November 2019

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Mechanisms of hyperexcitability in Alzheimer’s disease hiPSC-derived neurons and cerebral organoids vs isogenic controls

    Swagata Ghatak et al.
    Increased excitation and decreased inhibition associated with abnormal neuronal morphology, aberrant ion channel properties, and synaptic dysfunction contribute to hyperexcitability in Alzheimer’s disease hiPSC-derived neuronal cultures and cerebral organoids.
    1. Neuroscience

    Alpha/beta power decreases track the fidelity of stimulus-specific information

    Benjamin James Griffiths et al.
    Neural representations of stimulus-specific information increase in fidelity as the power of alpha/beta activity decreases, suggesting that alpha/beta power decreases reflect a domain-general mechanism that supports information representation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Causal links between parietal alpha activity and spatial auditory attention

    Yuqi Deng et al.
    Stimulating one side of parietal cortex using an appropriate frequency of alternating current interferes with attention to a sound stream from a location on the opposite side of a space.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Endothelial EphB4 maintains vascular integrity and transport function in adult heart

    Guillermo Luxán et al.
    EphB4 maintains critical functional properties of the adult cardiac vasculature, namely mechanical resistance and fatty acid transport capability, and thereby prevents dilated cardiomyopathy-like defects.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Micronuclei-based model system reveals functional consequences of chromothripsis in human cells

    Maja Kneissig et al.
    A method to generate human cells with massive chromosomal aberrations on a specific chromosome allows analysis of their consequences.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Specific lid-base contacts in the 26s proteasome control the conformational switching required for substrate degradation

    Eric R Greene et al.
    The 26S proteasome lid subcomplex acts as an external scaffold whose interactions with the ATPase motor stabilize the substrate-engagement-competent state, and control conformational changes upon engagement for subsequent degradation steps.
    1. Neuroscience

    Kv1.1 contributes to a rapid homeostatic plasticity of intrinsic excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons in vivo

    Peter James Morgan et al.
    Short, theta-bursts of action potential firing decrease the global excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, providing an internal mechanism which could regulate their allocation to memory engrams.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Helix breaking transition in the S4 of HCN channel is critical for hyperpolarization-dependent gating

    Marina A Kasimova et al.
    The gating polarity of a voltage-gated ion channel is primarily determined by turn propensity of residues at a critical position in the middle of the S4 voltage-sensing helix.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The Wolbachia cytoplasmic incompatibility enzyme CidB targets nuclear import and protamine-histone exchange factors

    John Frederick Beckmann et al.
    Genetic and proteomic screening with Wolbachia's CidB enzyme reveal the mechanisms and targets of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI).
    1. Neuroscience

    The role of premature evidence accumulation in making difficult perceptual decisions under temporal uncertainty

    Ciara A Devine et al.
    Temporal uncertainty interferes with the timely onset of evidence accumulation in perceptual decision making prompting the brain to rely instead on statistical regularities in the temporal structure of the environment.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Demographic reconstruction from ancient DNA supports rapid extinction of the great auk

    Jessica E Thomas et al.
    Reconstruction of great auk population dynamics suggests that hunting pressure alone could have been responsible for their extinction, demonstrating that even abundant, widespread species can be vulnerable to intense exploitation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ten simple rules for the computational modeling of behavioral data

    Robert C Wilson, Anne GE Collins
    Computational modeling of cognitive and neuroscience data is an insightful and powerful tool, but has many potential pitfalls that can be avoided by following simple guidelines.
    1. Cell Biology

    Evolutionarily conserved long-chain Acyl-CoA synthetases regulate membrane composition and fluidity

    Mario Ruiz et al.
    Silencing the acyl-coA synthethase ACSL1 protects against saturated fat lipotoxicity by preventing the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, allowing them to be incorporated into phospholipids and improves membrane fluidity.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Antigen presentation and tumor immunogenicity in cancer immunotherapy response prediction

    Shixiang Wang et al.
    Tumor immunogenicity is quantified with a novel method, and the resulting tumor immunogenicity score is an effective tumor-inherent biomarker for prediction of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Nucleolar dynamics and interactions with nucleoplasm in living cells

