September 2016

Research articles

    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Dynamic control of gene regulatory logic by seemingly redundant transcription factors

    Zohreh AkhavanAghdam et al.
    Seemingly redundant homologous transcription factors play distinct and cooperative roles in time-dependent combinatorial gene regulation and enable dynamic control of heterogeneity in the gene responses to environmental stresses.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Temporal proteomic analysis of HIV infection reveals remodelling of the host phosphoproteome by lentiviral Vif variants

    Edward JD Greenwood et al.
    A comprehensive whole cell proteomic map describing expression time courses of >6,500 viral and cellular proteins during HIV infection identifies Vif-dependent antagonism of key cellular phosphatase PP2A.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores function of IKs channels with diverse long QT mutations

    Sara I Liin et al.
    Fatty acid analogues are interesting prototype compounds that may inspire the development of future IKs channel activators to treat patients with long QT syndrome caused by diverse arrhythmia-causing mutations in the IKs channel.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Ongoing resolution of duplicate gene functions shapes the diversification of a metabolic network

    Meihua Christina Kuang et al.
    Recent functional changes in ancient duplicate genes led to the evolution of divergent regulatory and metabolic strategies by the GALactose gene networks of two yeast species.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    The Cac1 subunit of histone chaperone CAF-1 organizes CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture and tetramerizes histones

    Wallace H Liu et al.
    Biophysical and biochemical approaches reveal new insights into the architecture of CAF-1 and the unique mechanism by which CAF-1 tetramerizes histones H3/H4.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Motility and microtubule depolymerization mechanisms of the Kinesin-8 motor, KIF19A

    Doudou Wang et al.
    The structural and functional analysis demonstrates the mechanism of dual functional, motility and microtubule depolymerization in a unique motor, KIF19A.
    1. Immunology

    Critical roles of mTOR Complex 1 and 2 for T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center responses

    Jialong Yang et al.
    Genetic ablation of Raptor and Rictor in mice revealed critical roles of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center responses.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Folded gastrulation and T48 drive the evolution of coordinated mesoderm internalization in flies

    Silvia Urbansky et al.
    Functional recapitulation of a likely evolutionary gain in gene expression shows that two genes are sufficient to switch mesoderm cell internalization from stochastic cell ingression to coordinated epithelial invagination.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human intracranial recordings link suppressed transients rather than 'filling-in' to perceptual continuity across blinks

    Tal Golan et al.
    The brain ensures that blinks do not disrupt vision by deleting signals that represent discontinuities in visual input, rather than by recreating the missing input.
    1. Plant Biology

    A non canonical subtilase attenuates the transcriptional activation of defence responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Irene Serrano et al.
    An atypical subtilase protein, resulting from an alternative splicing event, mediates retention of the defence related-transcription factor MYB30 at endosomal vesicles, thus repressing Arabidopsis antibacterial immunity.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Quantitative imaging reveals real-time Pou5f3–Nanog complexes driving dorsoventral mesendoderm patterning in zebrafish

    Mireia Perez-Camps et al.
    Different combinations of the transcription factors Pou5f3, Nanog and Sox32 form complexes to drive dorsoventral mesendoderm patterning in zebrafish.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Plant Biology

    Arabidopsis FORGETTER1 mediates stress-induced chromatin memory through nucleosome remodeling

    Krzysztof Brzezinka et al.
    Environmentally-mediated gene induction is extended beyond the duration of an external cue by sustaining a nucleosome-depleted chromatin structure.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synchronized excitability in a network enables generation of internal neuronal sequences

    Yingxue Wang et al.
    Hippocampal sharp-wave sequences, which are considered the key phenomenon underlying consolidation of episodic memory, are preserved even after an animal’s memory is impaired.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Unconventional secretory processing diversifies neuronal ion channel properties

