance HIV infection, serve a physiological function by promoting disposal of the defective sperm.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Organ sculpting by patterned extracellular matrix stiffness

    Justin Crest et al.
    Direct measurement of finely patterned mechanical properties in a native basement membrane demonstrate how force asymmetries arising from this extracellular matrix, rather than from cells, can precisely sculpt a tissue.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Simultaneous measurement of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and nucleosome phasing in single cells

    Sebastian Pott
    A new method that measures multiple aspects of chromatin organization in single cells has a possible application to study regulatory processes in heterogeneous samples.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Tandem hnRNP A1 RNA recognition motifs act in concert to repress the splicing of survival motor neuron exon 7

    Irene Beusch et al.
    The structural model of hnRNP A1 shows that it can bind with both RRMs to RNA, which is shown to be relevant for the SMN2 exon 7 splicing mechanism in vivo.
    1. Neuroscience

    The Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger NCKX4 is required for efficient cone-mediated vision

    Frans Vinberg et al.
    Molecular, genetic, and functional analysis is used to show that the olfactory Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger NCKX4 is expressed in cone photoreceptors and is critical for the wide operating range and high temporal resolution of cone-mediated vision.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs

    Sungki Hong et al.
    LARP1 turns off and on the translation of an essential class of mRNAs by acting as a key effecter and regulator for mTORC1.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Serine ADP-ribosylation reversal by the hydrolase ARH3

    Pietro Fontana et al.
    ARH3 is an enzyme that hydrolyses serine ADP-ribosylation, a recently uncovered post-translational protein modification.
    1. Neuroscience

    Breaking down hierarchies of decision-making in primates

    Alexandre Hyafil, Rubén Moreno-Bote
    Computational modeling of behavioral and neural data from monkeys points towards a flat decision-making process in which the brain considers all possible final outcomes simultaneously.
    1. Neuroscience

    Serial, parallel and hierarchical decision making in primates

    Ariel Zylberberg et al.
    A comparison between hierarchical and flat models of decision-making refutes flat models because they lack flexibility and are not supported by behavioral and neural data.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Somatostatin binds to the human amyloid β peptide and favors the formation of distinct oligomers

    Hansen Wang et al.
    The cyclic neuropeptide somatostatin binds to human Aβ1-42 through an interface that critically relies on a specific tryptophan, thereby blocking the propensity of Aβ to aggregate, a critical step in the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability

    Jianyang Du et al.
    Activating ASIC channels in the amygdala makes a single reminder more effective at rendering consolidated fear memories labile and susceptible to modification.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Exploiting CRISPR-Cas to manipulate Enterococcus faecalis populations

    Karthik Hullahalli et al.
    Conflicts between CRISPR-Cas systems and antibiotic resistance plasmids can be exploited to selectively eliminate antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecalis populations.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    The Anopheles gambiae 2La chromosome inversion is associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum in Africa

    Michelle M Riehle et al.
    A common chromosome inversion in African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae) is associated with differences in malaria infection, adult resting behavior and ecology, and may aid the most efficient vectors to evade malaria control.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Extensive horizontal gene transfer in cheese-associated bacteria

    Kevin S Bonham et al.
    The identification of horizontally transferred genes, and commonly transferred functions, can provide a window into the selective forces acting on species within an ecosystem.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    MPI depletion enhances O-GlcNAcylation of p53 and suppresses the Warburg effect

    Nataly Shtraizent et al.
    Mannose phosphate isomerase is a metabolic enzyme regulating cell survival in both embryonic and cancer cells.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Genetic specification of left–right asymmetry in the diaphragm muscles and their motor innervation

    Camille Charoy et al.
    Analysis of embryonic mouse diaphragm reveals muscle and nerve left–right asymmetries set by a Nodal-dependent genetic cascade, which imprints different molecular signatures to left and right motoneurons that shape their innervation pattern.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Pilot study of large-scale production of mutant pigs by ENU mutagenesis

    Tang Hai et al.
    ENU mutagenesis in pigs is an efficient strategy to introduce mutations at the whole-genome level and mutants have been generated on a large scale for agricultural production and biomedical research.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Model for a novel membrane envelope in a filamentous hyperthermophilic virus

