June 2019

Research articles

    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structure of the rhodopsin-Gαi-βγ complex reveals binding of the rhodopsin C-terminal tail to the gβ subunit

    Ching-Ju Tsai et al.
    The structure of a light-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor in complex with a Gi-protein heterotrimer provides a structural foundation for the role of the receptor C-terminal tail in scaffolding and signaling.
    1. Neuroscience

    The manifold structure of limb coordination in walking Drosophila

    Brian D DeAngelis et al.
    During walking and turning, the fruit fly Drosophila uses variable limb coordination patterns, which exist on a low-dimensional, continuous manifold.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Front-end Weber-Fechner gain control enhances the fidelity of combinatorial odor coding

    Nirag Kadakia, Thierry Emonet
    In multi-channel sensory systems, gain adaptation can help maintain not only coding capacity across changes in signal intensity, but also combinatorial representations of odor identity.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Respiratory syncytial virus co-opts host mitochondrial function to favour infectious virus production

    MengJie Hu et al.
    RSV's unique ability to co-opt host cell mitochondria to facilitate viral infection reveals the RSV-mitochondrial interface as a viable target for therapeutic intervention.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Response to comment on 'AIRE-deficient patients harbor unique high-affinity disease-ameliorating autoantibodies'

    Christina Hertel et al.
    We are writing to reply to the comment by Landegren et al., 2019 about our study (Meyer et al., 2016) on disease-ameliorating autoantibodies.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Comment on 'AIRE-deficient patients harbor unique high-affinity disease-ameliorating autoantibodies'

    Nils Landegren et al.
    We are writing to comment on the study by Meyer et al., 2016 on disease-ameliorating autoantibodies.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The C-terminal tail of the bacterial translocation ATPase SecA modulates its activity

    Mohammed Jamshad et al.
    The interaction of SecA with its substrate proteins is regulated by its evolutionarily conserved C-terminal tail, which autoinhibits SecA unless SecA binds to the ribosome.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural and mutational analysis of the ribosome-arresting human XBP1u

    Vivekanandan Shanmuganathan et al.
    Two integrated approaches shed light on how XBP1 arrest peptide induces intermediate level of translational pausing and identify hotspot positions to make it stronger.
    1. Neuroscience

    Imaging neuropeptide release at synapses with a genetically engineered reporter

    Keke Ding et al.
    A series of genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters that allow imaging of neuropeptide release in vivo, with sub-second temporal and nerve terminal-level spatial resolution are developed.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Fetal and trophoblast PI3K p110α have distinct roles in regulating resource supply to the growing fetus in mice

    Jorge López-Tello et al.
    Fetus and trophoblast interplay to regulate fetal nutrient supply and, ultimately, affect healthy growth.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Circulating T cell-monocyte complexes are markers of immune perturbations

    Julie G Burel et al.
    Human blood contains T cell-monocyte complexes which are not technical artefacts but reflect true in vivo immune cell interactions.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Massive antibody discovery used to probe structure–function relationships of the essential outer membrane protein LptD

    Kelly M Storek et al.
    Dispensable loops shield the functionally-important extracellular loops of the essential Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein LptD from antibody interference.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Frontotemporal dementia mutant Tau promotes aberrant Fyn nanoclustering in hippocampal dendritic spines

    Pranesh Padmanabhan et al.
    Super-resolution imaging reveals that the microtubule-associated protein Tau regulates the Fyn kinase organisation in dendrites, and that the frontotemporal dementia mutant Tau promotes aberrant Fyn clustering, potentially leading to synaptic dysfunction.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Hemodynamic-mediated endocardial signaling controls in vivo myocardial reprogramming

    Manuel Gálvez-Santisteban et al.
    The heart is able to sense and adaptively respond to environmental changes due to cardiac injury through flow-mediated mechanisms that regulate cardiomyocyte reprogramming and regeneration.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Haplotypes spanning centromeric regions reveal persistence of large blocks of archaic DNA

