April 2019

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    The impact of bilateral ongoing activity on evoked responses in mouse cortex

    Daisuke Shimaoka et al.
    Spontaneous bilateral fluctuations add with evoked cortical activity and explain much of the variability in sensory responses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Image content is more important than Bouma’s Law for scene metamers

    Thomas SA Wallis et al.
    Peripheral appearance models emphasising pooling processes that depend on retinal eccentricity will instead need to explore input-dependent grouping and segmentation.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    A multiphase theory for spreading microbial swarms and films

    Siddarth Srinivasan et al.
    A multiphase hydrodynamic theory reveals that the dynamics of colony expansion in microbial swarms and biofilms are limited by the constraints of water and nutrient availability.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Epigenetic regulation of mammalian Hedgehog signaling to the stroma determines the molecular subtype of bladder cancer

    SungEun Kim et al.
    Pharmacologic inhibition of DNA methylation restrains the growth of urothelial carcinoma by subtype conversion through heightened stromal Hedgehog pathway activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human macular Müller cells rely more on serine biosynthesis to combat oxidative stress than those from the periphery

    Ting Zhang et al.
    The important role of serine biosynthesis in Müller cells may explain why the macula is so much more prone to developing disease than the rest of the retina.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Evidence for DNA-mediated nuclear compartmentalization distinct from phase separation

    David Trombley McSwiggen et al.
    Transient DNA interactions by DNA-binding proteins are utilized by herpes simple virus as an alternative route to generate membraneless compartments in the nucleus without invoking phase separation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Comprehensive mapping of adaptation of the avian influenza polymerase protein PB2 to humans

    YQ Shirleen Soh et al.
    Complete mapping of human-adaptive mutations to the avian influenza PB2 protein shows how selection at key molecular interfaces combines with evolutionary accessibility to shape viral host adaptation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Oscillatory hyperactivity and hyperconnectivity in young APOE-ɛ4 carriers and hypoconnectivity in Alzheimer’s disease

    Loes Koelewijn et al.
    Electrophysiology pinpoints brain function abnormalities in young people genetically at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease much later in life, supporting theories of initial hyperconnectivity driving eventual profound disconnection.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Host-pathogen coevolution increases genetic variation in susceptibility to infection

    Elizabeth ML Duxbury et al.
    A history of coevolution increases genetic variation in the susceptibility of Drosophila to viruses, largely by introducing major-effect resistance polymorphisms into populations.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Alcoholism gender differences in brain responsivity to emotional stimuli

    Kayle S Sawyer et al.
    Neuroimaging shows brain responses to emotional pictures are more diminished in alcoholic men than in alcoholic women, implicating gender-related mechanisms of addiction.
    1. Neuroscience

    The C-terminal helix 9 motif in rat cannabinoid receptor type 1 regulates axonal trafficking and surface expression

    Alexandra Fletcher-Jones et al.
    An intracellular H9 motif facilitates the highly localised axonal surface expression of CB1R.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The African ape-like foot of Ardipithecus ramidus and its implications for the origin of bipedalism

    Thomas Cody Prang
    The most recent common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos possessed a foot adapted to terrestrial quadrupedalism and climbing.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Yap1 promotes sprouting and proliferation of lymphatic progenitors downstream of Vegfc in the zebrafish trunk

    Lin Grimm et al.
    Genetic studies reveal a role for Yap1 in lymphatic endothelial progenitor cell sprouting and proliferation during early zebrafish lymphatic vascular development.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    A nanobody-based molecular toolkit provides new mechanistic insight into clathrin-coat initiation

    Linton M Traub
    New intracellularly-expressed llama anti-EPS15 nanobodies reveal that pioneer clathrin-coat components function upstream of AP-2 clathrin adaptor deposition at the plasma membrane.
    1. Neuroscience

    The influence of task outcome on implicit motor learning

    Hyosub E Kim et al.
    During a sensorimotor perturbation, task outcome may serve as a gain on implicit adaptation or provide a distinct error signal for a second, independent implicit learning process.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Single cell, super-resolution imaging reveals an acid pH-dependent conformational switch in SsrB regulates SPI-2

    Andrew Tze Fui Liew et al.
    Inside the acidic vacuole, expression, DNA binding and DNA binding affinity of the Salmonella regulator SsrB is stimulated by acid pH.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    HRI coordinates translation necessary for protein homeostasis and mitochondrial function in erythropoiesis