    Peter Kasson et al.
    A novel membrane, formed by a monolayer of lipids in a U-shaped conformation, envelops a virus that can withstand extremes of temperature and acidity.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Three dimensional reconstruction of energy stores for jumping in planthoppers and froghoppers from confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Igor Siwanowicz, Malcolm Burrows
    Three dimensional reconstructions of the mechanical energy stores of jumping insects reveal how the miniaturized components interact and function.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Translation repression via modulation of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein in the inflammatory response

    Xu Zhang et al.
    The RNA-binding protein, Zfp36, which is critical for resolving inflammation, inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines via modulation of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    wtf genes are prolific dual poison-antidote meiotic drivers

    Nicole L Nuckolls et al.
    Selfish wtf meiotic drive genes use overlapping transcripts to encode both a trans-acting poison to kill gametes that do not inherit the gene and a gamete-autonomous antidote to specifically rescue the gametes that do.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Neuroscience

    Microbiota regulates visceral pain in the mouse

    Pauline Luczynski et al.
    Determining that microbiota-deficient mice have increased visceral pain, which can be reversed by restoring microbiota, may lead to novel microbial-based strategies for disorders associated with visceral pain.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The laminar organization of the Drosophila ellipsoid body is semaphorin-dependent and prevents the formation of ectopic synaptic connections

    Xiaojun Xie et al.
    The organization of layered/laminated axon projections in specific regions of the fruitfly central brain is regulated by short-range repulsive guidance and is critical for local inhibitory circuit formation and function.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    A large gene family in fission yeast encodes spore killers that subvert Mendel’s law

    Wen Hu et al.
    Two members of a large fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) gene family are shown to act as spore killers that enhance their own transmission into progenies by impeding the maturation of spores not inheriting them.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Reciprocal analyses in zebrafish and medaka reveal that harnessing the immune response promotes cardiac regeneration

    Shih-Lei Lai et al.
    Timely macrophage recruitment is essential for neovascularization and neutrophil clearance during cardiac regeneration.
    1. Neuroscience

    Antagonistic modulation of NPY/AgRP and POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus by noradrenalin

    Lars Paeger et al.
    The coordinated differential modulation of satiety signaling POMC- and hunger signaling AgRP- neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus assigns an important role to noradrenalin to promote feeding.
    1. Neuroscience

    Emergence of visually-evoked reward expectation signals in dopamine neurons via the superior colliculus in V1 lesioned monkeys

    Norihiro Takakuwa et al.
    The subcortical visual pathway through the midbrain superior colliculus is responsible for visually evoked Pavlovian conditioning and dopamine neuron responses with predicted value in monkeys, which remained after lesioning V1.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Direct measurement of conformational strain energy in protofilaments curling outward from disassembling microtubule tips

    Jonathan W Driver et al.
    The protofilaments that curl outward from a disassembling microtubule tip carry a large amount of strain energy and they can drive movement with an efficiency similar to conventional motor proteins.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Live tracking of moving samples in confocal microscopy for vertically grown roots

    Daniel von Wangenheim et al.
    A set of tools to image and track growing plant roots in optimized growing conditions within a vertical stage confocal microscope will open up new possibilities in research of root development.
    1. Neuroscience

    Visual field map clusters in human frontoparietal cortex

    Wayne E Mackey et al.
    Topographic maps of space in frontal and parietal cortex are organized into clusters, similar to visual cortex, where multiple maps of polar angle share a confluent fovea.
    1. Developmental Biology

    SOX2 regulates acinar cell development in the salivary gland

    Elaine Emmerson et al.
    Establishment of the acinar lineage in the salivary gland requires SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mechanosensory neurons control the timing of spinal microcircuit selection during locomotion

    Steven Knafo et al.
    Bioluminescence monitoring and selective silencing in zebrafish larva reveal a novel sensorimotor circuit modulating speed in the moving spinal cord.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural mechanism of ATP-independent transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I

    Yan Han et al.
    Structures of RNA polymerase I transcription machinery revealed a ratcheting motion within the complex in coordination with three distinct functional states, implicating a novel mechanism for promoter bubble opening in the absence of ATP hydrolysis.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Plant Biology

    The genome and phenome of the green alga Chloroidium sp. UTEX 3007 reveal adaptive traits for desert acclimatization

    David R Nelson et al.
    Euryhaline green algae utilise intracellular osmoprotectant modulation and specialised redox enzyme networks to successfully inhabit a desert coastline.
    1. Neuroscience

