August 2018

Research articles

    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Insights into the key determinants of membrane protein topology enable the identification of new monotopic folds

    Sonya Entova et al.
    Key sequence motifs, defined using the first reported structure of a monotopic membrane protein with a reentrant helix, enable identification of new monotopic membrane protein families previously predicted as membrane spanning.
    1. Cell Biology

    PPP1R35 is a novel centrosomal protein that regulates centriole length in concert with the microcephaly protein RTTN

    Andrew Michael Sydor et al.
    The previously uncharacterized protein PPP1R35 is a novel centriolar luminal protein critical for centriole elongation by acting in a complex with microcephaly protein RTTN.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structures reveal opening of the store-operated calcium channel Orai

    Xiaowei Hou et al.
    The structure of the calcium channel Orai in an open conformation reveals a dilated pore and gives insight into mechanisms of ion permeation and calcium selectivity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Intrinsically regulated learning is modulated by synaptic dopamine signaling

    Pablo Ripollés et al.
    Dopamine modulates behavioral measures of learning and pleasantness in a learning task guided by intrinsic reward, inducing long-term memory benefits specially in those participants with a high sensitivity to reward.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Efficient single-copy HDR by 5’ modified long dsDNA donors

    Jose Arturo Gutierrez-Triana et al.
    The 5' modification of the donor template facilitates highly efficient Crispr targeted homologous recombination and at the same time favors single copy integration.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Long read sequencing reveals poxvirus evolution through rapid homogenization of gene arrays

    Thomas A Sasani et al.
    An adaptive process of genetic homogenization in poxviruses facilitates the propagation of single nucleotide variation within gene copies and might favor the persistence of large gene copy arrays.
    1. Cell Biology

    Cyclin-dependent kinase control of motile ciliogenesis

    Eszter K Vladar et al.
    Cyclin-dependentkinase 2 (Cdk2), the master regulator of S phase events during the cell cycle, controls the earliest step in the motile ciliogenesis pathway in quiescent multiciliatedairway epithelial cells.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Convergence between the microcosms of Southeast Asian and North American pitcher plants

    Leonora S Bittleston et al.
    Host characteristics drive the assembly of similar communities within the convergently evolved and geographically distant pitcher ecosystems of carnivorous pitcher plants.
    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology

    Blumenols as shoot markers of root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Ming Wang et al.
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-induced hydroxy- and carboxyblumenol C glycosides accumulate in plant shoots and allow for facile high-throughput screening for functional plant-AMF associations.
    1. Neuroscience

    Revealing a novel nociceptive network that links the subthalamic nucleus to pain processing

    Arnaud Pautrat et al.
    The subthalamic nucleus is linked to a nociceptive network and involved in nociceptive processing and perception.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Plant Biology

    Arabidopsis RNA processing factor SERRATE regulates the transcription of intronless genes

    Corinna Speth et al.
    Arabidopsis RNA processing factor SERRATE associates with the chromatin of intronless genes, which are usually expressed at low levels, to enhance polymerase II association.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Kasugamycin potentiates rifampicin and limits emergence of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by specifically decreasing mycobacterial mistranslation

    Swarnava Chaudhuri et al.
    Kasugamycin potentiates rifampicin killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by targeting adaptive mistranslation.
    1. Plant Biology

    The plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers a DELLA-dependent seed germination arrest in Arabidopsis

    Hicham Chahtane et al.
    Arabidopsis seed germination can be repressed by a Pseudomonas factor.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Human T cell receptor occurrence patterns encode immune history, genetic background, and receptor specificity

    William S DeWitt III et al.
    An analysis of T cell receptor occurrence patterns that accounts for MHC restriction reveals striking imprints of common viral pathogens and patterns of TCR-HLA sequence covariation in a large human cohort.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Temperature explains broad patterns of Ross River virus transmission

    Marta Strecker Shocket et al.
    Accounting for nonlinear responses to temperature is critical for accurately predicting how Ross River virus and other mosquito-borne diseases will respond to climate change and detecting the effects of temperature on disease transmission.
    1. Neuroscience

    Causal contribution and dynamical encoding in the striatum during evidence accumulation