    Shuping Zhang et al.
    The heme and HRI-mediated eIF2aP–ATF4 integrated stress response in erythropoiesis has a major global impact, especially under the stress condition of iron deficiency.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    A consensus guide to capturing the ability to inhibit actions and impulsive behaviors in the stop-signal task

    Frederick Verbruggen et al.
    Clear guidelines and open-source software resources are provided for the stop-signal task, in order to streamline the use of this important tool, and to thereby increase its validity and reliability.
    1. Neuroscience

    Selective attenuation of Ether-a-go-go related K+ currents by endogenous acetylcholine reduces spike-frequency adaptation and network correlation

    Edward D Cui, Ben W Strowbridge
    Acetylcholine, a common modulator in the brain, controls spike-frequency adaptation by specifically attenuating Ether-a-go-go related K+ currents, thereby explaining many cortical network statistical changes often observed in vivo.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Transcriptomic and epigenetic regulation of hair cell regeneration in the mouse utricle and its potentiation by Atoh1

    Hsin-I Jen et al.
    The mammalian utricle can better regenerate hair cells compared to the cochlea because it maintains hair cell gene loci in a more transcriptionally accessible state.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sustained NPY signaling enables AgRP neurons to drive feeding

    Yiming Chen et al.
    A specific neuropeptide is responsible for the ability of AgRP neurons to generate long-lasting hunger.
    1. Cancer Biology

    A generalized theory of age-dependent carcinogenesis

    Andrii Rozhok, James DeGregori
    The multi-stage model of carcinogenesis requires the incorporation of aging-dependent somatic selection and life history-dependent evolution of species-specific tumor suppressor mechanisms in order to generalize carcinogenesis across tissues and species.
    1. Neuroscience

    Thalamocortical synapses in the cat visual system in vivo are weak and unreliable

    Madineh Sedigh-Sarvestani et al.
    A characterization of LGN-V1 synaptic transmission properties demonstrates thalamocortical synapses in vivo are weak and unreliable, but biologically constrained models show they efficiently drive cortex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural mediation of greed personality trait on economic risk-taking

    Weiwei Li et al.
    Greed personality trait is associated with behavioral loss aversion via the mediation of the neural loss aversion signal in the medial orbitofrontal cortex.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Tumor suppressor SMARCB1 suppresses super-enhancers to govern hESC lineage determination

    Lee F Langer et al.
    The chromatin remodeler and tumor suppressor SMARCB1 acts to restrict superenhancer function to direct neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells while repressing bivalent gene activity in the pluripotent state.
    1. Neuroscience

    Disordered breathing in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    Fu-Shan Kuo et al.
    Expression of a Dravet syndrome-associated mutation in inhibitory neurons disrupts activity of brainstem respiratory neurons and diminishes respiratory behavior in conjunction with seizures and premature death.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Nuclear receptor NR4A is required for patterning at the ends of the planarian anterior-posterior axis

    Dayan J Li et al.
    NR4A is a broadly conserved transcription factor that is required for concordance of patterning information and anatomy at both ends of the planarian anterior-posterior axis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Glial Ca2+signaling links endocytosis to K+ buffering around neuronal somas to regulate excitability

    Shirley Weiss et al.
    An unbiased genetic screen in Drosophila provides evidence for a direct link between glial Ca2+ 25 signaling and classical functions of glia in buffering external K+ as a mechanism to regulate neuronal excitability.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Microsecond sub-domain motions and the folding and misfolding of the mouse prion protein

    Rama Reddy Goluguri et al.
    Native state dynamics of mouse prion protein were measured, and these motions were shown to be having a role in initiation of aggregation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Re-expression of SynGAP protein in adulthood improves translatable measures of brain function and behavior

    Thomas K Creson et al.
    Severe neurodevelopmental disorder risk gene functions are retained into adulthood and they contribute to disease phenotypes, indicating that these patients may respond to treatments throughout life.
    1. Cell Biology

    Regulation of cilia abundance in multiciliated cells

    Rashmi Nanjundappa et al.
    A cell-intrinsic surface area-dependent mechanism establishes centriole-cilia abundance in airway multiciliated cells.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    NetPyNE, a tool for data-driven multiscale modeling of brain circuits