    Christina M Caragine et al.
    The nucleoplasm surrounding nucleoli in living cells plays a key role in nucleolar dynamics and shape fluctuations in vivo.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Entry by multiple picornaviruses is dependent on a pathway that includes TNK2, WASL, and NCK1

    Hongbing Jiang et al.
    Genetic and biochemical analyses identify a pathway important for infection by many picornaviruses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Punishment insensitivity emerges from impaired contingency detection, not aversion insensitivity or reward dominance

    Philip Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel et al.
    Behavioral analyses show that individuals insensitive to punishment are afraid of aversive events, they are simply unable to change their behaviour to avoid them.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The HCN domain couples voltage gating and cAMP response in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels

    Alessandro Porro et al.
    Experimental and computational approaches reveal how ligand binding is coupled to voltage sensing in a HCN channels.
    1. Neuroscience

    Apolipoprotein M-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate regulates blood–brain barrier paracellular permeability and transcytosis

    Mette Mathiesen Janiurek et al.
    Shortage of blood-borne apolipoprotein-M–bound sphingosine-1-phosphate, which accompanies various brain disorders, causes paracellular leak and increase in transcytosis at the blood–brain barrier, which can be reversed, thus is of clinical relevance.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Asymmetrical diversification of the receptor-ligand interaction controlling self-incompatibility in Arabidopsis

    Maxime Chantreau et al.
    In-planta ancestral protein resurrection of the female determinant of self-incompatibility specificity in Arabidopsis halleri demonstrates that two allelic variants currently segregating as distinct receptor-ligand combinations diverged through an asymmetrical process.
    1. Neuroscience

    Novel charged sodium and calcium channel inhibitor active against neurogenic inflammation

    Seungkyu Lee et al.
    A cationic molecule derived from an uncharged Cav2.2 calcium channel inhibitor powerfully inhibits both sodium and calcium channels with extracellular application and inhibits both pain and neurogenic inflammation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Novel genetic loci affecting facial shape variation in humans

    Ziyi Xiong et al.
    A comprehensive genome scan of 18,000 multi-ethnic individuals with 3-dimensional facial images highlighted multiple face-associated genetic loci for which regulatory activities in human neural cells were established.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Chromatin-bound CRM1 recruits SET-Nup214 and NPM1c onto HOX clusters causing aberrant HOX expression in leukemia cells

    Masahiro Oka et al.
    A key molecule that connects leukemogenic proteins to aberrant HOX gene regulation turned out to be a nuclear export factor, CRM1.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Prolonged ovarian storage of mature Drosophila oocytes dramatically increases meiotic spindle instability

    Ethan J Greenblatt et al.
    Meiotic chromosome segregation in mature Drosophila oocytes is sensitive to prolonged quiescence, suggesting that human oocyte instability may result from storage of mature rather than primordial oocytes and be modifiable.
    1. Ecology

    Multistability and regime shifts in microbial communities explained by competition for essential nutrients

    Veronika Dubinkina et al.
    Multistability and regime shifts are common and species diversity is high in microbial communities when nutrient supplies are balanced and competing species have different stoichiometries of essential nutrients.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structure of the KvAP channel reveals a non-domain-swapped voltage sensor topology

    Xiao Tao, Roderick MacKinnon
    The structure of KvAP addresses a mechanism of voltage-dependent gating that has been debated for 16 years.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Crystal structure of dopamine receptor D4 bound to the subtype selective ligand, L745870

    Ye Zhou et al.
    The structure of receptor-ligand complex reveals the ligand binding selectivity among different dopamine receptor subtypes and also shows how this ligand class inhibits receptor activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    A projection specific logic to sampling visual inputs in mouse superior colliculus

    Katja Reinhard et al.
    Transsynaptic viral tracing reveals that neurons in the superior colliculus employ projection specific rules to the sampling of retinal inputs, directing distinct visual features to different downstream targets.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice requires PerM for successful cell division

    Ruojun Wang et al.
    PerM-mediated FtsB stabilization is essential for cell division of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during chronic but not acute mouse infections.
    1. Neuroscience

    Seasonal plasticity in GABAA signaling is necessary for restoring phase synchrony in the master circadian clock network

    Kayla E Rohr et al.
    A seasonal switch to excitatory GABAA signaling dictates how daily clock neurons interact to encode environmental change.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Receptor-specific interactome as a hub for rapid cue-induced selective translation in axons