    Sasha A Langley et al.
    Genomic polymorphism across centromeric regions of humans is organized into large-scale haplotypes with great diversity, including entire Neanderthal centromeres.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Unified single-cell analysis of testis gene regulation and pathology in five mouse strains

    Min Jung et al.
    A statistical method for summarizing single-cell gene expression data identifies normal and disease-specific transcriptional programs from an atlas of 57,600 cells.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    tRNA ligase structure reveals kinetic competition between non-conventional mRNA splicing and mRNA decay

    Jirka Peschek, Peter Walter
    Interconnected RNA processing mechanisms ensure the fidelity of non-conventional mRNA splicing during the unfolded protein response.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Elastic instability during branchial ectoderm development causes folding of the Chlamydosaurus erectile frill

    Sophie A Montandon et al.
    Robust wrinkling pattern of the frilled dragon’s spectacular erectile ruff emerges from an elastic instability during homogeneous growth of the embryonic neck fold frustrated by its attachment to adjacent tissues.
    1. Neuroscience

    Exercise-induced enhancement of synaptic function triggered by the inverse BAR protein, Mtss1L

    Christina Chatzi et al.
    Single episodes of voluntary exercise induced a functional increase in hippocampal synapses mediated by activity-dependent expression of the BAR protein Mtss1L, acting as a novel early effector of synapse formation.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular mechanisms of human P2X3 receptor channel activation and modulation by divalent cation bound ATP

    Mufeng Li et al.
    Structural, computational and functional approaches reveal the role of an extended acidic chamber near the nucleotide binding site in activation of P2X3 receptor channels by divalent-bound ATP.
    1. Neuroscience

    Impact of precisely-timed inhibition of gustatory cortex on taste behavior depends on single-trial ensemble dynamics

    Narendra Mukherjee et al.
    Primary taste cortex does far more than code tastes by turning taste codes into motor commands via population dynamics.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Improved CUT&RUN chromatin profiling tools

    Michael P Meers et al.
    Enhancements to the CUT&RUN antibody-targeted nuclease strategy for chromatin profiling include an improved affinity-cleavage fusion protein and digestion protocol, and a simplified calibration strategy.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis and remodeling are required for neural tube closure, heart development, and cranial neural crest cell survival

    Marshall Lukacs et al.
    Anchoring of proteins to the cell membrane through the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is critical for the survival of the cells that will give rise to the brain and face.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Monitoring site-specific conformational changes in real-time reveals a misfolding mechanism of the prion protein

    Ishita Sengupta, Jayant Udgaonkar
    Multi-site FRET measurements of moPrP oligomerization at low pH indicate that major conformational changes take place as monomers reversibly transform into large oligomers, which subsequently disassemble reversibly into small oligomers.
    1. Neuroscience

    Active information maintenance in working memory by a sensory cortex

    Xiaoxing Zhang et al.
    Delay-period activity of anterior piriform cortex is important for working memory tasks requiring active maintenance and encodes the maintained information.
    1. Neuroscience

    optoPAD, a closed-loop optogenetics system to study the circuit basis of feeding behaviors

    José-Maria Moreira et al.
    The optoPAD system combines real-time behavioral analysis with optogenetic manipulations to study how animals adapt to dynamic gustatory environments and to identify the circuit basis of feeding.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Scc2 counteracts a Wapl-independent mechanism that releases cohesin from chromosomes during G1

    Madhusudhan Srinivasan et al.
    In G1 cells, Scc2 loads and maintains cohesin on chromosomes by counteracting a Wapl-independent releasing activity, which is neutralized in S phase by CDK1.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Molecular determinants in Frizzled, Reck, and Wnt7a for ligand-specific signaling in neurovascular development

    Chris Cho et al.
    Molecular dissection of Frizzled, Reck, and Wnt7a provides critical insight into the long-standing question of ligand-receptor specificity in the field of Wnt signaling.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A dedicated diribonucleotidase resolves a key bottleneck for the terminal step of RNA degradation