    Salvador Dura-Bernal et al.
    The NetPyNE software tool provides a framework to efficiently develop, simulate, optimize and analyze experimentally grounded neural models spanning the molecular, cellular and circuit scales.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Global donor and acceptor splicing site kinetics in human cells

    Leonhard Wachutka et al.
    Transient transcriptome sequencing and kinetic modeling suggest how the kinetics and yield of RNA splicing are encoded in the human genome.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Signal categorization by foraging animals depends on ecological diversity

    David William Kikuchi et al.
    In richer, more even communities, foragers form broad categories among their food resources that can select for convergence among signals, including mimetic resemblances.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Shared behavioral mechanisms underlie C. elegans aggregation and swarming

    Siyu Serena Ding et al.
    Two seemingly distinct behaviors in social C. elegans worms, namely aggregating into groups and swarming over food, are driven by the same underlying mechanisms.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Distinct RanBP1 nuclear export and cargo dissociation mechanisms between fungi and animals

    Yuling Li et al.
    Animal RanBP1 nuclear export and cargo dissociation mechanisms are surprisingly different from yeast, due to mutations of critical residues, leading to greater nuclear transport efficiency and higher energy cost.
    1. Neuroscience

    Precise excitation-inhibition balance controls gain and timing in the hippocampus

    Aanchal Bhatia et al.
    Delayed inhibition precisely balances excitation from arbitrary combinations of CA3 neurons and controls the gain of CA1 output by reducing inhibitory delay with increasing excitation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The Cas4-Cas1-Cas2 complex mediates precise prespacer processing during CRISPR adaptation

    Hayun Lee et al.
    During CRISPR adaptation, Cas4 forms a ternary complex with the Cas1-Cas2 spacer integration complex, an interaction that coordinates substrate hand-off following precise, PAM-dependent prespacer processing prior to integration.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Reporter-ChIP-nexus reveals strong contribution of the Drosophila initiator sequence to RNA polymerase pausing

    Wanqing Shao et al.
    Reporter-ChIP-nexus captures paused Pol II on transfected plasmids and shows that pausing stability is influenced by core promoter sequences, especially by the initiator with a G at +2 position.
    1. Neuroscience

    Optogenetic dissection of basolateral amygdala contributions to intertemporal choice in young and aged rats

    Caesar M Hernandez et al.
    Optogenetic approaches in young and aged rats define multiple roles for basolateral amygdala in guiding intertemporal choice, and show that these roles change across the lifespan.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mutant huntingtin enhances activation of dendritic Kv4 K+ channels in striatal spiny projection neurons

    Luis Carrillo-Reid et al.
    In mouse models of Huntington's disease, striatal spiny projection neurons up-regulate dendritic potassium channels, which impairs their normal function, but a zinc finger gene therapy can reverse this deficit.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Novel RNA and DNA strand exchange activity of the PALB2 DNA binding domain and its critical role for DNA repair in cells

    Jaigeeth Deveryshetty et al.
    Biochemical studies revealed novel property of human tumor suppressor PALB2, which significantly contribute into DNA repair in cells and can be targeted for the development of novel anticancer treatment.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Francisella tularensis enters a double membraned compartment following cell-cell transfer

    Shaun P Steele et al.
    Francisella tularensis spreads from cell to cell when macrophages engulf small portions of infected cells upon cell contact, forming distinctive a double membraned endosome containing multiple bacteria per individual vacuole.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Regulation of subcellular dendritic synapse specificity by axon guidance cues

    Emily C Sales et al.
    Axon guidance cues restrict sensory neuron synapse formation to a subset of equally acceptable interneuronal dendritic arbors during Drosophila locomotor circuit assembly.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Myonuclear accretion is a determinant of exercise-induced remodeling in skeletal muscle

    Qingnian Goh et al.
    Fusion of muscle progenitors drives continuous myonuclear accretion during exercise and impacts various adaptations in skeletal muscle including response to injury and hypertrophy.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    MicroRNA-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells acquire a functional interferon response

    Jeroen Witteveldt et al.
    MiRNA-mediated suppression of MAVS expression in embryonic stem cells is necessary to inactivate the type I interferon response.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Translation affects mRNA stability in a codon-dependent manner in human cells