    Cyril Hanus et al.
    Imaging, quantitative immunoblotting and mass spectrometry reveal that hundreds of surface-expressed neuronal membrane proteins exhibit atypical glycosylation profiles, resulting in changes in protein half-life and synaptic responses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Amygdala-ventral striatum circuit activation decreases long-term fear

    Susana S Correia et al.
    Behavior- or optogenetic-driven activation of a basolateral amygdala projection to the nucleus accumbens enhances infralimbic cortex activity and long-term fear extinction.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep time

    Beatrice Demarchi et al.
    A chemically unstable ostrich eggshell peptide survives for at least 3.8 million years at the equator, stabilized by strong mineral interactions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Accelerated remyelination during inflammatory demyelination prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery

    Feng Mei et al.
    Uncoupling the immunological response and degenerative processes from possible repair demonstrates that remyelination prevents axonal loss after inflammatory demyelination.
    1. Neuroscience

    Recruitment of inhibition and excitation across mouse visual cortex depends on the hierarchy of interconnecting areas

    Rinaldo David D'Souza et al.
    The relative recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neurons by cortico-cortical interareal pathways depends on the hierarchy of areas and the laminar location of the neurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hippocampal neurogenesis enhancers promote forgetting of remote fear memory after hippocampal reactivation by retrieval

    Rie Ishikawa et al.
    Forgetting of remote fear memory is promoted by increased hippocampal neurogenesis only after hippocampal reactivation by long time memory retrieval.
    1. Neuroscience

    Secretagogin expression delineates functionally-specialized populations of striatal parvalbumin-containing interneurons

    Farid N Garas et al.
    In rodents and primates, there are two subtypes of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons that provide novel substrates for selective inhibition in the striatum.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee neural progenitors during cerebral cortex development

    Felipe Mora-Bermúdez et al.
    Neural progenitors in humans and chimpanzee organoids show remarkably similar cellular and molecular parameters, but metaphase is longer during human mitosis.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Modelling TFE renal cell carcinoma in mice reveals a critical role of WNT signaling

    Alessia Calcagnì et al.
    Kidney-specific TFEB overexpression in transgenic mice closely recapitulates features observed in both TFEB- and TFE3-mediated human kidney tumors.
    1. Neuroscience

    A visual circuit uses complementary mechanisms to support transient and sustained pupil constriction

    William Thomas Keenan et al.
    A single class of neurons switches both its sensory detection and neurotransmission mechanisms to support transient or sustained physiological output.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Automated structure refinement of macromolecular assemblies from cryo-EM maps using Rosetta

    Ray Yu-Ruei Wang et al.
    Extensive benchmarking reveals that errors made when manually building models into near-atomic-resolution cryoEM density may automatically be corrected using an improved Rosetta-based structure refinement method.
    1. Cell Biology

    Thrombospondin expression in myofibers stabilizes muscle membranes

    Davy Vanhoutte et al.
    Thrombospondin proteins regulate vesicular trafficking of integrins and other membrane attachment complex proteins to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle, which provides greater stability and resistance to muscular dystrophy.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cross-frequency synchronization connects networks of fast and slow oscillations during visual working memory maintenance

    Felix Siebenhühner et al.
    Cross-frequency synchronization of neuronal oscillations in visual and attentional brain systems predicts human working memory performance.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Lysosomal membrane glycoproteins bind cholesterol and contribute to lysosomal cholesterol export

    Jian Li, Suzanne R Pfeffer
    LAMP proteins, the major glycoproteins of the lysosome membrane, bind cholesterol directly and specifically, and interact with NPC1 and NPC2 proteins as part of the lysosomal cholesterol export process.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Bacterial flagellar capping proteins adopt diverse oligomeric states

    Sandra Postel et al.
    The first high-resolution structure of a bacterial flagellar cap protein, FliD, reveals new insights into the assembly of bacterial flagella.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Upregulation of neurovascular communication through filamin abrogation promotes ectopic periventricular neurogenesis