    Michael M Yartsev et al.
    Behavioral, pharmacological, optogenetic, electrophysiological and computational analyses suggest that the anterior dorsal striatum is a causal node in the network responsible for evidence accumulation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Epigenetic age-predictor for mice based on three CpG sites

    Yang Han et al.
    Site-specific DNA methylation analysis at three CG dinucleotides by pyrosequencing provides a reliable measure for epigenetic aging of mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stage-dependent remodeling of projections to motor cortex in ALS mouse model revealed by a new variant retrograde-AAV9

    Barbara Commisso et al.
    The projections from discrete areas to motor cortex increase over disease course in motoneuron disease model with selective spatial and temporal patterns.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stepwise wiring of the Drosophila olfactory map requires specific Plexin B levels

    Jiefu Li et al.
    PlexB plays a multifaceted role in instructing the assembly of the Drosophila olfactory circuit through temporally-regulated expression patterns and expression level-dependent effects.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Negative regulation of conserved RSL class I bHLH transcription factors evolved independently among land plants

    Suvi Honkanen et al.
    An ancient and conserved genetic mechanism for cell differentiation is under distinct negative regulation in different lineages of land plants.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    An asymmetric centromeric nucleosome

    Yuichi Ichikawa et al.
    Centromeric histones, the foundation for accurate chromosome segregation, have now been re-engineered to allow for analysis of the stoichiometry of required domains.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Anisotropic organization of circumferential actomyosin characterizes hematopoietic stem cells emergence in the zebrafish

    Mylene Lancino et al.
    Emergence of hematopoietic stem cells from an aortic component is a unique phenomenon of cell extrusion, with no equivalent in cell biology, and which is adapted to environmental constraints exerted by endothelial cells and hemodynamics forces.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and interferon gamma generate antiviral states via transcriptional repression

    Tonya Kueck et al.
    Distinct antiviral signaling pathways, triggered by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and Interferon-gamma, converge on CDK/cyclin repression, causing inhibition of viral DNA synthesis.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    MAP7 regulates axon morphogenesis by recruiting kinesin-1 to microtubules and modulating organelle transport

    Stephen R Tymanskyj et al.
    An under-studied microtubule-associated protein is found to regulate axon growth and branching by modulating microtubule-based organelle transport through its dual interactions with microtubules and the conventional kinesin motor.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Piezo1 forms a slowly-inactivating mechanosensory channel in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Josefina Inés del Mármol et al.
    Piezo1 exhibits markedly different kinetic behavior in different cellular contexts.
    1. Neuroscience

    Conservation of preparatory neural events in monkey motor cortex regardless of how movement is initiated

    Antonio H Lara et al.
    Voluntary movements are preceded by a temporally flexible preparatory neural process that is present regardless of whether movement is initiated rapidly or thoughtfully.
    1. Neuroscience

    Elementary sensory-motor transformations underlying olfactory navigation in walking fruit-flies

    Efrén Álvarez-Salvado et al.
    A high-throughput behavioral paradigm and computational modeling are used to decompose olfactory navigation in walking Drosophila melanogaster into a set of quantitative relationships between sensory input and motor output.
    1. Neuroscience

    Arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamic CART neurons in the mouse brain exert opposing effects on energy expenditure

    Aitak Farzi et al.
    CART exerts differential metabolic effects in response to activation of neurons of the Arc, where CART suppresses energy expenditure, while it enforces the reward characteristics of the LHA.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    A SoxB gene acts as an anterior gap gene and regulates posterior segment addition in a spider

    Christian Louis Bonatto Paese et al.
    Sox21b-1 regulates simultaneous formation of anterior segments and addition of posterior segments in a spider, which resembles segmentation in long- and short-germ insects, and suggests SoxB regulation of segmentation is an ancestral feature of arthropods.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Fitness effects of altering gene expression noise in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Fabien Duveau et al.
    The impact of changing gene expression noise on fitness reveals beneficial or deleterious effects in a stable environment depending how close the average expression level is to the fitness optimum.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Background selection and biased gene conversion affect more than 95% of the human genome and bias demographic inferences

    Fanny Pouyet et al.
    Background selection and GC-biased gene conversion impact the human genome to a much larger extent than previously recognized in low and high recombination rate regions, respectively.
    1. Neuroscience