    Qiushuang Wu et al.
    Genomic-profiles and reporters reveal that the three-nucleotide ‘words’ read by the ribosome, codons, have a strong effect on mRNA stability, impacting the homeostatic mRNA and protein levels in human cells.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Endocytic recycling and vesicular transport systems mediate transcytosis of Leptospira interrogans across cell monolayer

    Yang Li et al.
    L. interrogans utilizes endocytic recycling and vesicular transport systems for transcytosis across endothelial or epithelial barrier in blood vessels or renal tubules, which contributes to spreading and transmission of leptospirosis.
    1. Neuroscience

    A thalamocortical circuit for updating action-outcome associations

    Virginie Fresno et al.
    Disconnection of the orbitofrontal cortex from the submedius nucleus but not the mediodorsal thalamus prevented rats to respond adaptively following action-outcome reversal, showing differential involvement of these thalamocortical circuits.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Functional evaluation of transposable elements as enhancers in mouse embryonic and trophoblast stem cells

    Christopher D Todd et al.
    Genetic and epigenetic editing experiments establish causal links between transposon-derived enhancers and gene regulation in mouse embryonic and extraembryonic lineages.
    1. Neuroscience

    A novel class of inferior colliculus principal neurons labeled in vasoactive intestinal peptide-Cre mice

    David Goyer et al.
    VIP neurons are a novel class of inferior colliculus stellate neurons that project to long-range auditory and non-auditory targets and integrate inputs from the auditory brainstem and contralateral IC.
    1. Neuroscience

    Parallel visual circuitry in a basal chordate

    Matthew J Kourakis et al.
    The ascidian Ciona integrates visual information from two photoreceptor types through convergent excitatory and disinhibitory circuits, thereby evoking swim behaviors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Oligodendrocytes regulate presynaptic properties and neurotransmission through BDNF signaling in the mouse brainstem

    Miae Jang et al.
    Oligodendrocytes are actively engaged in the precise control of synaptic functions in the CNS through activity-dependent BDNF signaling.
    1. Neuroscience

    A virtual burrow assay for head–fixed mice measures habituation, discrimination, exploration and avoidance without training

    Andrew JP Fink et al.
    A naturalistic assay for head-fixed mice permits observation of a diverse set of innate and learned behaviors without requiring any training.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Cytoskeletal tension and Bazooka tune interface geometry to ensure fusion fidelity and sheet integrity during dorsal closure

    Piyal Taru Das Gupta, Maithreyi Narasimha
    Restoration of molecular and morphological symmetry and mechanical integrity following epithelial fusion relies on adaptive changes that are mediated by cytoskeletal tension and Bazooka dependent modulation of fusing interface geometry.
    1. Neuroscience

    Selective targeting of unipolar brush cell subtypes by cerebellar mossy fibers

    Timothy S Balmer, Laurence O Trussell
    Distinct inputs to the cerebellum make contact on specific subtypes of target neurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mutant huntingtin impairs PNKP and ATXN3, disrupting DNA repair and transcription

    Rui Gao et al.
    Polyglutamine expansion in mutant huntingtin disrupts a novel transcription-coupled DNA repair complex, providing an undescribed mechanism of neuronal toxicity and degeneration in Huntington's disease.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Cerebellar folding is initiated by mechanical constraints on a fluid-like layer without a cellular pre-pattern

    Andrew K Lawton et al.
    A multi-phase wrinkling model accounts for the radial and circumferential tension and differential expansion between a uniformly proliferating outer fluid-like layer and an incompressible core that together drive cerebellar folding.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Dynamic enhancer partitioning instructs activation of a growth-related gene during exit from naïve pluripotency

    Maxim Greenberg et al.
    Three-dimensional chromatin architecture facilitates a promoter switch in order to ensure maintained expression of a gene involved in growth during embryonic stem cell differentiation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Potential herd protection against Plasmodium falciparum infections conferred by mass antimalarial drug administrations

    Daniel M Parker et al.
    Given sufficient population adherence, mass drug administration for falciparum malaria can provide group level benefits, also known as ‘herd effects’.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    A Mesozoic clown beetle myrmecophile (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    Yu-Lingzi Zhou et al.
    A 99-million year old beetle in amber was a myrmecophile—a social impostor of the earliest-known ant colonies—revealing the most ancient behavioral symbiosis yet discovered in the Metazoa.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Quantification of microenvironmental metabolites in murine cancers reveals determinants of tumor nutrient availability