    Shauna L Houlihan et al.
    Analyses based on the mouse model of a human genetic disease reveal that the neuron production of cerebral tissue can be boosted by escalated signaling between neural progenitors and the vasculature.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Wnt proteins can direct planar cell polarity in vertebrate ectoderm

    Chih-Wen Chu, Sergei Y Sokol
    Vertebrate early ectoderm displays planar polarity manifested by a fluorescent sensor and this polarity can be instructed by Wnt ligands.
    1. Neuroscience

    A robust activity marking system for exploring active neuronal ensembles

    Andreas T Sørensen et al.
    A new system for tagging activated neuronal population offers multiple advantages over existing systems based on immediate early genes, including greater sensitivity and specificity, and suitability for easy application in species other than mice.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Pask integrates hormonal signaling with histone modification via Wdr5 phosphorylation to drive myogenesis

    Chintan K Kikani et al.
    PASK phosphorylates Wdr5 to trigger epigenetic changes at lineage specifying promoters resulting in transcriptional derepression and differentiation of stem or progenitor cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    Boundary cells restrict dystroglycan trafficking to control basement membrane sliding during tissue remodeling

    Shelly TH McClatchey et al.
    A Notch-mediated signaling pathway upregulates a Sec14-GOLD phosphopholipid binding protein that promotes a morphogenetic process important in tissue remodeling and renewal.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Compact and highly active next-generation libraries for CRISPR-mediated gene repression and activation

    Max A Horlbeck et al.
    Integrated modeling of sgRNA positioning, chromatin accessibility, and sequence features enables accurate prediction of effective target sites for CRISPR-mediated transcriptional modulation and design of highly active libraries for genome-scale genetic screens.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    A novel optical microscope for imaging large embryos and tissue volumes with sub-cellular resolution throughout

    Gail McConnell et al.
    A new type of microscope reveals detail of organelles inside every cell in the entirety of an intact embryo or tissue region over 100 cubic millimeters in volume.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    DAPK interacts with Patronin and the microtubule cytoskeleton in epidermal development and wound repair

    Marian Chuang et al.
    Genetic suppressor screens with C. elegans reveal a novel function for the Death Associated Protein Kinase in regulation of epithelial microtubule dynamics.
    1. Immunology

    CD301b+ dendritic cells suppress T follicular helper cells and antibody responses to protein antigens

    Yosuke Kumamoto et al.
    CD301b dendritic cells potently suppress antibody responses by limiting the activity of follicular helper T cells and germinal center B cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Loss of ZBTB20 impairs circadian output and leads to unimodal behavioral rhythms

    Zhipeng Qu et al.
    The zinc finger protein ZBTB20 is a morning and evening activity gating factor in mice.
    1. Cell Biology

    Tetherin is an exosomal tether

    James R Edgar et al.
    Blocking acidification causes endosomes to fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing exosomes that remain attached to the cell surface via the anti-viral protein tetherin.
    1. Cell Biology

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates focal adhesions at the leading edge of migrating cells

    Anjali Teckchandani, Jonathan A Cooper
    A ubiquitin E3 ligase localizes to focal adhesions at the front of migrating human cells where it regulates cytoskeletal dynamics by targeting a focal adhesion protein.
    1. Neuroscience

    Nucleophile sensitivity of Drosophila TRPA1 underlies light-induced feeding deterrence

    Eun Jo Du et al.
    Electron-donating nucleophilic compounds activate TRPA1 ion channels in fruit flies and mosquitoes, but not humans, making TRPA1 a promising target for insect repellants.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The skin is a significant but overlooked anatomical reservoir for vector-borne African trypanosomes

    Paul Capewell et al.
    African trypanosomes residing within the skin of infected humans represent an important yet overlooked transmissible parasite population that may thwart efforts to eliminate African sleeping sickness.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct combinations of variant ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate thermosensation and hygrosensation in Drosophila