    Building a functional connectome of the Drosophila central complex

    Romain Franconville et al.
    The central complex, a highly conserved insect brain region important for navigation, is characterized by a high degree of recurrence and a sparseness of output pathways.
    1. Neuroscience

    MAPLE (modular automated platform for large-scale experiments), a robot for integrated organism-handling and phenotyping

    Tom Alisch et al.
    A new versatile, autonomous, robotic experimental platform (MAPLE) can increase the throughput of biological experiments by automating the growth and phenotyping of a variety of model organisms.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Fizzy-Related dictates A cell cycle switch during organ repair and tissue growth responses in the Drosophila hindgut

    Erez Cohen et al.
    Ploidy-increasing endocycles may represent a tradeoff between loss of regenerative capacity and preservation of tissue architecture.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Ssd1 and Gcn2 suppress global translation efficiency in replicatively aged yeast while their activation extends lifespan

    Zheng Hu et al.
    Activation of the stress response pathway in young cells extends replicative lifespan, not by reducing global protein synthesis per se, but by Gcn4-mediated autophagy induction.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Ordered arrangement of dendrites within a C. elegans sensory nerve bundle

    Zhiqi Candice Yip, Maxwell G Heiman
    A nerve bundle is not simply a cable of wires, but has order within it.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    An assay for de novo kinetochore assembly reveals a key role for the CENP-T pathway in budding yeast

    Jackie Lang et al.
    An assay to assemble kinetochores de novo was developed and used to identify the role of the CENP-T pathway.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibition gates supralinear Ca2+ signaling in Purkinje cell dendrites during practiced movements

    Michael A Gaffield et al.
    In behaving mice, inhibition from molecular layer interneurons attenuates excitation of Purkinje cells by parallel fibers and suppresses their ability to enhance climbing fiber-triggered dendritic Ca2+ responses.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Ecology

    Trade-off shapes diversity in eco-evolutionary dynamics

    Farnoush Farahpour et al.
    In a minimalistic, generic model of competitive communities in which evolution is constrained by life-history trade-offs, stable biodiversity emerges with species adapted to different functional niches.
    1. Neuroscience

    A cell autonomous torsinA requirement for cholinergic neuron survival and motor control

    Samuel S Pappas et al.
    Conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA causes selective cell autonomous neurodegeneration of striatal and brainstem cholinergic neurons, and severe motor behavioral abnormalities.
    1. Neuroscience

    Integrated externally and internally generated task predictions jointly guide cognitive control in prefrontal cortex

    Jiefeng Jiang et al.
    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex integrates concurrent externally and internally generated predictions of task demand to guide information processing, while the medial prefrontal cortex corrects its prediction error based on actual task demand.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motoneuron Wnts regulate neuromuscular junction development

    Chengyong Shen et al.
    A novel role of motoneuron Wnts in regulating presynaptic development at the neuromuscular junction.
    1. Plant Biology

    Arabidopsis formin 2 regulates cell-to-cell trafficking by capping and stabilizing actin filaments at plasmodesmata

    Min Diao et al.
    Cytological and biochemical analyses reveal Arabidopsis formin 2 is involved in regulating PD permeability by anchoring actin filaments to PD and stabilizing them through actin filament barbed end capping activity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The Peptidisc, a simple method for stabilizing membrane proteins in detergent-free solution

    Michael Luke Carlson et al.
    A simple, yet elegant method for robust self-assembly of diverse membrane proteins into soluble peptide nanoparticles for their structural and functional analysis in detergent-free solutions.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Optogenetic dissection of mitotic spindle positioning in vivo

    Lars-Eric Fielmich et al.
    New germline gene expression, knockout, and optogenetic tools reveal essential roles for Gα-GPR-1,2/Pins as a regulatable membrane anchor and LIN-5/NuMA as an activator of cortical dynein in mitotic spindle positioning.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Single-particle cryo-EM structure of a voltage-activated potassium channel in lipid nanodiscs

    Doreen Matthies et al.
    The structure of a voltage-activated potassium channel in lipid nanodiscs solved using cryo-electron microscopy is similar to previous X-ray structures, and provides insights into the mechanism of C-type inactivation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Constraints on neural redundancy

    Jay A Hennig et al.
    The distribution of redundant neural activity is coupled with task-relevant activity, which may limit the extent to which redundancy can be exploited by the brain for computation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis for Scc3-dependent cohesin recruitment to chromatin