    Mark R Sullivan et al.
    The nutrients available in some tumors and the factors that influence tumor nutrient availability are characterized, which provides insight into the metabolic constraints of the tumor microenvironment.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    NLRP12 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma via downregulation of cJun N-terminal kinase activation in the hepatocyte

    SM Nashir Udden et al.
    NOD-like receptor NLRP12 is a critical regulator of hepatocyte proliferation and its activation could be therapeutically used to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    CCL5 promotes breast cancer recurrence through macrophage recruitment in residual tumors

    Andrea Walens et al.
    CCL5-dependent macrophage recruitment drives breast cancer recurrence through collagen deposition in residual tumors.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis for mammalian nucleotide sugar transport

    Shivani Ahuja, Matthew R Whorton
    Crystal structures of the mouse CMP-sialic acid transporter in complex with both CMP and CMP-sialic acid reveal the mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport.
    1. Neuroscience

    A cross-modality enhancement of defensive flight via parvalbumin neurons in zonal incerta

    Xiyue Wang et al.
    Parvalbumin positive GABAergic neurons in the ventral zona incerta receive input from somatosensory cortex and enhance sound-induced flight behavior, which underlies a cross-modality facilitation of defensive behavior by somatosensory input.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Sox9+ messenger cells orchestrate large-scale skeletal regeneration in the mammalian rib

    Stephanie T Kuwahara et al.
    Large-scale skeletal regeneration requires Hh signaling in Sox9+ lineage cells to coordinate callus formation and bone repair.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Dynamic repression by BCL6 controls the genome-wide liver response to fasting and steatosis

    Meredith A Sommars et al.
    B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) represses fasting gene expression by opposing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) activity at enhancers, and its ablation protects against steatosis by enhancing fatty acid catabolism.
    1. Neuroscience

    Anterior insular cortex plays a critical role in interoceptive attention

    Xingchao Wang et al.
    Anterior insular cortex activity predicts how well we attend to our bodily signals, while lesions to this brain region disrupt this ability.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mapping the transcriptional diversity of genetically and anatomically defined cell populations in the mouse brain

    Ken Sugino et al.
    A transcriptome dataset of nearly 200 genetically identified mouse neuronal cell types revealed that short low-noise homeobox transcription factors and long neuronal effector genes best distinguish neuronal cell types.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Environmental heterogeneity can tip the population genetics of range expansions

    Matti Gralka, Oskar Hallatschek
    Environmental heterogeneity can dramatically reduce the efficacy of selection and alter the neutral evolutionary dynamics in microbial range expansions.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Gene activation by a CRISPR-assisted trans enhancer

    Xinhui Xu et al.
    Both exogenous and endogenous genes can be highly activated in cells by a new dCas9-based activator, CRISPR-assisted trans enhancer, that can be used to activate genes for biomedical applications.
    1. Neuroscience

    Shank3 modulates sleep and expression of circadian transcription factors

    Ashley M Ingiosi et al.
    Shank3, a high confidence autism gene candidate, may be a key component of the mechanisms underlying sleep problems in autism.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Suppressor of fused controls perinatal expansion and quiescence of future dentate adult neural stem cells

    Hirofumi Noguchi et al.
    Sufu controls dentate gyrus stem cell quiescence by acting as a positive regulator of Shh signaling and loss of Sufu leads to dramatic failure to produce sufficient quiescent stem cells.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated SKN-1A/Nrf1 mediates a cytoplasmic unfolded protein response and promotes longevity

    Nicolas J Lehrbach, Gary Ruvkun
    SKN-1A/Nrf1 promotes healthy aging by activating protein degradation in response to accumulation of misfolded proteins.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural and functional characterization of an otopetrin family proton channel

    Qingfeng Chen et al.
    Structural and functional analysis of the OTOP3 channel from Xenopus tropicalis offers insights into the mechanism of ion transport and regulation in the otopetrin proton channel family.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dual separable feedback systems govern firing rate homeostasis

    Yelena Kulik et al.
    A new mechanistic framework for considering the homeostatic control of neuronal firing rates is presented.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Enterococcus faecium secreted antigen A generates muropeptides to enhance host immunity and limit bacterial pathogenesis