    Zachary A Knecht et al.
    A combination of genetics, behavior and physiology demonstrate that cool and moisture sensing rely on overlapping combinations of sensory receptors in Drosophila.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Inference of gene regulation functions from dynamic transcriptome data

    Patrick Hillenbrand et al.
    Quantitative analysis of time-dependent transcription data elucidates the signal processing within the genetic network that regulates transcriptional cell cycle oscillations in yeast.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Avoidance of stochastic RNA interactions can be harnessed to control protein expression levels in bacteria and archaea

    Sinan Uğur Umu et al.
    Stochastic mRNA and non-coding RNA hybridisation has a major impact on protein expression.
    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Diverse fates of uracilated HIV-1 DNA during infection of myeloid lineage cells

    Erik C Hansen et al.
    Uracil/adenine base pairs in HIV-1 DNA are attacked by the uracil base excision repair machinery in macrophages, which leads to HIV restriction and viral genome diversification by transcription-associated mutagenesis.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Maintenance of age in human neurons generated by microRNA-based neuronal conversion of fibroblasts

    Christine J Huh et al.
    MicroRNA-based direct conversion of human fibroblasts to neurons is applicable to fibroblasts from donors ranging in age from neonatal to centenarian, allowing the generation of neurons that maintain the age-associated signatures of the starting fibroblasts.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    A histone H3K9M mutation traps histone methyltransferase Clr4 to prevent heterochromatin spreading

    Chun-Min Shan et al.
    A lysine-to-methionine mutation in histone H3 dominantly blocks histone H3K9 methylation by trapping its methyltransferase.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Resolving coiled shapes reveals new reorientation behaviors in C. elegans

    Onno D Broekmans et al.
    A conceptually simple algorithm can analyze previously uncharacterized 2D coiled postures of the nematode C. elegans and has uncovered new reorientation behaviors in large amplitude turns.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    GUY1 confers complete female lethality and is a strong candidate for a male-determining factor in Anopheles stephensi

    Frank Criscione et al.
    Evidence that the small GUY1 protein is a strong candidate for being a male-determining factor is provided via the establishment of Guy1 transgenic lines of mosquitoes that confer complete and stable female lethality.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Autophagy linked FYVE (Alfy/WDFY3) is required for establishing neuronal connectivity in the mammalian brain

    Joanna M Dragich et al.
    Loss of function of the selective autophagy adaptor protein Alfy/Wdfy3 leads to profound wiring defects from the forebrain through to the spinal cord, highlighting the growing importance for macroautophagy in the developing brain.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Mechanism for nuclease regulation in RecBCD

    Martin Wilkinson et al.
    DNA unwinding triggers a conformational change in the RecD subunit of E. coli RecBCD helicase-nuclease that is transferred through the RecC subunit to activate the nuclease domain of the RecB subunit.
    1. Neuroscience

    Intrinsic monitoring of learning success facilitates memory encoding via the activation of the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop

    Pablo Ripollés et al.
    Self-motivated learning in the absence of external feedback can recruit the same brain network as reward-driven learning.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Conditional deletion of WT1 in the septum transversum mesenchyme causes congenital diaphragmatic hernia in mice

    Rita Carmona et al.
    Expression of the transcription factor Wt1 is required in a lateral mesoderm domain to develop the mesenchymal population required for the closure of the pleural cavities and the formation of the diaphragm.
    1. Neuroscience

    AMPK acts as a molecular trigger to coordinate glutamatergic signals and adaptive behaviours during acute starvation

    Moloud Ahmadi, Richard Roy
    AMP-activated protein kinase directly coordinates glutamatergic signalling during starvation in C. elegans.
    1. Neuroscience

    NG2 glial cells integrate synaptic input in global and dendritic calcium signals

    Wenjing Sun et al.
    NG2 glial cells respond to synaptic input with calcium signals in the absence of action potentials and process synaptic depolarizations with somatic and dendritic voltage gated channels.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cell type-specific long-range connections of basal forebrain circuit