    Soo-Kyoung Kim et al.
    RNA degradation is completed through specific intermediates, such as diribonucleotides, which must be removed from the cells by a specific enzyme.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Dissecting the sharp response of a canonical developmental enhancer reveals multiple sources of cooperativity

    Jeehae Park et al.
    The sharp expression pattern driven by a classic, simple animal enhancer is determined by multiple molecular mechanisms, not only cooperative binding of the activating transcription factor as was previously thought.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Functional divergence of Plexin B structural motifs in distinct steps of Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly

    Ricardo Guajardo et al.
    Systematic in vivo analysis reveals the divergent engagement of Plexin B structural motifs in distinct neurodevelopmental processes and a regulatory role of convertase cleavage in Plexin B signaling.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Response to comment on 'Valid molecular dynamics simulations of human hemoglobin require a surprisingly large box size'

    Krystel El Hage et al.
    We are writing to respond to the comment by Gapsys and de Groot, 2019 on our article about molecular dynamics simulations of human hemoglobin (El Hage et al., 2018).
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    The endonuclease Cue2 cleaves mRNAs at stalled ribosomes during No Go Decay

    Karole N D'Orazio et al.
    Cue2 is an endonuclease that cleaves mRNA in the A site of the lagging ribosome upon ribosome collision events.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Comment on 'Valid molecular dynamics simulations of human hemoglobin require a surprisingly large box size'

    Vytautas Gapsys, Bert L de Groot
    We are writing to comment on the article by El Hage et al., 2018 about molecular dynamics simulations of human hemoglobin.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: Wnt activity defines colon cancer stem cells and is regulated by the microenvironment

    Anthony Essex et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study has reproduced important parts of the original paper.
    1. Neuroscience

    A connectional hub in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex links areas of emotion and cognitive control

    Wei Tang et al.
    A hub in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex receives unusually high and functionally diverse inputs, providing a biological interface between motivation, incentive based learning, and decision making.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Silencing cryptic specialized metabolism in Streptomyces by the nucleoid-associated protein Lsr2

    Emma J Gehrke et al.
    In Streptomyces, the nucleoid-associated protein Lsr2 functions as a xenogenic silencer of foreign genes, and as a metabolic gatekeeper, repressing expression of both cryptic and well-studied specialized metabolic biosynthetic clusters.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cretaceous dinosaur bone contains recent organic material and provides an environment conducive to microbial communities

    Evan T Saitta et al.
    Subterranean fossil bone hosts a living microbiome different from the surrounding sediment without evidence of original protein preservation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Evolution of limb development in cephalopod mollusks

    Oscar A Tarazona et al.
    Cuttlefish embryos reveal that cephalopod mollusks evolved specialized arms and tentacles by activating the same genetic circuits that control development of limbs in arthropods and vertebrates.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Family history of Alzheimer’s disease alters cognition and is modified by medical and genetic factors

    Joshua S Talboom et al.
    An internet-based cohort study of paired associate learning shows that a first-degree family history of dementia is associated with lowered performance, an effect modified by apolipoprotein E genotype and diabetes.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system

    Jeong Min Chung et al.
    The Helicobacter pylori Cag T4SS has unique structural features, including unexpected symmetry mismatch between sub-complexes, with implications for protein secretion.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structures of remodeler-nucleosome intermediates suggest allosteric control through the nucleosome

    Jean Paul Armache et al.
    Cryo-EM structures capture different conformational states of chromatin remodeler-nucleosome complexes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A FRET sensor of C-terminal movement reveals VRAC activation by plasma membrane DAG signaling rather than ionic strength

    Benjamin König et al.
    VRAC activation, observed with a FRET sensor of intracellular LRRC8-domains movement during gating and by fluorometry, requires plasma membrane localization and diacylglycerol signaling, but is independent of intracellular ionic strength.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Absolute quantification of cohesin, CTCF and their regulators in human cells