    Byungchul Kim et al.
    Enterococci faecium encodes unique peptidoglycan composition and remodeling activity that activates host immunity.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    IL-21/type I interferon interplay regulates neutrophil-dependent innate immune responses to Staphylococcus aureus

    Rosanne Spolski et al.
    Neutrophil-dependent innate immune responses to the human pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are modulated by an interplay between interleukin-21 and type 1 interferons.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Binding and transport of D-aspartate by the glutamate transporter homolog GltTk

    Valentina Arkhipova et al.
    Glutamate transporter homologs can efficiently bind and transport both L- and D- enantiomeric substrates with only slight rearrangements in the binding site.
    1. Neuroscience

    State-dependent geometry of population activity in rat auditory cortex

    Dmitry Kobak et al.
    Representation of sound lateralisation and intensity by neural population in the rat auditory cortex strongly depends on the brain state suggesting that the neural tuning to lateralisation is not hard-wired.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Opto-magnetic capture of individual cells based on visual phenotypes

    Loïc Binan et al.
    Single cells from a large heterogeneous population can be identified, isolated and clonally expanded using commonly available microscopy equipment and simple reagents, based solely on visual characteristics.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Plasticity of Escherichia coli cell wall metabolism promotes fitness and antibiotic resistance across environmental conditions

    Elizabeth A Mueller et al.
    Environmental specialization of bacterial cell wall synthases influences intrinsic resistance to cell wall active antibiotics.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Evolution of empathetic moral evaluation

    Arunas L Radzvilavicius et al.
    Empathy can evolve and foster cooperation in a game-theoretic analysis of behavior.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Structure and mechanism of a Hypr GGDEF enzyme that activates cGAMP signaling to control extracellular metal respiration

    Zachary F Hallberg et al.
    A newfound signaling enzyme that diverged from a protein family ubiquitous in bacteria provides mechanistic insights into how new signaling activity emerges to control distinct cellular function and physiology.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Transcriptional down-regulation of ccr5 in a subset of HIV+ controllers and their family members

    Elena Gonzalo-Gil et al.
    A subset of EC/VCs have CD4+T cells with resistance specific to R5-tropic HIV infection associated with transcriptional down-regulation of ccr5, a phenotype that appears to be heritable, across multiple generations.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance of cancer susceptibility in mammals

    Bluma J Lesch et al.
    Genetic knockout of the histone demethylase Kdm6a in the mouse germ line leads to elevated cancer incidence in genetically wild type offspring.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A switch in surface polymer biogenesis triggers growth-phase-dependent and antibiotic-induced bacteriolysis

    Josué Flores-Kim et al.
    Penicillin induces bacterial cell lysis by altering cell surface polymer biogenesis to cause the misactivation of a cell wall degrading enzyme.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae goes through distinct metabolic phases during its replicative lifespan

    Simeon Leupold et al.
    With replicative age, S. cerevisiae shifts from a fermentative towards an unusual respiratory metabolism, accompanied by a decrease in growth and glucose uptake rate.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    In-depth human plasma proteome analysis captures tissue proteins and transfer of protein variants across the placenta

    Maria Pernemalm et al.
    Comprehensive mass spectrometry analysis of human plasma proteome reveals tissue leakage proteins, describes variability between individual plasma proteomes and demonstrates protein transfer across the placenta during pregnancy.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    A generally conserved response to hypoxia in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from humans and chimpanzees

    Michelle C Ward, Yoav Gilad
    Evolutionarily conserved hypoxic stress response genes are depleted for association with expression quantitative trait loci.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Natural variation in C. elegans arsenic toxicity is explained by differences in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Stefan Zdraljevic et al.
    Quantitative genetics approaches using Caenorhabditis elegans facilitate the discovery of a novel arsenic toxicity mechanism.
    1. Neuroscience

    Extrinsic and intrinsic dynamics in movement intermittency

    Damar Susilaradeya et al.
    The rhythmicity in upper-limb tracking movements and associated population dynamics in primary motor cortex is explained by a feedback controller incorporating optimal state estimation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Nationally-representative serostudy of dengue in Bangladesh allows generalizable disease burden estimates

    Henrik Salje et al.
    To maximize broad insight on disease burden, seroprevalence studies should be generalizable to the wider population, both in age and location.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Single-cell lineage tracing by endogenous mutations enriched in transposase accessible mitochondrial DNA

