September 2019

Image credit: Barbara Baer-Imhoof, University of California, Riverside

Research articles

    1. Cell Biology

    TORC2-Gad8-dependent myosin phosphorylation modulates regulation by calcium

    Karen Baker et al.
    IQ domain phosphorylation regulates calmodulin binding and myosin-1 function.
    1. Developmental Biology

    NEIL1 and NEIL2 DNA glycosylases protect neural crest development against mitochondrial oxidative stress

    Dandan Han et al.
    NEIL DNA glycosylases are required to counteract oxidative base damages within the mitochondrial genome to safeguard neural crest cell differentiation.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular mechanism of TRPV2 channel modulation by cannabidiol

    Ruth A Pumroy et al.
    Cannabidiol binds to TRPV2 via a previously unidentified, but highly conserved, pocket.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Casein kinase 1 family proteins promote Slimb-dependent Expanded degradation

    Alexander D Fulford et al.
    The tissue growth controlling Hippo signalling pathway is modulated by the activity of the Casein Kinase 1 family, which regulates the protein stability of the upstream Hippo pathway component Expanded.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    BMP7 functions predominantly as a heterodimer with BMP2 or BMP4 during mammalian embryogenesis

    Hyung-Seok Kim et al.
    Endogenous BMP2/7 and BMP4/7 heterodimers form in vivo, and are the predominant functional ligand in many, if not all, tissues of developing mouse embryos.
    1. Neuroscience

    A toolbox of nanobodies developed and validated for use as intrabodies and nanoscale immunolabels in mammalian brain neurons

    Jie-Xian Dong et al.
    Nanobodies are developed that target neuronal proteins with restricted subcellular distributions and used as intrabodies to deliver cargo to specific sites within neurons and nanoscale immunolabels for improved imaging resolution.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Allosteric activation of the nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylate cyclase mapped by cryo-electron microscopy

    Benjamin G Horst et al.
    The full-length structures of the mammalian nitric oxide receptor reveal the molecular activation steps and a binding site for the prototype of FDA-approved stimulators.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Coopted temporal patterning governs cellular hierarchy, heterogeneity and metabolism in Drosophila neuroblast tumors

    Sara Genovese et al.
    About twenty temporal patterning genes are identified that drive an irreversible differentiation trajectory governing the heterogeneity and proliferative properties of cells in neural tumors with an early developmental origin.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cue-inhibited ventrolateral periaqueductal gray neurons signal fear output and threat probability in male rats

    Kristina M Wright et al.
    Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray neurons signal fear output through patterned inhibition of neural activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Light-at-night exposure affects brain development through pineal allopregnanolone-dependent mechanisms

    Shogo Haraguchi et al.
    Diurnal variation loss of pineal allopregnanolone synthesis by light-at-night induces pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) reduction and transcriptional PACAP repression in the cerebellum, with subsequent Purkinje cell death.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A new class of disordered elements controls DNA replication through initiator self-assembly

    Matthew W Parker et al.
    DNA replication initiation proteins contain a disordered domain that impacts each stage of their function, from chromatin recruitment and initiator co-assembly to the subsequent displacement of the factors from chromatin.
    1. Cell Biology

    Cytoplasmic protein misfolding titrates Hsp70 to activate nuclear Hsf1

    Anna E Masser et al.
    Hsp70 restricts DNA binding activity of Hsf1 to control the width and amplitude of the heat-shock regulon.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural mapping of oligomeric intermediates in an amyloid assembly pathway

    Theodoros K Karamanos et al.
    Solution NMR provides structural and kinetic information about oligomers on pathway to amyloid fibrils that are precisely structured but not cytotoxic.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Id4 promotes the elimination of the pro-activation factor Ascl1 to maintain quiescence of adult hippocampal stem cells