    Yan Li et al.
    The Cohesin subunit Scc3 contains a hook-shaped domain that binds to DNA substrate, thus revealing that Cohesin-chromatin transactions are driven not only by topological interactions, but also by direct protein-DNA contacts.
    1. Neuroscience

    Acute control of the sleep switch in Drosophila reveals a role for gap junctions in regulating behavioral responsiveness

    Michael Troup et al.
    Optogenetic activation reveals a larger role for the fly brain 'sleep switch' neurons in controlling both waking and sleeping behavioral responsiveness, partly via a parallel channel involving innexin6 electrical synapses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional gradients of the cerebellum

    Xavier Guell et al.
    Cerebellar functional regions follow a gradual organization, which progresses from primary (motor) to transmodal (Default Mode Network) regions, and a secondary axis extends from task-unfocused to task-focused processing.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Dynamic density shaping of photokinetic E. coli

    Giacomo Frangipane et al.
    The concentration of motile bacteria, expressing a light-driven proton pump, can be precisely controlled in space and time by spatially modulating their swimming speeds with a structured light pattern.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    The newly-arisen Devil facial tumour disease 2 (DFT2) reveals a mechanism for the emergence of a contagious cancer

    Alison Caldwell et al.
    A recently discovered contagious cancer in the Tasmanian devil has the potential to become widespread in the population due to the loss of histocompatibility antigens that are allogeneic to its hosts.
    1. Neuroscience

    The adipocyte hormone leptin sets the emergence of hippocampal inhibition in mice

    Camille Dumon et al.
    Maternal obesity and excess of the adipocyte hormone leptin delays the emergence of synaptic inhibition in the developing brain mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stimulus vignetting and orientation selectivity in human visual cortex

    Zvi N Roth et al.
    Functional MRI measurements of orientation reflect coarse-scale biases that are wholly determined by second-order interactions between the stimulus aperture and the underlying orientation.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Prognostication of chronic disorders of consciousness using brain functional networks and clinical characteristics

    Ming Song et al.
    Behavioral, pharmacological, optogenetic, electrophysiological and computational analyses suggest that the anterior dorsal striatum is a causal node in the network responsible for evidence accumulation.
    1. Neuroscience

    FluoEM, virtual labeling of axons in three-dimensional electron microscopy data for long-range connectomics

    Florian Drawitsch et al.
    Methodology to annotate the multiple origins of axonal projections in dense electron microscopy data of mammalian nervous tissue without the need of chemical label conversion is reported.
    1. Cell Biology

    The adhesion function of the sodium channel beta subunit (β1) contributes to cardiac action potential propagation

    Rengasayee Veeraraghavan et al.
    Structural and functional investigations identify a structural unit for ephaptic coupling in the heart, and provide the mechanistic basis for a novel strategy for the treatment of arrhythmias.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    The role of Pitx2 and Pitx3 in muscle stem cells gives new insights into P38α MAP kinase and redox regulation of muscle regeneration

    Aurore L'honoré et al.
    Modulation of muscle stem cell redox state in culture both improves their amplification while maintaining a similar grafting potential as freshly isolated stem cells.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Direct visualization of a native Wnt in vivo reveals that a long-range Wnt gradient forms by extracellular dispersal

    Ariel M Pani, Bob Goldstein
    Free, extracellular dispersal of Wnt proteins generates a long-range gradient during animal development and is required for signaling.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Using paired serology and surveillance data to quantify dengue transmission and control during a large outbreak in Fiji

    Adam J Kucharski et al.
    A combination of surveillance data, paired sera and mathematical modelling reveals which factors may influence dengue transmission and control in island settings.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    CCR7 defines a precursor for murine iNKT cells in thymus and periphery

    Haiguang Wang, Kristin A Hogquist
    Adoptive transfer and genetic manipulation revealed a previously unknown sub-population of PLZFhi CCR7+ iNKT cells as precursors for all three iNKT effector subsets in both thymus and periphery in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Extinction recall of fear memories formed before stress is not affected despite higher theta activity in the amygdala