    Jin Xu et al.
    Epigenome and Mitochondrial Barcode of Lineage from Endogenous Mutations (EMBLEM) enable tracking cell lineage in combination with chromatin profile in ATAC-seq data.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Developmental Biology

    Transitions in cell potency during early mouse development are driven by Notch

    Sergio Menchero et al.
    The Notch signaling pathway drives transitions in differentiation capacities during the gradual loss of potency that occurs in the preimplantation mouse embryo before the onset of the first lineage decisions.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A bacterial riboswitch class for the thiamin precursor HMP-PP employs a terminator-embedded aptamer

    Ruben M Atilho et al.
    Many bacteria use a tiny riboswitch aptamer to sense the thiamin precursor HMP-PP to regulate the production of another thiamin precursor HET-P to efficiently biosynthesize this essential coenzyme.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Light-based tuning of ligand half-life supports kinetic proofreading model of T cell signaling

    Doug K Tischer, Orion David Weiner
    Direct control of ligand binding half-life with light shows that lifetime strongly affects T cell signaling.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Distinct mesoderm migration phenotypes in extra-embryonic and embryonic regions of the early mouse embryo

    Bechara Saykali et al.
    At gastrulation, mesoderm arises as a migratory germ layer that will participate to both foetal and placental development through region-dependant adaptation of cytoskeleton composition, cell shape and migration mode.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Narrow equilibrium window for complex coacervation of tau and RNA under cellular conditions

    Yanxian Lin et al.
    Liquid-liquid phase separation of tau is demonstrated to be an equilibrium state, stable only within a narrow range near physiological conditions, and thus has the capacity to regulate biological processes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sensory prediction errors in the human midbrain signal identity violations independent of perceptual distance

    Javier A Suarez et al.
    Activity in the midbrain responds to unexpected changes in outcome identity (i.e. sensory prediction error) but does not scale with perceptual distance between expected and receipt reward.
    1. Plant Biology

    Decoys provide a scalable platform for the identification of plant E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate circadian function

    Ann Feke et al.
    The F-box and U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase decoy library is a powerful tool for the functional characterization of redundant E3 ubiquitin ligases, like MAC3A and MAC3B, novel circadian clock regulators.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Optogenetic control shows that kinetic proofreading regulates the activity of the T cell receptor

    O Sascha Yousefi et al.
    Controlling the duration of ligand binding to the T cell receptor by light shows that T cells discriminate stimulatory from non-stimulatory ligands by measuring the dynamics of ligand binding.
    1. Neuroscience

    Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis regulates fear to unpredictable threat signals

    Travis D Goode et al.
    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is required for the expression of defensive behavior to uncertain threats, a function that is central to pathological anxiety.
    1. Plant Biology

    A regulatory module controlling stress-induced cell cycle arrest in Arabidopsis

    Naoki Takahashi et al.
    Arabidopsis deploys the core signalling module that perceives distinct stress signals, such as DNA damage and heat stresses, and represses G2/M-specific genes, thereby causing cell cycle arrest.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The phage L capsid decoration protein has a novel OB-fold and an unusual capsid binding strategy

    Rebecca L Newcomer et al.
    The structure of phage L's Dec demonstrates a new fold within this family of proteins, and shows modulation of capsid binding occurs through two sites, with site 1 being preferred.
    1. Neuroscience

    Reward prediction error does not explain movement selectivity in DMS-projecting dopamine neurons

    Rachel S Lee et al.
    Despite the fundamental relationship between movement and value, they are represented in a separable manner in dopamine neurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Developmental NMDA receptor dysregulation in the infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis mouse model

    Kevin P Koster et al.
    NMDA receptor function is regulated by protein depalmitoylation during visual cortical maturation and is dysfunctional in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Associations between sounds and actions in early auditory cortex of nonhuman primates

    Ying Huang et al.
    Early auditory cortex of nonhuman primates represents associations between sounds and actions, in both spiking activity and local field potentials.
    1. Neuroscience

    Genetic dissection of the different roles of hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons in regulating female reproduction

    Luhong Wang et al.
    Estradiol regulates the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge through hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular kisspeptin neurons and maintains reproductive cyclicity through arcuate kisspeptin neurons in an activational manner.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    HIF-1α regulates IL-1β and IL-17 in sarcoidosis

