The numerous reports in support of action-value representation in the striatum are based on statistical analyses that are subject to two critical confounds and, thus, this long-held belief of striatal action-value representation should be retested using different experiments and analyses.
Time resolved crystal structures reveal the binding of activated monomers to the template, followed by generation of the imidazolium-bridged dinucleotide intermediate, and finally formation of a phosphodiester bond between the primer and the adjacent monomer.
The symbiotic relationship between Hydra and Chlorella is driven by metabolic co-dependence and characterized by changes in the photobiont genome in terms of lack of genes essential in free-living algae.
Transient suppression of activity in the macaque mediodorsal thalamus impairs adjustment of secondary reinforcer values and disrupts appropriate action selection in a reinforcer devaluation task; this profile is distinct from that of amygdala or subregions of orbitofrontal cortex.
Molecular labeling, electrophysiology and calcium imaging have revealed a novel switching of neurotransmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction where motoneurons transiently release glutamate before acetylcholine at synapses on developing hindlimb muscles at the onset of metamorphosis.
A developmental transcriptomics resource from Drosophila flight muscles quantifies the transcriptional dynamics during muscle morphogenesis and identifies three ordered phases of sarcomere morphogenesis.
Microtubule nucleation from the nuclear envelope in fission yeast involves repurposing of nuclear export proteins for a non-export-related function, docking cytoplasmic proteins at nuclear pore complexes.
The ZF-CxxC protein FBXL19 recruits kinase-associated Mediator to CpG islands of silent developmental genes in embryonic stem cells, which primes these genes for activation during differentiation and is required for embryonic development.
A cryo-electron microscopy study of the human CLC-1 chloride ion channel reveals the structural basis of why some CLC proteins function as passive chloride channels whereas others function as an active proton-chloride antiporters.
A combined approach of unbiased proteomics, biochemistry, genetics, and transgenic animal models reveals that GPR56/ADGRG1 regulates myelin formation and repair by interacting with its microglial-derived ligand transglutaminase 2.
Regulatory success operates by goal-consistent increases and decreases of distinct attribute representations in generic neural hubs and in domain-specific brain regions, explaining when and why regulatory success generalizes across domains and contexts.
Fiducial-less tomography on single particle cryoEM samples reveals that most particles are adsorbed to the air-water interface and allows for researchers to diagnose and solve sample, grid, ice thickness, collection, and processing issues.
Multiple independent directional selection events on a neural substrate that underpins domain-general associative abilities partly explains independent occurrences of complex behavior in different lineages of mammals.
Stunning new scan data of an enigmatic fish from the Early Devonian of Australia, Ligulalepis, is identified as a stem osteichthyan, specifically, as the sister taxon to the 'psarolepids' plus crown osteichthyans.
In contrast to perception, during visual imagery, there are no clear time-locked processing stages and imagery specifically overlaps with perceptual processing around 160 ms after stimulus onset and from 300 ms onwards.
Focal optogenetic stimulation strengthens functional connectivity between primary somatosensory and motor cortices in macaques, in a manner consistent with a Hebbian model of stimulus-driven plasticity.
The brain obtains and preserves a consistent temporal alignment of multisensory and motor information flowing along staggered streams by maintaining an invariant estimate across modalities of the energy exchanged with the environment at discrete events.
Social-interaction impairment in germ-free mice is associated with a markedly altered transcriptional response to social novelty in the amygdala, as characterised by replacement of upregulation of common stimulus-induced pathways with upregulation of the splicing machinery.
Synthetic single domain antibody libraries and a binder selection cascade encompassing ribosome and phage display enable the selection of conformation-specific binders against previously intractable membrane proteins within three weeks.
A series of novel compounds selective for N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor includes positive and negative allosteric modulators that act at the same site, show use-dependence, increase agonist potency, and have differential activity based on the agonist concentration.
Fossilized feces (coprolites) of extinct bone-crushing dogs, Borophagus parvus, from late Miocene (6 million years ago) of California demonstrates consumption and preservation of bones in digestive tracts and potential social hunting behavior by these predators.
Transgenic expression of glucanase, xylanase and phytase in pigs enhances growth performance and reduces nitrogen/phosphorus emission, and offers a very valuable biological strategy for sustainable resource utilization and environmental protection in the pork industry.
The subjective time of social interactions reflects one's autistic-like tendency and is critically mediated by oxytocin, indicating that time perception is ingrained with personality traits, which likely have neuroendocrine origins as per previous research.