    Johann Holzmann et al.
    Absolute quantification of cohesin, CTCF, NIPBL, WAPL and sororin in HeLa cells implies that some genomic cohesin and CTCF enrichment sites are unoccupied at any one time.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cystic fibrosis drug ivacaftor stimulates CFTR channels at picomolar concentrations

    László Csanády, Beáta Töröcsik
    Aqueous solubility of cystic fibrosis drug ivacaftor is ~200-fold lower, whereas the potency of its stimulatory effect on the CFTR channel is >100-fold higher, than reported, and is fully reversible.
    1. Neuroscience

    Acetic acid activates distinct taste pathways in Drosophila to elicit opposing, state-dependent feeding responses

    Anita V Devineni et al.
    A single taste input, acetic acid, elicits opposing behavioral outputs depending on a fly's hunger state.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Liquid-crystal organization of liver tissue

    Hernán Morales-Navarrete et al.
    Bidirectional communication between hepatocytes and sinusoids governs long-range liquid-crystal order of hepatocyte polarity.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rapid and iterative genome editing in the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi provides new tools for P. vivax research

    Franziska Mohring et al.
    Optimised genome editing in P. knowlesi enables transgenic expression of a lead P. vivax vaccine candidate, revealing roles in host cell tropisms and providing tools for scalable vaccine efficacy testing.
    1. Neuroscience

    Anatomical and physiological foundations of cerebello-hippocampal interaction

    Thomas Charles Watson et al.
    Anatomical tracing and physiological recordings reveal neuronal pathways through which the cerebellum may influence hippocampal activity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Conformational switches control early maturation of the eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit

    Mirjam Hunziker et al.
    Mass spectrometry analysis of purified pre-ribosomal RNAs shows that stable ribosomal RNA domains independently recruit assembly factors, and the cryo-EM structure of the 5' ETS ribonucleoprotein reveals regulatory conformational switches.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cas9+ conditionally-immortalized macrophages as a tool for bacterial pathogenesis and beyond

    Allison W Roberts et al.
    Combination of stem cell engineering and CRISPR technologies created a facile method to genetically manipulate macrophages, a multifunctional cell type that plays critical roles in immunity, cancer, and tissue homeostasis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-aa supports hair cell survival by regulating mitochondrial function

    Mroj Alassaf et al.
    Hair cell survival and mitochondrial function is supported by an extracellular stimulator of IGF1 signaling, the protease pregnancy-associated plasma protein-aa.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Determining cellular CTCF and cohesin abundances to constrain 3D genome models

    Claudia Cattoglio et al.
    Absolute quantification of CTCF and cohesin reveals quantitative constraints on 3D genome organization and illuminates the molecular architecture of the cohesin complex.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Protein quality control in the nucleolus safeguards recovery of epigenetic regulators after heat shock

    Maria Azkanaz et al.
    Heat shock induces relocalization of epigenetic modifiers to the nucleolus, which acts as a dedicated protein quality control center that is indispensable for recovery of epigenetic regulators and epigenetic modifications.
    1. Neuroscience

    Coding strategies in the otolith system differ for translational head motion vs. static orientation relative to gravity

    Mohsen Jamali et al.
    Through different coding strategies, irregular and regular otolith afferents preferentially encode translational self-motion and changes in static head orientation relative to gravity.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Vps8 overexpression inhibits HOPS-dependent trafficking routes by outcompeting Vps41/Lt

    Péter Lőrincz et al.
    Recruitment of HOPS tethering complex to target membranes to promote vesicle fusions requires proper complex assembly and specific small GTPases, and HOPS is not transformed from the related miniCORVET complex.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    The GluTR-binding protein is the heme-binding factor for feedback control of glutamyl-tRNA reductase

    Andreas S Richter et al.
    Heme-dependent feedback inhibition of rate-limiting ALA-synthesis of plant tetrapyrrole biosynthesis depends on binding of heme to glutamyl-tRNA reductase-binding protein.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Metabolic network percolation quantifies biosynthetic capabilities across the human oral microbiome