    Jaya Talreja et al.
    Sarcoidosis, a granulomatous disease characterized by macrophage and T-cell activation, is found to be associated with increased HIF-1α transcriptional activity, and modulation of HIF-1α regulates inflammatory immune responses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural activity in a hippocampus-like region of the teleost pallium is associated with active sensing and navigation

    Haleh Fotowat et al.
    Sparse firing in a hippocampus-like structure of the teleost telencephalon is linked to spatial navigation and active sensing.
    1. Cell Biology

    An ESCRT-LEM protein surveillance system is poised to directly monitor the nuclear envelope and nuclear transport system

    David J Thaller et al.
    ESCRT-driven mechanisms that sense and seal holes in the nuclear membranes directly monitor the nuclear transport system and the exposure of the inner nuclear membrane.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A type III-A CRISPR-Cas system employs degradosome nucleases to ensure robust immunity

    Lucy Chou-Zheng, Asma Hatoum-Aslan
    Degradosome-associated nucleases PNPase and RNase J2 are required for type III CRISPR immunity against diverse nucleic acid invaders originating from plasmid and phage.
    1. Cell Biology

    Luciferase-LOV BRET enables versatile and specific transcriptional readout of cellular protein-protein interactions

    Christina K Kim et al.
    SPARK2 allows a transcriptional readout of inter- and intracellular protein-protein interactions, with near-zero background, by employing proximity-dependent luciferase-LOV regulation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Conversion of random X-inactivation to imprinted X-inactivation by maternal PRC2

    Clair Harris et al.
    The PRC2 Polycomb complex made in the mouse oocyte prevents transcriptional inactivation of the maternal X-chromosome in the early embryo.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A bipartite iron-dependent transcriptional regulation of the tryptophan salvage pathway in Chlamydia trachomatis

    Nick D Pokorzynski et al.
    Analysis of the atypical tryptophan biosynthetic operon of Chlamydia trachomatis revealed the simultaneous regulation of transcriptional initiation and termination by an iron-dependent repressor, expanding known regulatory mechanisms of this pathway.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Enzyme activity and selectivity filter stability of ancient TRPM2 channels were simultaneously lost in early vertebrates

    Iordan Iordanov et al.
    Invertebrate TRPM2 channels have stable pores but act as chanzymes that hydrolyze their activating ligand ADP ribose (ADPR), whereas vertebrate TRPM2 channels are catalytically dead but undergo pore inactivation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Using parasite genetic and human mobility data to infer local and cross-border malaria connectivity in Southern Africa

    Sofonias Tessema et al.
    Combining parasite genetic and human mobility data can provide detailed information on local and cross-border connectivity, allowing programs to strengthen local and regional coordination for successful elimination of malaria.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Mapping imported malaria in Bangladesh using parasite genetic and human mobility data

    Hsiao-Han Chang et al.
    Human mobility drives malaria importation within countries and threatens elimination interventions, but can be measured using new approaches that combine parasite genetics, mobile phone data, travel surveys and models.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Deficit of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) accelerates progressive hearing loss

    Adelaida M Celaya et al.
    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) deficiency causes early redox imbalance and increased inflammatory response in the cochlea, leading to cell loss and progressive neurosensory hearing loss.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Protein denaturation at the air-water interface and how to prevent it

    Edoardo D'Imprima et al.
    Hydrophilized graphene prevents protein denaturation at the air-water interface.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Stiffness and tension gradients of the hair cell’s tip-link complex in the mammalian cochlea

    Mélanie Tobin et al.
    The tip-link complex of the hair cell is mechanically tuned along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Low wnt/β-catenin signaling determines leaky vessels in the subfornical organ and affects water homeostasis in mice

    Fabienne Benz et al.
    Endothelial tightening by augmenting low level Wnt/β-catenin activity in vessels of the mouse subfornical organ, influences neuronal activation in water-deprived mice, linking endothelial barrier properties to neuro-vascular coupling.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Beta-catenin signaling regulates barrier-specific gene expression in circumventricular organ and ocular vasculatures

    Yanshu Wang et al.
    Elevating beta-catenin signaling converts endothelial cells in typically fenestrated central nervous system vasculature to a blood-brain barrier (BBB) phenotype and promotes a BBB gene expression program and chromatin landscape.