    Chronic lithium treatment elicits its antimanic effects via BDNF-TrkB dependent synaptic downscaling

    Erinn S Gideons et al.
    The antimanic action of lithium requires BDNF-TrkB signaling coupled with enhanced dynamin-dependent endocytosis of AMPARs as a potential mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    9Å structure of the COPI coat reveals that the Arf1 GTPase occupies two contrasting molecular environments

    Svetlana O Dodonova et al.
    A molecular model of the assembled COPI coat, determined by cryo-electron tomography of an in vitro reconstituted budding reaction, reveals details of interactions mediating coat assembly and shows the binding site of ArfGAP2.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ionotropic Receptor-dependent moist and dry cells control hygrosensation in Drosophila

    Zachary A Knecht et al.
    The neurons and receptors mediating moist air detection in Drosophila are identified, revealing that moist and dry air detection depend on overlapping Ionotropic Receptors and that these pathways are both critical for hygrosensation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks occur in Tetrahymena, and require Topoisomerase II and Spo11

    Takahiko Akematsu et al.
    The first genetic compelling evidence for post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks and its relation to chromatin remodeling in haploid pronuclei is shown.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural mechanisms of social learning in the female mouse

    Yuan Gao et al.
    After mating, female mice form a sensory memory of the stud male's pheromones that correlates with striking changes in responsiveness of the specific neural ensemble activated by her partner.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Full length RTN3 regulates turnover of tubular endoplasmic reticulum via selective autophagy

    Paolo Grumati et al.
    Full length RTN3 homodimerization mediates ER tubules fragmentation and their subsequent delivery to lysosome.
    1. Neuroscience

    A subset of ipRGCs regulates both maturation of the circadian clock and segregation of retinogeniculate projections in mice

    Kylie S Chew et al.
    A single subpopulation of photoreceptors constitutes a shared node in the neural networks that regulate light-dependent maturation of the circadian clock and light-independent refinement of retinal ganglion cell projections to the brain.
    1. Ecology

    Sexual selection gradients change over time in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    Jeroen NA Hoffer et al.
    The quantification of sexual selection reveals that it is important to consider the chosen time frame of measurement as well as the sexual system.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Reciprocal regulation of ARPP-16 by PKA and MAST3 kinases provides a cAMP-regulated switch in protein phosphatase 2A inhibition

    Veronica Musante et al.
    A complex interplay between MAST3 and PKA protein kinases and the regulatory protein ARPP-16 allows cAMP to control the activity of protein phosphatase 2A.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Physical limits of flow sensing in the left-right organizer

    Rita R Ferreira et al.
    Large-scale in vivo imaging of the zebrafish left-right organizer (Kupffer's vesicle) combined with fluid dynamics calculations allows to quantitatively test the possible flow detection mechanisms and supports the flow transport of chemical signals as the mechanism of side determination.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dye-enhanced visualization of rat whiskers for behavioral studies

    Jacopo Rigosa et al.
    A simple fluorescent dye method allows visualization of whiskers, facilitating studies of rodent tactile behavior.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Effects of myosin variants on interacting-heads motif explain distinct hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy phenotypes

    Lorenzo Alamo et al.
    Mapping the locations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy gene variants onto the three-dimensional structures of contractile proteins revealed that these disrupt protein interactions are critical for normal cardiac relaxation and efficient energy usage.
    1. Neuroscience

    Presynaptic LRP4 promotes synapse number and function of excitatory CNS neurons

    Timothy J Mosca et al.
    The cell surface receptor LRP4, long recognized for postsynaptic functions, also plays a role as a presynaptic determinant of synapse formation by functioning through a downstream kinase pathway.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Signalling through AMPA receptors on oligodendrocyte precursors promotes myelination by enhancing oligodendrocyte survival

    Eleni Kougioumtzidou et al.
    Electrically active axons in white matter stimulate their own myelination by releasing glutamate, which signals through AMPA-type glutamate receptors on nearby oligodendrocyte precursors and newly-differentiating oligodendrocytes, enhancing their survival and hence their ability to myelinate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Freezing suppression by oxytocin in central amygdala allows alternate defensive behaviours and mother-pup interactions

    Elizabeth Rickenbacher et al.
    Oxytocin in the amygdala suppresses freezing of mothers when exposed to a threat in the presence of their offspring, allowing for pup protection and transmission of information about danger from mothers to pups.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cerebellar re-encoding of self-generated head movements