    David B Bernstein et al.
    A novel metabolic network analysis method enables large-scale computational predictions of biosynthetic capabilities across the human oral microbiome, revealing a unique cluster of fastidious microorganisms and potential metabolic interdependencies.
    1. Neuroscience

    The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex computes task-invariant relative subjective value for self and other

    Matthew Piva et al.
    Activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex encodes relative subjective value in a common neural code across decision-making for self and other and across tasks with divergent cognitive requirements.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The structure of the yeast Ctf3 complex

    Stephen M Hinshaw et al.
    The cryo-EM structure of the yeast Ctf3 complex enables near-atomic modeling of most Ctf19c/CCAN factors and their interactions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sonic hedgehog signaling in astrocytes mediates cell type-specific synaptic organization

    Steven A Hill et al.
    Astrocytes modulate synaptic remodeling of developing circuits in a cell type-specific manner, with long lasting deficits in synaptic plasticity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Multiple mechanisms link prestimulus neural oscillations to sensory responses

    Luca Iemi et al.
    Neural oscillations prior to a stimulus modulate the strength of early and late responses in opposite directions via distinct mechanisms.
    1. Ecology

    Wind prevents cliff-breeding birds from accessing nests through loss of flight control

    Emily Shepard et al.
    Even moderate winds cause auks to abort landing attempts at nest-sites, and as a result, wind characteristics may affect where these, and other seabirds, choose to breed.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A counter gradient of Activin A and follistatin instructs the timing of hair cell differentiation in the murine cochlea

    Meenakshi Prajapati-DiNubila et al.
    Opposing gradients of activin A and follistatin within the spiral shaped mammalian cochlea instruct the graded pattern of mechano-sensory hair cell formation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Epithelial geometry regulates spindle orientation and progenitor fate during formation of the mammalian epidermis

    Kimberly Box et al.
    Early in mammalian epidermal development, basal epidermal progenitor cells utilize packing and three-dimensional geometry, rather than cortical polarity cues, to inform division orientation and progenitor cell fate.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ion counting demonstrates a high electrostatic field generated by the nucleosome

    Magdalena Gebala et al.
    First experimental studies on the ion atmosphere around a nucleosome provide a quantitative analysis of the molecule's electrostatic properties.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Mouse TRPA1 function and membrane localization are modulated by direct interactions with cholesterol

    Justyna B Startek et al.
    The activation and membrane localization of the broadly-tuned noxious chemosensory cation channel TRPA1 are regulated by direct interactions with cholesterol via CRAC motifs in transmembane segments 2 and 4.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of Vps4 with circular peptides and implications for translocation of two polypeptide chains by AAA+ ATPases

    Han Han et al.
    Structural and biochemical studies indicate that AAA+ ATPase employ a general mechanism to translocate a variety of substrates, including extended polypeptides, hairpins, crosslinked chains, and chains conjugated to other molecules.
    1. Cell Biology

    PDIA1/P4HB is required for efficient proinsulin maturation and ß cell health in response to diet induced obesity

    Insook Jang et al.
    The major protein disulfide isomerase family member, PDIA1, is essential in beta cells of mice fed a high-fat diet to maintain glucose homeostasis, proinsulin maturation and organelle integrity.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Nitric oxide radicals are emitted by wasp eggs to kill mold fungi

    Erhard Strohm et al.
    To protect their food and themselves against detrimental mould fungi, the eggs of a wasp species synthesize and emit remarkable amounts of gaseous nitrogen oxides that are highly effective antimicrobials.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The human gut chemical landscape predicts microbe-mediated biotransformation of foods and drugs

    Leah Guthrie et al.
    A network of the gut chemical landscape predicts microbe-mediated biotransformation of foods and drugs and supports the generation of mechanistic hypotheses of microbiome metabolic phenotypes that shape human biology.
    1. Cell Biology