    Max Koppers et al.
    Multiple axonal guidance receptors control the local and selective translation of mRNAs by binding to ribosomes, specific mRNAs and RNA-binding proteins.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Systematic genetic analysis of the MHC region reveals mechanistic underpinnings of HLA type associations with disease

    Matteo D'Antonio et al.
    Analysis of the major histocompatibility complex using whole genome sequencing and RNA-seq data from hundreds of individuals provides novel insights into mechanisms underlying associations of this interval with disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Single cell transcriptome atlas of the Drosophila larval brain

    Clarisse Brunet Avalos et al.
    Single-cell transcriptomics identifies cellular composition of the first instar Drosophila brain and the response to starvation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Myofibril diameter is set by a finely tuned mechanism of protein oligomerization in Drosophila

    Nicanor González-Morales et al.
    Myofibril diameter is set by the controlled oligomerization of the PDZ and LIM domain protein Zasp in Drosophila.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    A curative combination cancer therapy achieves high fractional cell killing through low cross-resistance and drug additivity

    Adam C Palmer et al.
    Drugs in a curative chemotherapy regimen are independently effective and resisted by different mechanisms, so cancer cells have little chance of surviving all drugs, and this benefit occurs without synergistic interactions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Excitatory neurons are more disinhibited than inhibitory neurons by chloride dysregulation in the spinal dorsal horn

    Kwan Yeop Lee et al.
    The flow of somatosensory information through the spinal dorsal horn is regulated by synaptic inhibition, which acts upon excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, but the former are especially prone to disinhibition.
    1. Neuroscience

    Elevating acetyl-CoA levels reduces aspects of brain aging

    Antonio Currais et al.
    A novel neuroprotective pathway that enhances acetyl-CoA metabolism via inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 may prevent the contribution of the aging process in the brain to Alzheimer's disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    High-throughput microcircuit analysis of individual human brains through next-generation multineuron patch-clamp

    Yangfan Peng et al.
    Combining a multineuron patch-clamp system with an automated pipette pressure and cleaning device enables efficient screening of synaptic connectivity in human brain slices and allows inter-individual comparison.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cerebellar nuclei excitatory neurons regulate developmental scaling of presynaptic Purkinje cell number and organ growth

    Ryan T Willett et al.
    The first born excitatory cerebellar nuclei neurons influence the survival of their Purkinje cell partners which stimulate the expansion of granule cells and interneurons to produce functional local circuits.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Differential impact of self and environmental antigens on the ontogeny and maintenance of CD4+ T cell memory

    Thea Hogan et al.
    Comparing mice in clean and dirty environments reveals that environment drives initial establishment and size of T cell memory compartments, but not their maintenance in adults.
    1. Neuroscience

    Rapid learning and unlearning of predicted sensory delays in self-generated touch

    Konstantina Kilteni et al.
    The brain continuously updates the learned temporal relationship between motor commands and their associated somatosensory feedback, which determines the perceived intensity and ticklishness of self-touch.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Persistent epigenetic memory impedes rescue of the telomeric phenotype in human ICF iPSCs following DNMT3B correction

    Shir Toubiana et al.
    Correction of the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene in ICF1 syndrome fails to rescue the abnormal DNA hypomethylation at subtelomeric regions due to accompanied epigenetic abnormalities in these regions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural representation of newly instructed rule identities during early implementation trials

    Hannes Ruge et al.
    Ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex codes novel rules starting from their first-time implementation right after instruction while early consolidation is channeled through increasing cooperation with the anterior striatum.
    1. Neuroscience

    Brain clusterin protein isoforms and mitochondrial localization

    Sarah K Herring et al.
    Identification and characterization of multiple brain clusterin isoforms, including a mitochondrial matrix-targeted isoform, provides foundation to potentially clarify the link between these proteins and the development of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Multifaceted roles of microRNAs: From motor neuron generation in embryos to degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy

    Tai-Heng Chen, Jun-An Chen
    Summary review of microRNA roles during motor neuron generation and degeneration.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Replay as wavefronts and theta sequences as bump oscillations in a grid cell attractor network