    Johnny Phong Do et al.
    Whole-brain mapping of the basal forebrain circuits reveals a connection diagram with highly convergent inputs and divergent outputs.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    TP53 copy number expansion is associated with the evolution of increased body size and an enhanced DNA damage response in elephants

    Michael Sulak et al.
    Elephants escaped enhanced cancer susceptibility by evolving more master tumor suppressor genes.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Molecular basis of sidekick-mediated cell-cell adhesion and specificity

    Kerry M Goodman et al.
    Crystal structures of synaptic recognition molecules Sidekick-1 and -2 reveal a single homodimer interaction mode responsible for both cell-cell recognition and cis-clustering, suggesting that competition between cis and trans interactions may be critical to specificity.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Regulation of X-linked gene expression during early mouse development by Rlim

    Feng Wang et al.
    Single embryo RNA-seq combined with mouse genetics provides a comprehensive view on the roles of Rlim and Xist for the regulation of X-linked gene expression during early mouse embryogenesis.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Stage-specific effects of Notch activation during skeletal myogenesis

    Pengpeng Bi et al.
    While Notch activation dedifferentiates newly differentiated muscle cells; it improves the function of muscle fiber as a niche-supporting cell of muscle stem cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mechanisms and functional roles of glutamatergic synapse diversity in a cerebellar circuit

    Valeria Zampini et al.
    Unipolar brush cells within the cerebellum show highly variable responses to input from the inner ear, and this variability boosts the learning of motor skills.
    1. Neuroscience

    Replacing the PDZ-interacting C-termini of DSCAM and DSCAML1 with epitope tags causes different phenotypic severity in different cell populations

    Andrew M Garrett et al.
    Mammalian Dscams require different intracellular interactions in different cell types during neural circuit formation to promote self-avoidance.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatiotemporal interplay between multisensory excitation and recruited inhibition in the lamprey optic tectum

    Andreas A Kardamakis et al.
    Signals conveyed from two different senses from a given point in space converge onto the same neurons of the optic tectum that trigger the gaze-control-system, and at the same time inhibit other parts of the tectal motor map.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dissociated sequential activity and stimulus encoding in the dorsomedial striatum during spatial working memory

    Hessameddin Akhlaghpour et al.
    During a spatial working memory task, neurons in the dorsomedial striatum encode the sample stimulus most strongly towards the onset of the delay period, while they display sequential firing activity that more evenly spans the delay period.
    1. Cell Biology

    An alternative splicing program promotes adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Santiago Vernia et al.
    NOVA pre-mRNA spacing factors suppress adipose tissue energy expenditure.
    1. Cancer Biology

    TP53 drives invasion through expression of its Δ133p53β variant

    Gilles Gadea et al.
    Clinical analysis corroborated with experimental data demonstrate that Δ133p53β, a naturally occurring isoform of p53 protein, induces a pro-metastatic program and is a clinical indicator of metastasis, independently of TP53 mutation status.
  1. Nuclear pore assembly proceeds by an inside-out extrusion of the nuclear envelope

    Shotaro Otsuka et al.
    Nuclear pores assemble asymmetrically, by an inside-out evagination of the inner nuclear membrane that grows in diameter and depth until it fuses with the flat outer nuclear membrane.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structural insights into the molecular mechanism of the m6A writer complex

    Paweł Śledź, Martin Jinek
    The structure of the catalytic core of the N6-methyladenosine RNA methyltransferase complex METTL3-METTL14 reveals that METTL3 is the catalytic subunit, while METTL14 plays non-catalytic roles in substrate recognition and in maintaining complex integrity.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes

    Fang-Min Lu et al.
    Transient Ca elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in cardiac myocytes profoundly activate cardiac Na/K pump activity in parallel with physical-chemical changes of the sarcolemma but without involvement of conventional signaling mechanisms.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    Matyáš Fendrych et al.
    The nuclear pathway for auxin perception is responsible for the rapid auxin-induced cell wall acidification and growth of aerial organs of plants.
    1. Cell Biology