    Pericentrin-mediated SAS-6 recruitment promotes centriole assembly

    Daisuke Ito et al.
    Newly discovered interaction between fission yeast SPB and animal centriole components reveals that pericentrin not only functions as a microtubule-nucleator, but also promotes centriole assembly in animals.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sweet neurons inhibit texture discrimination by signaling TMC-expressing mechanosensitive neurons in Drosophila

    Shun-Fan Wu et al.
    Drosophila use distinct sensory mechanisms to detect and integrate the same tactile and taste information in two decision-making tasks that serve two different purposes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The interplay at the replisome mitigates the impact of oxidative damage on the genetic integrity of hyperthermophilic Archaea

    Tom Killelea et al.
    An investigation into 8-oxodeoxguanosine bypass by archaeal DNA polymerases.
    1. Neuroscience

    Transitioning between preparatory and precisely sequenced neuronal activity in production of a skilled behavior

    Vamsi K Daliparthi et al.
    Precisely sequenced patterns of neuronal activity associated with the production of a skilled behavior begin and end as part of orchestrated activity across functionally diverse populations of cortical premotor neurons.
    1. Cell Biology

    Proinsulin misfolding is an early event in the progression to type 2 diabetes

    Anoop Arunagiri et al.
    Proinsulin misfolding, an established cause of diabetes in patients with INS gene mutations, is now observed in normal human pancreatic islets, and rodents with genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes.
    1. Cell Biology

    Cooperation between tropomyosin and α-actinin inhibits fimbrin association with actin filament networks in fission yeast

    Jenna R Christensen et al.
    The contractile ring actin binding proteins tropomyosin Cdc8 and a-actinin Ain1 synergize to effectively compete with the endocytic actin patch protein fimbrin Fim1 for associating with F-actin networks.
    1. Neuroscience

    Glycolysis upregulation is neuroprotective as a compensatory mechanism in ALS

    Ernesto Manzo et al.
    Degenerating motor neurons compensate for energetic deficits by upregulating glycolysis in flies and humans, with increased glucose availability improving locomotor function and lifespan in flies.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Robo2 regulates synaptic oxytocin content by affecting actin dynamics

    Savani Anbalagan et al.
    Real-time monitoring of oxytocin-loaded vesicles and synaptic actin dynamics in zebrafish reveal that Slit3-Robo2-Cdc42 signalling maintains steady-state levels of mature oxytocin neuropeptide readily primed to be secreted upon physiological demand.
    1. Neuroscience

    Maintenance of homeostatic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse requires continuous IP3-directed signaling

    Thomas D James et al.
    Synapses employ distinct acute and chronic signaling processes in order to maintain physiologically appropriate levels of function.
    1. Neuroscience

    Short-term synaptic dynamics control the activity phase of neurons in an oscillatory network

    Diana Martinez et al.
    The phase of a neuron in an oscillatory network can remain independent of network frequency when synaptic input strength and peak phase are adjusted in a frequency-dependent manner.
    1. Neuroscience

    'Online' integration of sensory and fear memories in the rat medial temporal lobe

    Francesca S Wong et al.
    Elements of a past sensory memory are incorporated into a new fear memory, and in this way, a stimulus never paired with danger becomes frightening.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Molecular organization and dynamics of the fusion protein Gc at the hantavirus surface

    Eduardo A Bignon et al.
    Hantavirus spikes are related laterally by 2-fold Gc contacts that can be disulfide-linked and display a temperature-dependent dynamic behavior at neutral pH, exposing and masking the Gc fusion loops.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Heterogeneity in surface sensing suggests a division of labor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations

    Catherine R Armbruster et al.
    Subpopulations of polysaccharide producer and surface explorer cells play specialized roles in early Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Identification of compounds that rescue otic and myelination defects in the zebrafish adgrg6 (gpr126) mutant