    Guillaume P Dugué et al.
    The cerebellum encodes self-generated head rotations in a head posture-dependent manner, providing in particular a representation of how the head rotates about axes referenced relative to gravity.
    1. Cell Biology

    Homeostatic control of START through negative feedback between Cln3-Cdk1 and Rim15/Greatwall kinase in budding yeast

    Nicolas Talarek et al.
    Inhibition of phosphatases by kinases develops Whi5 phosphorylation and cell cycle function in low cyclin-dependent kinase activity.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A novel twelve class fluctuation test reveals higher than expected mutation rates for influenza A viruses

    Matthew D Pauly et al.
    A new assay for specific mutational classes provides preciseestimates of the mutation rates and mutational bias for influenza A viruses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Analysis of SUMO1-conjugation at synapses

    James A Daniel et al.
    Analyses using His6-HA-SUMO1 and SUMO1 KO mice indicate that SUMO1 modification of synaptic proteins is either absent or cannot be detected in brain and cultured neurons.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Glycolytic reliance promotes anabolism in photoreceptors

    Yashodhan Chinchore et al.
    Aerobic glycolysis in rod photoreceptors of adult mice is regulated by allostery and FGF signaling and is required for maintaining outer segments.
    1. Neuroscience

    Co-agonists differentially tune GluN2B-NMDA receptor trafficking at hippocampal synapses

    Joana S Ferreira et al.
    D-serine has a major role in the regulation of NMDA receptors not only contributing to its activation as the receptors co-agonist, but also by regulating specifically GluN2B-NMDA receptor trafficking and synaptic content at developing hippocampal synapses.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Cyclophilin A-regulated ubiquitination is critical for RIG-I-mediated antiviral immune responses

    Wei Liu et al.
    CypA boosts RIG-I-mediated antiviral immune responses via enhancing K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and inhibiting K48-linked ubiquitination of MAVS.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Caspase-8 contributes to angiogenesis and chemotherapy resistance in glioblastoma

    Giulia Fianco et al.
    Retention of Caspase-8 confers a selective advantage to glioblastoma and represents a novel therapeutic target.
    1. Neuroscience

    MeCP2 regulates Tet1-catalyzed demethylation, CTCF binding, and learning-dependent alternative splicing of the BDNF gene in Turtle

    Zhaoqing Zheng et al.
    Loss of MeCP2 function negatively impacts Tet1 and CTCF binding thereby negatively impacting learning-dependent DNA methylation and alternative splicing regulation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1

    Justin M Jenson et al.
    Short peptides that bind tightly to anti-apoptotic protein Bfl-1 but not other Bcl-2 family members provide a tool for diagnosing cancer cell survival mechanisms and a lead for developing new therapeutics.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Different TCR-induced T lymphocyte responses are potentiated by stiffness with variable sensitivity

    Michael Saitakis et al.
    Multiple functions of human T lymphocytes are shown to be potentiated within a wide range of physiological cell and tissue rigidities.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    ER retention is imposed by COPII protein sorting and attenuated by 4-phenylbutyrate

    Wenfu Ma et al.
    The COPII coat protein, in association with p24 machinery molecules, actively excludes misfolded and resident proteins from endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles.
    1. Neuroscience

    Contributions of local speech encoding and functional connectivity to audio-visual speech perception

    Bruno L Giordano et al.
    Seeing a speaker's face aids comprehension by facilitating functional connectivity between the temporal and frontal lobes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Collagen induces activation of DDR1 through lateral dimer association and phosphorylation between dimers

    Victoria Juskaite et al.
    Ligand binding induces DDR1 kinase activity through recruitment of DDR1 receptors into signalling clusters in which phosphorylation occurs across different dimers.
    1. Cell Biology

    Distinct Akt phosphorylation states are required for insulin regulated Glut4 and Glut1-mediated glucose uptake

    Muheeb Beg et al.
    Distinct phosphorylations of Akt determine the regulation of glucose uptake into fat and epithelial cells, revealing unexpected specialization in both Akt activation and its downstream control of glucose metabolism.
    1. Neuroscience

    Attentional modulation of neuronal variability in circuit models of cortex

    Tatjana Kanashiro et al.
    Attention reduces noise correlations through enhancing inhibitory feedback in cortical networks.
    1. Cell Biology