    Cooperation of the ER-shaping proteins atlastin, lunapark, and reticulons to generate a tubular membrane network

    Songyu Wang et al.
    Experiments with mammalian cells and Xenopus egg extracts elucidate how three proteins cooperate to shape the reticular endoplasmic reticulum network.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes

    Olena Pylypenko et al.
    Components of a Spir:MyoV:Rab11 complex are recruited synergistically to coordinate actin tracks generation and myosin motor activity in vesicle transport processes.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Neuroscience

    A model for regulation by SynGAP-α1 of binding of synaptic proteins to PDZ-domain 'Slots' in the postsynaptic density

    Ward G Walkup IV et al.
    The α1 isoform of synGAP restricts the binding of AMPA-receptors and other regulatory proteins to PSD-95, and thus regulates synaptic strength.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Hypothalamic transcriptomes of 99 mouse strains reveal trans eQTL hotspots, splicing QTLs and novel non-coding genes

    Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein et al.
    In depth characterization of gene expression in the mouse hypothalamus will facilitate understanding of the molecular pathways that affect metabolic traits and discovers new genes associated with these pathways.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    The C9ORF72 GGGGCC expansion forms RNA G-quadruplex inclusions and sequesters hnRNP H to disrupt splicing in ALS brains

    Erin G Conlon et al.
    The C9orf72 expansion binds and sequesters the splicing factor hnRNP H leading to insoluble G-quadruplex aggregates that functionally reduce hnRNP H, thereby producing splicing defects.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    A computational approach to map nucleosome positions and alternative chromatin states with base pair resolution

    Xu Zhou et al.
    Computational analysis of MNase-seq data reveals that alternatively positioned nucleosomes are prevalent in both yeast and human cells and create significant heterogeneity within cell populations.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Origin of a folded repeat protein from an intrinsically disordered ancestor

    Hongbo Zhu et al.
    Minimal changes allow an ancestral, unfolded peptide to adopt a known fold by repetition, illuminating a possible path for the emergence of folded proteins at the origin of life.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Ciliary transcription factors and miRNAs precisely regulate Cp110 levels required for ciliary adhesions and ciliogenesis

    Peter Walentek et al.
    At optimal concentrations, the ciliary inhibitor Cp110 promotes ciliogenesis by localization to previously uncharacterized sites at the basal body, where it recruits ciliary adhesion complexes that mediate basal body interaction with F-actin networks.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease

    Virginia Guarani et al.
    Building on previous work (Guarani et al., 2015), MICOS (mitochondrial contact site) assembly and cristae junction formation are shown to have a critical role in human health.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    DPP9 is a novel component of the N-end rule pathway targeting the tyrosine kinase Syk

    Daniela Justa-Schuch et al.
    Cleavage of Syk, a central kinase in B-cell signalling, by DPP9 leads to Syk degradation, identifying novel roles for DPP9 in Syk signaling and in the N-end rule pathway.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Transcriptional rewiring over evolutionary timescales changes quantitative and qualitative properties of gene expression

    Chiraj K Dalal et al.
    Rewiring of transcriptional circuits can preserve a basic output yet alter almost all of the circuit's quantitative and qualitative features.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    A functional genomics screen in planarians reveals regulators of whole-brain regeneration

    Rachel H Roberts-Galbraith et al.
    A gene expression-guided functional screen identifies factors and cell types that regulate diverse aspects of neural regeneration in planarians.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Hedgehog signaling regulates gene expression in planarian glia

    Irving E Wang et al.
    Hedgehog signaling plays a role in regulating glia gene expression in planarians, pointing to a candidate ancestral and broadly used role for the Hedgehog pathway.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Human DNA2 possesses a cryptic DNA unwinding activity that functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases

    Cosimo Pinto et al.
    The nuclease of hDNA2 limits its processive DNA unwinding capacity; the helicase function becomes stimulatory when hDNA2 is in complex with BLM or WRN helicase to degrade dsDNA.
    1. Neuroscience