Inducing presomitic mesoderm (PSM)-fated ES cells clarified that Ripply2 directly interacts with Tbx6 and degrades Tbx6 in proteasome-ubiquitin pathway by recruiting the 26S proteasome, which is a PSM-specific event to define the segment border during mouse somitogenesis.
The preoptic area (POA) regulates distinct metabolic adaptations, via leptin-dependent (fasting-induced hypometabolism and high-fat-diet-induced hypermetabolism), or leptin-independent mechanisms (temperature induced metabolic changes) and thus significantly contributes to body weight homeostasis.
A discovery of two previously unknown, molecularly distinct fields of cardiac progenitors in zebrafish provides evidence for cardiac laterality prior to the emergence of cardiac septation and allows novel insights into cardiac development and disease.
Certain types of 3D chromatin loops are easy to predict from existing or easily obtainable 2D information, which benefits gene expression studies in tissues/cells/organisms without extensive pre-existing 3D information.
Surface protein precursors traffic to lipoteichoic acid-rich septal membranes of Staphylococcus aureus for cleavage of their YSIRK-GXXS motif signal peptides and SecA-mediated translocation across the plasma membrane.
White matter connectivity assessed using diffusion MRI allows one to compare whole-brain organization between different animal species in a quantitative fashion, identifying homologous areas and regions of unique specialization.
Plant-unique RAB5 effector 2 (PUF2) is an effector of plant-unique ARA6, which plays a key role in plant endosomal transport, integrating functions of the two plant RAB5 groups by an unprecedented mechanism.
The acquisition of vascular quiescence during transition to adulthood is driven by distinct transcriptional and epigenetic programs of pro- and anti-angiogenic genes, with the most prominent effect on the suppression of TGFß family signaling.
The 3Å structure and correlated functional analysis of the TRPM2 cation channel from Nematostella vectensis shed light on the molecular mechanisms of TRPM2 regulation by intra- and extracellular Ca2+, and of inactivation of human TRPM2.
Identification of a transporter complex comprised of SLC37A3 and ATRAID is required for nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates to enter the cytosol from lysosomes and exert their therapeutic effects on bone.
Unbiased transcriptome analyses reveal that neural progenitor cells downregulate protein biosynthetic machinery during early forebrain development, and this fundamental process matches proteomic changes in the adjacent cerebrospinal fluid and is regulated in part by MYC.
HLA-B*35:01 molecules that are peptide-deficient are thermostable, bind CD8 with higher affinity than their peptide-filled versions, accumulate at immunological synapses and enhance antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses.
RNA-binding protein SRSF3 mediates critical changes in RNA processing of pluripotency genes, which reveals functional consequences of regulated RNA processing during stem cell self-renewal and early development.
Zebrafish genetics and cryo-electron tomography reveal distinct roles of all vertebrate PIH family proteins in axonemal dynein assembly and cilia/flagella motions, assigning specific dynein subtypes to each PIH protein.
A combination of human imaging and brain stimulation techniques show that the somatosensory cortex is essential to prosocial decision making, by transforming observed pain in accurate perception of others' distress.
A general machine learning scheme for integrating time-series data from single-molecule experiments and molecular dynamics simulations is proposed and successfully demonstrated for the folding dynamics of the WW domain.
An unexpected species difference in electrical coupling of analogous neuroendocrine dopamine neurons in rats and mice reveals a role for gap junction connectivity as a band-pass filter for oscillation frequency in neural networks.
Cellular carbon accumulation systems are a fundamental prerequisite for biomineralization to stabilize pH and to supply inorganic carbon for CaCO3 precipitation under changing environmental conditions.
Binding of multiple LC8 copies to the intrinsically disordered region of the transcription factor ASCIZ exemplifies a new and potentially widespread molecular mechanism for negative feedback regulation.
Investigation of antibody responses to variant Dengue virus proteins demonstrate new mechanisms that could increase the potential for vaccines to protect against mutable pathogens such as Flu, Dengue and HIV.
The clinically approved HER2 inhibitor lapatinib causes HER2 and HER3 kinase domains to dimerise in a non-canonical, symmetric orientation, providing a platform for oligomerisation and predisposing to receptor-driven cell proliferation.
A combined NMR and kinetic study demonstrates how the dynamic transition of a molecular chaperone between different oligomerization states can modulate its activity by altering the binding kinetics and energetics of non-native proteins.
Analysis of HIV integration sites from induced and non-induced latently infected populations reveals the role of genomic localization and chromatin context in the fate of HIV-1 infection and the reversal of viral latency.
Spatial and temporal cues intersect, likely via enhancer-promoter looping, to turn on a master identity switch that in turn dictates natural lineage reprogramming with high efficiency and temporospatial precision.