    Niemann-Pick type C proteins promote microautophagy by expanding raft-like membrane domains in the yeast vacuole

    Takuma Tsuji et al.
    Sterol transport by Niemann-Pick type C proteins induces the expansion of raft-like domains in the yeast vacuole, enabling engulfment of lipid droplets by microautophagy.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Evidence from a natural experiment that malaria parasitemia is pathogenic in retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria

    Dylan S Small et al.
    The sickle cell trait strongly protects against not only retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria but also retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria, providing evidence that malarial parasites also contribute to retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria and are not innocent bystanders.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Inter-Fork Strand Annealing causes genomic deletions during the termination of DNA replication

    Carl A Morrow et al.
    The discovery of a mechanism that causes DNA deletions during non-canonical DNA replication termination is described.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Transcriptional networks specifying homeostatic and inflammatory programs of gene expression in human aortic endothelial cells

    Nicholas T Hogan et al.
    An integrative genome-wide approach supports a direct and collaborative role of ETS and AP-1 transcription factors in maintaining endothelial cell-specific and anti-inflammatory gene expression programs.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Loss of adult skeletal muscle stem cells drives age-related neuromuscular junction degeneration

    Wenxuan Liu et al.
    Building on previous work (Liu et al., 2015), it is shown that depletion or rescue of adult skeletal muscle stem cells is sufficient to induce or attenuate age-associated neuromuscular junction deterioration respectively.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Mice deficient of Myc super-enhancer region reveal differential control mechanism between normal and pathological growth

    Kashyap Dave et al.
    A tumor-specific regulatory region has been identified upstream of the Myc oncogene.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Repeated losses of PRDM9-directed recombination despite the conservation of PRDM9 across vertebrates

    Zachary Baker et al.
    PRDM9 is widely conserved across vertebrates yet has been lost numerous times, as has its role in directing meiotic recombination.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Crosstalk within a functional INO80 complex dimer regulates nucleosome sliding

    Oliver Willhoft et al.
    Regulation of the INO80 chromatin remodelling complex differs from those identified in other chromatin remodellers and involves a C-terminal domain of the Ino80 subunit.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Palaeogenomes of Eurasian straight-tusked elephants challenge the current view of elephant evolution

    Matthias Meyer et al.
    DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene reveal that the extinct Eurasian straight-tusked elephants were closely related to today's African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) in Africa.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Prosurvival long noncoding RNA PINCR regulates a subset of p53 targets in human colorectal cancer cells by binding to Matrin 3

    Ritu Chaudhary et al.
    Functional and mechanistic analysis of p53-regulated lncRNA PINCR and its interacting RNA-binding protein Matrin 3 uncovers context-dependent regulation of specific p53 target genes during DNA damage.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Transcription factor TFCP2L1 patterns cells in the mouse kidney collecting ducts

    Max Werth et al.
    A combination of genetic and molecular assays revealed that transcription factor Tfcp2l1 provides the basis for cell patterning and physiologic coordination in kidney collecting ducts.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Diverse stimuli engage different neutrophil extracellular trap pathways

    Elaine F Kenny et al.
    NETs induction, a central component of the innate immune response, utilises assorted signalling pathways as demonstrated through the analysis of healthy and patient neutrophils treated with five distinct stimuli.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Synchronized HIV assembly by tunable PIP2 changes reveals PIP2 requirement for stable Gag anchoring

    Frauke Mücksch et al.
    PI(4,5)P2 plays a much broader role during the HIV-1 particle assembly process than assumed; it is indispensable not only for recruitment of Gag to the plasma membrane but also for the maintenance of Gag assemblies.
    1. Ecology

    Experimental and observational studies find contrasting responses of soil nutrients to climate change

    ZY Yuan et al.
    Experimental manipulations and environmental gradients, the two common-used approaches, are not at all comparable for predicting the impacts of climate change on nutrient cycling.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    Bin Qi et al.
    The availability of an essential dietary micronutrient is evaluated by an intestinal signaling system that in turn regulates food-uptake and response behaviors by modulating protease expression.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Substrate transport and anion permeation proceed through distinct pathways in glutamate transporters

    Mary Hongying Cheng et al.
    Novel evidence on the molecular determinants of the dual function, anion permeation and substrate transport, of excitatory amino acid transporters opens avenues toward illuminating how these transporters regulate synaptic function and contribute to neurological conditions.