    Louis Kang, Michael R DeWeese
    An experimentally supported model of grid cells naturally enables them to participate in firing sequences that encode rapid trajectories in space.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    In vivo Firre and Dxz4 deletion elucidates roles for autosomal gene regulation

    Daniel Andergassen et al.
    The X-linked loci Firre and Dxz4 are involved in autosomal gene regulation rather than XCI biology.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatiotemporal constraints on optogenetic inactivation in cortical circuits

    Nuo Li et al.
    Electrophysiology measurements characterized eight optogenetic methods, including a new reporter mouse expressing soma-localized light-activated chloride channels, for inactivating small regions of mouse neocortex.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Soluble PD-L1 generated by endogenous retroelement exaptation is a receptor antagonist

    Kevin W Ng et al.
    An ancient integration of an endogenous retroelement in the gene encoding PD-L1 is exapted to generate a soluble form that antagonises the suppressive function of the membrane-bound form.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stimulating the hippocampal posterior-medial network enhances task-dependent connectivity and memory

    Kristen N Warren et al.
    Noninvasive stimulation of hippocampal networks increases connectivity in a functionally-specific manner that is highly relevant to effective episodic memory performance that depends on the targeted network.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Direct binding of phosphatidylglycerol at specific sites modulates desensitization of a ligand-gated ion channel

    Ailing Tong et al.
    Phosphatidylglycerol binding at multiple sites stabilizes the open state relative to the desensitized state of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The ion selectivity filter is not an activation gate in TRPV1-3 channels

    Andrés Jara-Oseguera et al.
    The TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are gated on the cytosolic side of the pore, whereas structural changes in the ion selectivity filter associated with activation don't control cation access.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Formation of a β-barrel membrane protein is catalyzed by the interior surface of the assembly machine protein BamA

    James Lee et al.
    Outer membrane β-barrel proteins in Gram-negative bacteria are assembled within the lumen of the BamA β-barrel.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Shifts in myeloarchitecture characterise adolescent development of cortical gradients

    Casey Paquola et al.
    Layer-specific microstructural changes contribute to the maturation of cortical organisation during adolescence.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Movement of accessible plasma membrane cholesterol by the GRAMD1 lipid transfer protein complex

    Tomoki Naito et al.
    GRAMD1 proteins sense a transient expansion of the accessible pool of plasma membrane cholesterol and facilitate its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum at ER-PM contact sites.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Auto-regulation of Rab5 GEF activity in Rabex5 by allosteric structural changes, catalytic core dynamics and ubiquitin binding

    Janelle Lauer et al.
    Understanding the complex auto-regulatory mechanisms for guanine nucleotide exchange factors is critically important for fully appreciating the layers of control for small GTPases.
    1. Neuroscience

    Reliability of an interneuron response depends on an integrated sensory state

    May Dobosiewicz et al.
    A pair of interneurons in C. elegans condenses information from multiple sensory neurons into a uniform response, using an AND-gate logic to represent a stimulus with positive valence.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Efa6 protects axons and regulates their growth and branching by inhibiting microtubule polymerisation at the cortex

    Yue Qu et al.
    The cortical collapse factor Efa6 limits axon growth and branching and maintains axonal microtubule bundle integrity by inhibiting microtubule polymerisation at the cell cortex.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Atypical memory B-cells are associated with Plasmodium falciparum anemia through anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies

    Juan Rivera-Correa et al.
    The association of atypical memory B-cells and autoimmune antibodies (anti-phosphatidylserine) with hemoglobin levels in malaria patients uncovers a novel mechanism for the human malaria-induced anemia previously identified in mice.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Interspecies interactions induce exploratory motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Dominique H Limoli et al.
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates invasion and destruction of Staphylococcus aureus communities by modulating single-cell and collective motility.
    1. Neuroscience

    The effects of psychosocial stress on dopaminergic function and the acute stress response

    Michael AP Bloomfield et al.
    Imaging and laboratory-induced psychosocial stress showed that exposure to psychosocial adversity was associated with dampened striatal dopaminergic function alongside blunted physiological yet potentiated subjective responses to acute stress.
    1. Cell Biology

    DNA damage checkpoint activation impairs chromatin homeostasis and promotes mitotic catastrophe during aging