    Regulation of starvation-induced hyperactivity by insulin and glucagon signaling in adult Drosophila

    Yue Yu et al.
    Two functionally antagonizing groups of hormones directly regulate starvation-induced increase in locomotion via a common neural target in fruit flies.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Two locus inheritance of non-syndromic midline craniosynostosis via rare SMAD6 and common BMP2 alleles

    Andrew T Timberlake et al.
    Epistatic interactions of rare loss of function mutations in SMAD6 and a common variant modifier near BMP2 are the most common cause of midline craniosynostosis in humans.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Interferon alpha-inducible protein 6 regulates NRASQ61K-induced melanomagenesis and growth

    Romi Gupta et al.
    The protein IFI6 regulates DNA replication via the transcription factor E2F2, which is necessary for transformation and growth of melanomas induced by the NRASQ61K mutant oncogene product.
    1. Neuroscience

    Detecting and representing predictable structure during auditory scene analysis

    Ediz Sohoglu, Maria Chait
    Brain responses in humans demonstrate that the analysis of crowded acoustic scenes is based on a mechanism that infers the predictability of sensory information and up-regulates processing for reliable signals.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Increasing Notch signaling antagonizes PRC2-mediated silencing to promote reprograming of germ cells into neurons

    Stefanie Seelk et al.
    Increased Notch signaling enhances germ cell reprograming in C. elegans by antagonizing PRC2-mediated repression, which results in the activation of UTX-1 and other reprograming-promoting genes.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Distinct stages in stress granule assembly and disassembly

    Joshua R Wheeler et al.
    A new stress granule assembly mechanism has implications for other RNP granules and pathological aggregates.
    1. Neuroscience

    A hierarchy of timescales explains distinct effects of local inhibition of primary visual cortex and frontal eye fields

    Luca Cocchi et al.
    The selective effect of local inhibition on diffuse patterns of brain connectivity can be accounted for by an intrinsic hierarchical ordering of cortical timescales.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Plant Biology

    Presence versus absence of CYP734A50 underlies the style-length dimorphism in primroses

    Cuong Nguyen Huu et al.
    CYP734A50 is a heterostyly gene from primroses that underlies the differences in style length between the two forms by degrading growth-promoting hormones in the short styles.
    1. Neuroscience

    The right hippocampus leads the bilateral integration of gamma-parsed lateralized information

    Nuria Benito et al.
    High-resolution electrode recordings reveal left-right asymmetry in hippocampal gamma waves.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Hemi-methylated DNA regulates DNA methylation inheritance through allosteric activation of H3 ubiquitylation by UHRF1

    Joseph S Harrison et al.
    Epigenetic modifications to DNA can regulate E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in human cells.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Epidemiology and burden of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection in a developing country

    Cherry Lim et al.
    The burden of antimicrobial resistance in Thailand is deteriorating over time, and 19,122 deaths in the country in 2010 were excess deaths caused by multidrug-resistant bacterial infection.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Human kinetochores are swivel joints that mediate microtubule attachments

    Chris A Smith et al.
    The outer domain of the kinetochore can rotate (swivel) around the centromere, and this rather than intra-kinetochore stretching is coupled to anaphase onset.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Cell Biology

    Cells must express components of the planar cell polarity system and extracellular matrix to support cytonemes

    Hai Huang, Thomas B Kornberg
    Different cytoneme types require specific heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that are stratified within the extracellular matrix in Drosophila.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Na+/K+ pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches

    Daniel Kueh et al.
    The dynamic current generated Na+/K+ pump interacts with the h-current to control the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons.

Magazine

    1. Cell Biology

    Endoplasmic Reticulum: Keeping in shape

    Craig Blackstone, William A Prinz
    1. Immunology

    Innate Like Lymphocytes: Moving at the frontline

    Marco Ataíde, Wolfgang Kastenmüller