    Mohammed Mostafizur Rahman et al.
    When the fear-enhancing effects of prior exposure to stress are absent, the expression of fear reflects normal neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, not stress-induced hyperactivity in the amygdala.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Prolonged cross-bridge binding triggers muscle dysfunction in a Drosophila model of myosin-based hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    William A Kronert et al.
    Integrative analysis of a Drosophila model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy demonstrates that prolonged binding of the myosin cross-bridge to actin is a root cause of the disorder.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cerebellar involvement in an evidence-accumulation decision-making task

    Ben Deverett et al.
    In a new evidence-accumulation decision-making task, activity of the lateral posterior cerebellum is necessary for accurate performance, and somatic and dendritic activity in Purkinje cells contains choice/evidence and error-related information.
    1. Cell Biology

    Autophagy-dependent ribosomal RNA degradation is essential for maintaining nucleotide homeostasis during C. elegans development

    Yubing Liu et al.
    Embryonic development requires autophagy-dependent degradation of ribosomal RNAs.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of the human volume regulated anion channel

    Jennifer M Kefauver et al.
    The homomeric structure of human SWELL1 (LRRC8A) provides insights into properties of a novel chloride channel family.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Release and spread of Wingless is required to pattern the proximo-distal axis of Drosophila renal tubules

    Robin Beaven, Barry Denholm
    In contrast to growing evidence that juxtracrine signalling accounts for Wnt/Wingless patterning function, Wingless behaves as a released signal in Drosophila renal tubule development, being secreted from the midgut to spread and pattern the proximal tubule.
    1. Developmental Biology

    E proteins sharpen neurogenesis by modulating proneural bHLH transcription factors’ activity in an E-box-dependent manner

    Gwenvael Le Dréau et al.
    Rather than acting as passive and neutral co-factors for proneural proteins, E proteins play an active role in modulating the way the distinct proneural proteins instruct neurogenesis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Efficient analysis of mammalian polysomes in cells and tissues using Ribo Mega-SEC

    Harunori Yoshikawa et al.
    Translationally active polysomes from mammalian cells/tissues are successfully separated with rapidity, high efficiency and exceptional reproducibility by a SEC-based approach, an accessible alternative to the conventional sucrose density gradient analysis.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Human axial progenitors generate trunk neural crest cells in vitro

    Thomas JR Frith et al.
    Pluripotent stem cell differentiation provides insight into how neural crest subtypes of distinct axial identity are patterned in human embryos.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Estimating the protein burden limit of yeast cells by measuring the expression limits of glycolytic proteins

    Yuichi Eguchi et al.
    Measurement of expression limits of yeast glycolytic proteins reveal the protein burden limit, which is the expression limit of any protein in the cell.
    1. Neuroscience

    A transient cortical state with sleep-like sensory responses precedes emergence from general anesthesia in humans

    Laura D Lewis et al.
    Intracranial recordings of human brain activity during awakening from general anesthesia exhibit a brief brain state not seen during loss of consciousness, in which stimuli elicit large electrophysiological responses that resemble those seen in sleep.
    1. Neuroscience

    Targeting light-gated chloride channels to neuronal somatodendritic domain reduces their excitatory effect in the axon

    Jessica E Messier et al.
    A high axonal chloride concentration explains why activation of light-gated chloride channels causes neurotransmitter release, and a novel hybrid somatodendritic targeting motif ameliorates this phenomenon and improves their inhibitory function.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    VivosX, a disulfide crosslinking method to capture site-specific, protein-protein interactions in yeast and human cells

    Chitra Mohan et al.
    An in vivo disulfide crosslinking assay shows preferential disassembly of nucleosomes with two H2A.Z histones by transcription machinery in yeast and conjugation to one or two ubiquitin moieties in human cells.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A discriminator code–based DTD surveillance ensures faithful glycine delivery for protein biosynthesis in bacteria

    Santosh Kumar Kuncha et al.
    Using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches, the study has explained the discriminator base anomaly in bacterial tRNA(Gly) through identification of the key determinant of DTD specificity.
    1. Ecology

    Strong biomechanical relationships bias the tempo and mode of morphological evolution

    Martha M Muñoz et al.
    The rules of biomechanics consistently influence the tempo (rate) and mode (pattern) of evolution across four-bar linkage systems in animals.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    An expanded toolkit for gene tagging based on MiMIC and scarless CRISPR tagging in Drosophila