    Matthew M Crane et al.
    Activation of a DNA-damage cell cycle checkpoint during aging causes genome instability and senescence in yeast mother cells.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    The mother’s risk of premature death after child loss across two centuries

    Unnur A Valdimarsdóttir et al.
    A large-scale, sibling-based analysis of the Icelandic population spanning two centuries demonstrates an increase in maternal mortality rates after child loss on both sides of a major demographic transition.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Exploring structural dynamics of a membrane protein by combining bioorthogonal chemistry and cysteine mutagenesis

    Kanchan Gupta et al.
    A facile method is implemented to modify membrane proteins with biophysical reporters using cysteine-independent approaches in live cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor cortex can directly drive the globus pallidus neurons in a projection neuron type-dependent manner in the rat

    Fuyuki Karube et al.
    Globus pallidus neurons projecting to the striatum are preferentially activated by direct glutamatergic innervation from the motor cortex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Calretinin positive neurons form an excitatory amplifier network in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    Kelly M Smith et al.
    A signal amplifier network that transmits mechanical pain is delineated through characterising an excitatory interneuron population in the spinal cord dorsal horn and defining the postsynaptic populations they regulate.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Screening identifies small molecules that enhance the maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived myotubes

    Sridhar Selvaraj et al.
    Treatment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived myotubes with a cocktail of small molecules induces their maturation, as shown by gene expression, biochemical and functional assays.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The DNA-binding protein HTa from Thermoplasma acidophilum is an archaeal histone analog

    Antoine Hocher et al.
    In Thermoplasma acidophilum, an archaeon without histones, a DNA-binding protein acquired from bacteria via horizontal gene transfer mediates histone-like chromatin architecture.
    1. Neuroscience

    Single-cell transcriptomic evidence for dense intracortical neuropeptide networks

    Stephen J Smith et al.
    Single-cell mRNA sequencing data from mouse neocortex expose evidence for peptidergic neuromodulation networks that locally interconnect every cortical neuron.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Induction of Sertoli-like cells from human fibroblasts by NR5A1 and GATA4

    Jianlin Liang et al.
    In vitro reprogramming of human fibroblasts to Sertoli-like cells with immunosuppressive properties provides platforms for basic research and clinical application.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Initiation of chromosome replication controls both division and replication cycles in E. coli through a double-adder mechanism

    Guillaume Witz et al.
    Single-cell measurements combined with a new statistical framework for discriminating between models of cell cycle regulation show that chromosome initiation controls the E. coli cell cycle via two adder mechanisms.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Perinatal hormones favor CC17 group B Streptococcus intestinal translocation through M cells and hypervirulence in neonates

    Constantin Hays et al.
    Hormonal concentrations found in over 7-day-old neonates favor CC17 GBS invasiveness in a process linked to intestinal M cells maturation and mediated by the CC17 GBS surface protein Srr2.
    1. Neuroscience

    One-shot learning and behavioral eligibility traces in sequential decision making

    Marco P Lehmann et al.
    Human learning relies on short-term memories (eligibility traces) which provide a mechanism to reinforce sequences of actions from a single reward (one-shot).
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Non-enzymatic primer extension with strand displacement

    Lijun Zhou et al.
    Relying on RNA fragments derived from degradation or partial template copying, non-enzymatic primer extension with strand displacement offers a novel and prebiotically plausible approach to RNA self-replication.
    1. Neuroscience

    Drosophila PSI controls circadian period and the phase of circadian behavior under temperature cycle via tim splicing

    Lauren E Foley et al.
    A screen targeting RNA-associated proteins reveals that PSI regulates timeless alternative splicing and thus controls the period of Drosophila circadian behavior and its phase under temperature cycles.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Late developing cardiac lymphatic vasculature supports adult zebrafish heart function and regeneration

    Michael RM Harrison et al.
    Zebrafish develop cardiac lymphatic vessels along coronary arteries and this vasculature supports scar reduction following severe damage to the myocardium.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Distinct origins and molecular mechanisms contribute to lymphatic formation during cardiac growth and regeneration

    Dana Gancz et al.
    Cardiac lymphatic vessels of heterogeneous origins and molecular signatures support cardiac growth and regeneration.
    1. Neuroscience