    Elvira Diamantopoulou et al.
    Results of a zebrafish whole-animal chemical screen for compounds that can rescue ear and myelination defects in an adhesion GPCR (Adgrg6/Gpr126) mutant.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Nanoresolution real-time 3D orbital tracking for studying mitochondrial trafficking in vertebrate axons in vivo

    Fabian Wehnekamp et al.
    The ability to follow single objects in 3D in a living organism with high spatiotemporal resolution opens new possibilities for quantitative biophysical studies of complex systems in their physiological context.
    1. Cell Biology

    Reconstruction of Par-dependent polarity in apolar cells reveals a dynamic process of cortical polarization

    Kalyn Kono et al.
    Par-complex-dependent cell polarity can be cell-autonomously conferred to non-polar Drosophila S2 cells, unveiling temporal patterns toward the cortical localization of Par-complex aggregates that include a meshwork containing unit segments.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Genome plasticity in Candida albicans is driven by long repeat sequences

    Robert T Todd et al.
    Previously uncharacterized long repeat sequences are associated with significant genome variation that can increase fitness and promote antifungal drug resistance in diverse isolates of Candida albicans.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin-1 mediates exocytosis in mammalian photoreceptors

    Justin J Grassmeyer et al.
    The vesicular Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin-1 regulates both fast phasic and slow tonic glutamate release at ribbon synapses of rod and cone photoreceptor cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    Cooperation of mitochondrial and ER factors in quality control of tail-anchored proteins

    Verena Dederer et al.
    The endoplasmic reticulum E3 ubiquitin ligase Doa10 and the mitochondrial AAA-ATPase Msp1 govern targeting fidelity of outer mitochondrial tail-anchored proteins by controlling cytoplasmic concentration and extracting mistargeted and orphan species.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    The mechanism of error induction by the antibiotic viomycin provides insight into the fidelity mechanism of translation

    Mikael Holm et al.
    The antibiotic viomycin induces errors during initial codon selection by the ribosome by locking the monitoring bases in their active conformation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A toolkit for studying cell surface shedding of diverse transmembrane receptors

    Amanda N Hayward et al.
    The modularity and unequivocal input/response of Notch signaling are harnessed to measure cell-surface shedding of diverse transmembrane receptors to identify new proteolytic switches and detect modulation of proteolysis by therapeutics.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    HDX-MS reveals structural determinants for RORγ hyperactivation by synthetic agonists

    Timothy S Strutzenberg et al.
    Unique methodology was used to generate a large HDX-MS dataset to inform ligand-mediated activation of RORγ, an approach that can be extended to other nuclear receptors with unresolved ligand-dependent activities.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    CCL2 mobilizes ALIX to facilitate Gag-p6 mediated HIV-1 virion release

    David O Ajasin et al.
    Effect of CCL2 on HIV-1 replication is mediated by mobilization of ALIX from F-actin leading to enhanced virion release and improved fitness and this requires the Gag late motif, LYPX.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Conformational dynamics between transmembrane domains and allosteric modulation of a metabotropic glutamate receptor

    Vanessa A Gutzeit et al.
    Single molecule subunit counting, FRET and electrophysiology experiments reveal that metabotropic glutamate receptor subunits interact and rearrange at the level of the transmembrane domains in response to allosteric modulators.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    GPIHBP1 expression in gliomas promotes utilization of lipoprotein-derived nutrients

    Xuchen Hu et al.
    The expression of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) transporter GPIHBP1 in glioma capillaries promotes the LPL-mediated processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, thereby providing lipid nutrients for glioma cells.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    An integrative genomic analysis of the Longshanks selection experiment for longer limbs in mice

    João PL Castro et al.
    Genome sequencing of mice selected for longer limbs reveals that rapid selection response is due to both discrete loci and polygenic adaptation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Post-decision processing in primate prefrontal cortex influences subsequent choices on an auditory decision-making task

    Joji Tsunada et al.
    A behavioral model, neuronal recordings, and electrical microstimulation reveal that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a causal role in evaluating prior decisions and biasing future decisions.
    1. Cancer Biology