    David Li-Kroeger et al.
    New technology for manipulating genes in Drosophila facilitates gene tagging and precise modification of virtually any gene.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Age-dependent dormant resident progenitors are stimulated by injury to regenerate Purkinje neurons

    N Sumru Bayin et al.
    Injury at birth induces immature neurons to divide and regenerate cerebellar Purkinje cells in a time-dependent manner.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    A quantitative approach for analyzing the spatio-temporal distribution of 3D intracellular events in fluorescence microscopy

    Thierry Pécot et al.
    QuantEv is a fully automatic and semi-parametric method that allows quantitative analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of complex molecular trafficking objects at the scale of the whole cell.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 searches DNA via a ‘monkey bar’ mechanism

    Johannes Rudolph et al.
    By moving between DNA segments like a child swinging on monkey bars, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 explores possible DNA damage sites more effectively.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Nuclear pore heterogeneity influences HIV-1 infection and the antiviral activity of MX2

    Melissa Kane et al.
    Comprehensive investigation reveals the variability and importance of the nuclear pore complex in HIV-1 infection and the activity of the antiretroviral protein, MX2.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    PIP2 depletion promotes TRPV4 channel activity in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells

    Osama F Harraz et al.
    TRPV4 channels in brain capillaries are suppressed by the phosphoinositide PIP2 and activated by receptor agonists implicated in neurovascular coupling.
    1. Cell Biology

    Cortical dynein pulling mechanism is regulated by differentially targeted attachment molecule Num1

    Safia Omer et al.
    Dynein-dependent microtubule-cortex interactions – "side-on" versus "end-on" pulling – are regulated by cortical ER and mediated by distinct pools of cortical anchor that are differentially localized along the cell periphery.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Unravelling the history of hepatitis B virus genotypes A and D infection using a full-genome phylogenetic and phylogeographic approach

    Evangelia-Georgia Kostaki et al.
    Considerable differences are observed in the global dissemination patterns of HBV-D and HBV-A, the genotypes of which have putative origins in North Africa/Middle East (HBV-D) and the Middle East/Central Asia (HBV-A).
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Pharmacologic ATF6 activating compounds are metabolically activated to selectively modify endoplasmic reticulum proteins

    Ryan Paxman et al.
    The small molecule, 147, is a pro-drug that preferentially activates ATF6 signaling through a mechanism involving localized metabolic activation and selective covalent modification of ER resident proteins involved in regulating ATF6 activity.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Gradient-reading and mechano-effector machinery for netrin-1-induced axon guidance

    Kentarou Baba et al.
    Shootin1a, through its spatially regulated phosphorylation within growth cones, mediates the gradient reading and mechanoresponse for netrin-1-induced axon guidance.
    1. Neuroscience

    A resource-rational theory of set size effects in human visual working memory

    Ronald van den Berg, Wei Ji Ma
    Set size effects in visual working memory are explained as a resource-rational trade-off between an error-based behavioral cost and a neural encoding cost.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of the chromatin remodelling enzyme Chd1 bound to a ubiquitinylated nucleosome

    Ramasubramanian Sundaramoorthy et al.
    The unwrapping two turns of DNA on Chd1-bound nucleosomes cause the histone H3 tail and ubiquitin to be re-positioned.
    1. Neuroscience

    Estrogenic-dependent glutamatergic neurotransmission from kisspeptin neurons governs feeding circuits in females

    Jian Qiu et al.
    Estrogen increases hypothalamic arcuate kisspeptin neuronal excitability and glutamate release to coordinate autonomic functions for maximizing reproductive success.
    1. Cell Biology

    Mitotic progression, arrest, exit or death relies on centromere structural integrity, rather than de novo transcription

    Marco Novais-Cruz et al.
    Direct live-cell imaging of human cells, combined with RNA-seq, qPCR and in vitro reconstitution essays, reveal that mitotic progression, arrest, exit or death is independent of de novo transcription.
    1. Cell Biology

    Insights into centriole geometry revealed by cryotomography of doublet and triplet centrioles

    Garrett A Greenan et al.
    Cryo-electron tomography of mammalian and fly centrioles shows that the ninefold symmetry of centrioles is set by species-specific microtubule linkers.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Spatial and temporal analysis of PCP protein dynamics during neural tube closure