    Thermosensitive alternative splicing senses and mediates temperature adaptation in Drosophila

    Ane Martin Anduaga et al.
    Temperature controls the circadian clock by directly regulating the alternative splicing of timeless..
    1. Neuroscience

    An image-computable model for the stimulus selectivity of gamma oscillations

    Dora Hermes et al.
    Gamma-band oscillations show striking differences in stimulus selectivity compared to fMRI and broadband field potentials in human visual cortex, and are explained by a novel, image-computable model.
    1. Neuroscience

    Differential contributions of the two human cerebral hemispheres to action timing

    Anja Pflug et al.
    Brain imaging reveals frequency-dependent lateralized rhythmic finger tapping control by the auditory cortex with left-lateralized control of relative fast and right-lateralized control of relative slow rhythms.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Free circular introns with an unusual branchpoint in neuronal projections

    Harleen Saini et al.
    A systematic study of RNA localization unexpectedly finds a set of free circular introns with a non-canonical C branchpoint enriched in neuronal projections.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Computational and cellular studies reveal structural destabilization and degradation of MLH1 variants in Lynch syndrome

    Amanda B Abildgaard et al.
    Biophysical modeling, performed in silico, can predict the abundance, metabolic stability, and function of MLH1 inside living cells.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Selection on mutators is not frequency-dependent

    Yevgeniy Raynes, Daniel Weinreich
    Contrary to intuition that the evolutionary fate of mutation rate modifying alleles is frequency-dependent, neither the strength nor the sign of selection on modifiers depends on initial frequency.
    1. Cell Biology

    Crumbs organizes the transport machinery by regulating apical levels of PI(4,5)P2 in Drosophila

    Johanna Lattner et al.
    The polarity protein crumbs controls apical secretion and the architecture of the apical domain by modulating PI(4,5)P2 levels and the organization of apical Rab6-, Rab11-, and Rab30-dependent trafficking.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Chromatinization of Escherichia coli with archaeal histones

    Maria Rojec et al.
    Escherichia coli is surprisingly tolerant to chromatinization by archaeal histones, suggesting that histones can become established as ubiquitous chromatin proteins without interfering critically with some key DNA-templated processes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-γ control selection of amacrine neurons in Drosophila color vision circuits

    Kaushiki P Menon et al.
    The survival of Drosophila amacrine neurons is controlled by neurotrophic signaling mediated by interactions between the cell surface protein DIP-γ and its partner Dpr11, which is expressed on presynaptic photoreceptors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Lateral orbitofrontal cortex promotes trial-by-trial learning of risky, but not spatial, biases

    Christine M Constantinople et al.
    The lateral orbitofrontal cortex promotes learning of abstract, task-specific biases, but not spatial ones.
    1. Cell Biology

    Negative regulation of autophagy by UBA6-BIRC6–mediated ubiquitination of LC3

    Rui Jia, Juan S Bonifacino
    An ensemble of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA6 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme/ubiquitin-ligase BIRC6 mediates ubiquitination of LC3, targeting the latter for proteasomal degradation and thus attenuating autophagic degradation of cellular substrates.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates the circadian clock

    Andrea Brenna et al.
    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates the circadian clock involving phosphorylation of the PER2 protein.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Loss of adaptive capacity in asthmatic patients revealed by biomarker fluctuation dynamics after rhinovirus challenge

    Anirban Sinha et al.
    Fluctuation of biomarkers is a novel way of studying system stability during stable and unstable states of health and disease, revealing the systems' ability to cope with external perturbations.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dichotomous organization of amygdala/temporal-prefrontal bundles in both humans and monkeys

    Davide Folloni et al.
    Amygdala/temporal-prefrontal cortex fibers are organised in separate amygdalofugal and uncinate bundles in humans and macaques, shaping the anatomical foundation for decision-making and socio-emotional behaviour.
    1. Cell Biology

    The mammalian LINC complex component SUN1 regulates muscle regeneration by modulating drosha activity

    Tsui Han Loo et al.
    The LINC complex, that couples the interphase cytoskeleton to the nucleus, regulates the processing of a cluster of miRNAs required for muscle regeneration by recruiting and interacting directly with Drosha.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A single clonal lineage of transmissible cancer identified in two marine mussel species in South America and Europe