    A four-DNA methylation biomarker is a superior predictor of survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Wenna Guo et al.
    This four-DNA methylation signature demonstrates potential as a novel independent prognostic indicator for risk-stratifying patients with CM.
    1. Neuroscience

    Slow presynaptic mechanisms that mediate adaptation in the olfactory pathway of Drosophila

    Carlotta Martelli, André Fiala
    Slow presynaptic depression in olfactory receptor neurons rescales combinatorial odor representations in postsynaptic neurons and mediates the encoding of stimulus mean and variance.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Communication between distinct subunit interfaces of the cohesin complex promotes its topological entrapment of DNA

    Vincent Guacci et al.
    The interface formed where Smc3p and Mcd1p bind each other regulates cohesin DNA binding and cohesion by a mechanism independently from its putative role as a DNA exit gate.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Genetic diversity of CHC22 clathrin impacts its function in glucose metabolism

    Matteo Fumagalli et al.
    Natural selection shaped CHC22 clathrin genetic variation in humans with different diets and potentially influenced the human insulin response.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Species specific differences in use of ANP32 proteins by influenza A virus

    Jason S Long et al.
    Chicken ANP32A, and not chicken ANP32B, supports influenza polymerase activity and thus editing of this single gene may generate chickens that are resilient to influenza virus infection.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Detailed analysis of chick optic fissure closure reveals Netrin-1 as an essential mediator of epithelial fusion

    Holly Hardy et al.
    Chick optic fissure closure is a powerful new model system for epithelial fusion and has revealed Netrin-1 as a conserved and essential mediator of tissue fusion in multiple contexts.
    1. Neuroscience

    GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area regulate non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice

    Srikanta Chowdhury et al.
    Functional identification of GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area as a important neuronal subpopulation regulating non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in mice.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Disentangling strictly self-serving mutations from win-win mutations in a mutualistic microbial community

    Samuel Frederick Mock Hart et al.
    Whereas partner-serving phenotype is intuitively quantified as benefit release rate, molecular genetics revealed an example where this thinking fails, motivating a more general metric.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Sterol transfer by atypical cholesterol-binding NPC2 proteins in coral-algal symbiosis

    Elizabeth Ann Hambleton et al.
    Diversification of a conserved cholesterol binder drives functional replacement of cholesterol with symbiont-produced sterols in corals living in nutrient-poor environments.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Compound-V formations in shorebird flocks

    Aaron J Corcoran, Tyson L Hedrick
    Shorebird flocks fly in a formation that re-creates the neighbor positioning relationship of a V-formation in cluster flocks of more than 1000 birds.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dissociating orexin-dependent and -independent functions of orexin neurons using novel Orexin-Flp knock-in mice

    Srikanta Chowdhury et al.
    Subtraction analysis using novel Orexin-Flp mice isolated physiological importance of orexin peptides.
    1. Cell Biology

    Age-dependent deterioration of nuclear pore assembly in mitotic cells decreases transport dynamics

    Irina L Rempel et al.
    In replicative ageing yeast cells, an age-dependent impediment in proper assembly of nuclear pore complexes is associated with altered nuclear transport.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Stem cell-derived cranial and spinal motor neurons reveal proteostatic differences between ALS resistant and sensitive motor neurons

    Disi An et al.
    Stem cell-derived motor neurons with differential ALS vulnerability identified proteasome activity as a possible mechanism that explains their differential sensitivity.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Arp2/3 complex-driven spatial patterning of the BCR enhances immune synapse formation, BCR signaling and B cell activation

    Madison Bolger-Munro et al.
    Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization shapes how B lymphocytes probe the surface of antigen-presenting cells, promotes coalescence of B cell receptor (BCR) microclusters, amplifies BCR signaling, and enhances B cell activation.

Magazine

    1. Neuroscience

    Philosophy of Biology: Seizing an opportunity

    Perry Zurn, Danielle S Bassett