    Mitchell T Butler, John B Wallingford
    Planar cell polarity proteins display dynamic spatial and temporal patterns of enrichment that tightly correlate with myosin-dependent cell behaviors during neural tube closure.
    1. Neuroscience

    Model-based fMRI reveals dissimilarity processes underlying base rate neglect

    Sean R O'Bryan et al.
    Model-based imaging shows that the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex supports dissimilarity-based heuristics that people may use when they are confronted with ambiguous scenarios.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    HNF1A is a novel oncogene that regulates human pancreatic cancer stem cell properties

    Ethan V Abel et al.
    HNF1A, a risk factor gene for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is critical to maintaining pancreatic cancer stem cell properties through regulating POU5F1 (OCT4) expression, providing a novel role for HNF1A in maintenance of the disease.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Re-evaluation of neuronal P2X7 expression using novel mouse models and a P2X7-specific nanobody

    Karina Kaczmarek-Hajek et al.
    A novel BAC transgenic mouse model reveals glial restriction of P2X7 expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Aurora kinase A localises to mitochondria to control organelle dynamics and energy production

    Giulia Bertolin et al.
    AurkA is imported into mitochondria at interphase, and it induces organelle elongation and enhances ATP production when over-expressed.
    1. Cell Biology

    Reactivation of RNA metabolism underlies somatic restoration after adult reproductive diapause in C. elegans

    Nikolay Burnaevskiy et al.
    Morphological and functional rejuvenation upon exit from adult reproductive diapause in C. elegans is independent of germline signaling, but instead involves somatic nucleolar activation and expansion of the RNA pool.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Systematic perturbation of retroviral LTRs reveals widespread long-range effects on human gene regulation

    Daniel R Fuentes et al.
    A new approach combines guide RNA multiplexing with CRISPR activation and interference to facilitate functional studies of transposable elements present in hundreds of copies throughout the human genome.
    1. Cell Biology

    Hepatic NF-kB-inducing kinase (NIK) suppresses mouse liver regeneration in acute and chronic liver diseases

    Yi Xiong et al.
    Genetic mouse models show that hepatic NIK and IKKα inhibit hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in part by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Efficient support of virus-like particle assembly by the HIV-1 packaging signal

    Mauricio Comas-Garcia et al.
    The packaging signal in HIV-1 genomic RNA supports in vitro particle assembly more efficiently than control RNAs, probably explaining its selective packaging during virus assembly in vivo.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Loss of Fam60a, a Sin3a subunit, results in embryonic lethality and is associated with aberrant methylation at a subset of gene promoters

    Ryo Nabeshima et al.
    Fam60a, a component of the Sin3a complex, is required for embryonic development and regulates methylation at a subset of gene promoters.
    1. Neuroscience

    MDN brain descending neurons coordinately activate backward and inhibit forward locomotion

    Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario et al.
    A brain descending interneuron can coordinate a switch between two antagonistic behaviors (forward and backward locomotions).
    1. Neuroscience

    Effects of spinal cord stimulation on postural control in Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait

    Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini et al.
    High-frequency stimulation of the upper thoracic spinal cord corrects anticipatory postural adjustments and improving gait efficiency and inhibiting freezing of gait episodes in advanced Parkinson's disease.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of mouse protocadherin 15 of the stereocilia tip link in complex with LHFPL5

    Jingpeng Ge et al.
    Structures of a mouse PCDH15 and LHFPL5 complex, two proteins involved in converting sound into electrical signals, illuminate how mechanical stimuli are delivered to the membrane of inner ear hair cells.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Thalidomide promotes degradation of SALL4, a transcription factor implicated in Duane Radial Ray syndrome

    Katherine A Donovan et al.
    Thalidomide and its derivates induce degradation of many C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors, including SALL4, providing insight into a long-standing mystery in modern pharmacology, and starting points for future drug development.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Capturing change in clonal composition amongst single mouse germinal centers

    Daniel J Firl et al.
    Repeated interrogation of single germinal centers in vivo reveals a more fluid landscape than expected and unlocks new lines of investigation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural insights into the architecture and membrane interactions of the conserved COMMD proteins

    Michael D Healy et al.
    A structural basis for the assembly of core subunits of the Commander Complex has been discovered.