    Marisa A Yonemitsu et al.
    A transmissible cancer that arose in a marine mussel spread from a single animal to become a global pathogen affecting two other mussel species in both Europe and South America.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Modular transcriptional programs separately define axon and dendrite connectivity

    Yerbol Z Kurmangaliyev et al.
    Diverse morphologies of Drosophila T4/T5 neuronal subtypes are defined by the modular assembly of transcriptional programs for distinct wiring features.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    RNA from a simple-tandem repeat is required for sperm maturation and male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

    Wilbur Kyle Mills et al.
    Sperm production and male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster depend on transcripts generated from the AAGAG(n) repeated satellite DNA within primary spermatocytes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Interhemispherically dynamic representation of an eye movement-related activity in mouse frontal cortex

    Takashi R Sato et al.
    Optogenetically induced motor disruption can evoke plasticity in the mouse frontal cortex that compensates for the motor deficits, accompanying changes in inter-hemispheric motor representation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Chromosome territory formation attenuates the translocation potential of cells

    Leah F Rosin et al.
    The translocation potential of cells can be modulated by Condensin II activity during interphase.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    IFI16, a nuclear innate immune DNA sensor, mediates epigenetic silencing of herpesvirus genomes by its association with H3K9 methyltransferases SUV39H1 and GLP

    Arunava Roy et al.
    The innate immune DNA sensor IFI16 is in association with H3K9 methyltransferases SUV39H1 and GLP under physiological conditions in the nucleus which facilitates the epigenetic silencing of foreign viral DNA.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Single-cell proteomics reveals changes in expression during hair-cell development

    Ying Zhu et al.
    Protein mass spectrometry can be used to uncover developmental trajectories in small single cells of differentiating tissues.
    1. Cell Biology

    Function of hTim8a in complex IV assembly in neuronal cells provides insight into pathomechanism underlying Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome

    Yilin Kang et al.
    A neuronal specific function of the mitochondrial chaperone, hTim8a in Complex IV biology provides insight into the pathomechanisms underlying the mitochondrial disease, Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Protein polyglutamylation catalyzed by the bacterial calmodulin-dependent pseudokinase SidJ

    Alan Sulpizio et al.
    The pseudokinase-like Legionella effector SidJ catalyzes the glutamylation of bacterial ubiquitin ligases in a calmodulin-dependent manner.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopamine neuron ensembles signal the content of sensory prediction errors

    Thomas A Stalnaker et al.
    Dopamine neurons function as an ensemble to signal a multidimensional feature prediction error.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    An efficient CRISPR-based strategy to insert small and large fragments of DNA using short homology arms

    Oguz Kanca et al.
    Optimization of homology donor DNA production and integration schemes facilitates homologous recombination in vivo and in cell culture in Drosophila melanogaster..
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Intestinal infection regulates behavior and learning via neuroendocrine signaling

    Jogender Singh, Alejandro Aballay
    Feedback from the intestine during infection can modulate the behavior, learning, and microbial perception of the host.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Retro-2 protects cells from ricin toxicity by inhibiting ASNA1-mediated ER targeting and insertion of tail-anchored proteins

    David W Morgens et al.
    Using a suite of CRISPR technologies, unique chemical tools, and carefully designed biochemical and cell biological assays, we define the mechanism of action of Retro-2, an inhibitor of retrograde toxins.
    1. Ecology
    2. Neuroscience

    Optimal searching behaviour generated intrinsically by the central pattern generator for locomotion

    David W Sims et al.
    The nervous system circuitry that controls locomotion has evolved to intrinsically generate an optimal search pattern for resources.
    1. Neuroscience

    The mechanosensitive ion channel TRAAK is localized to the mammalian node of Ranvier

    Stephen G Brohawn et al.
    The mechanosensitive potassium channel TRAAK is localized to nodes of Ranvier is mammalian axons where it hyperpolarizes the resting potential and may contribute to mechanical repolarization of neurons.

Magazine

    1. Neuroscience

    Behavior: The cerebellum shows its stripes

    Ashley L Holloway, Talia N Lerner
    1. Neuroscience

    Prefrontal Cortex: A tale of two pathways

    Jonathan A Oler, Julie L Fudge