    Isabelle Maria Blomfield et al.
    Genetic and protein analyses in vitro and in vivo identifies Id4 as a novel regulator of stem cell quiescence in the adult hippocampus.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Evolution of (p)ppGpp-HPRT regulation through diversification of an allosteric oligomeric interaction

    Brent W Anderson et al.
    The signaling ligand (p)ppGpp regulates the enzyme HPRT across species by binding to a novel class of conserved motif, yet its specificity is allosterically altered through evolution of enzyme oligomerization.
    1. Developmental Biology

    An RNAi screen unravels the complexities of Rho GTPase networks in skin morphogenesis

    Melanie Laurin et al.
    An unprecedented large-scale screen in mice for morphogenetic regulators of tissue development provides major new insights into the roles of Rho GTPases in diverse array of skin developmental processes.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Population adaptation in efficient balanced networks

    Gabrielle J Gutierrez, Sophie Denève
    Neural populations may depend on balanced recurrent connectivity to produce an efficient stimulus representation while also maintaining an accurate stimulus encoding despite the variability introduced by adapting neural responses.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Intergenerational effects of early adversity on survival in wild baboons

    Matthew N Zipple et al.
    In wild baboons, a female's adverse early experiences can influence her offspring's survival years after the original adversity was experienced.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    The frequency limit of outer hair cell motility measured in vivo

    Anna Vavakou et al.
    The cells in our inner ear commonly believed to provide fast mechanical feedback are too sluggish to follow the vibrations evoked by high-frequency sounds.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Myogenic vasoconstriction requires G12/G13 and LARG to maintain local and systemic vascular resistance

    Ramesh Chennupati et al.
    Genetic mouse models identify a critical mechanism of myogenic vasoconstriction and reveal the in vivo function of myogenic autoregulation in protecting from organ overperfusion and in maintaining vascular resistance.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Region-specific regulation of stem cell-driven regeneration in tapeworms

    Tania Rozario et al.
    Tapeworms grow and regenerate using stem cells distributed throughout their bodies, but their regeneration competence relies upon the unique micro-environment created by the head and neck.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Visualizing trypanosomes in a vertebrate host reveals novel swimming behaviours, adaptations and attachment mechanisms

    Éva Dóró et al.
    The transparent zebrafish reveals the reality of trypanosomes swimming in a vertebrate host, and their adaptations to an extremely heterogenic environment.
    1. Neuroscience

    A mechanism in agrin signaling revealed by a prevalent Rapsyn mutation in congenital myasthenic syndrome

    Guanglin Xing et al.
    Asparagine 88 to lysine (N88K), a prevalent congenital myasthenic syndrome mutation of Rapsyn, impairs the neuromuscular junction by disrupting agrin signaling.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Large, three-generation human families reveal post-zygotic mosaicism and variability in germline mutation accumulation

    Thomas A Sasani et al.
    Rates of germline mutation accumulation are highly variable across families of similar genetic ancestry, and post-zygotic mosaicism is a substantial source of de novo mutations.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Tooth fracture frequency in gray wolves reflects prey availability

    Blaire Van Valkenburgh et al.
    Despite risks of infection and reduced fitness, tooth fracture frequency in gray wolves increases rapidly when prey are scarce because they must consume carcasses more completely.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Optical estimation of absolute membrane potential using fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Julia R Lazzari-Dean et al.
    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, paired with fluorescent, voltage-sensitive dyes, provides a method for measuring and quantifying membrane potentials of living cells.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Mamo decodes hierarchical temporal gradients into terminal neuronal fate

    Ling-Yu Liu et al.
    Neuronal diversity is expanded by a temporal fating paradigm utilizing hierarchical gene regulation.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Sustained expression of HeyL is critical for the proliferation of muscle stem cells in overloaded muscle

    Sumiaki Fukuda et al.
    Proliferating muscle stem cells in overloaded muscle require special molecular mechanisms that differ from well-known myogenic differentiation model.
    1. Neuroscience

    An arbitrary-spectrum spatial visual stimulator for vision research

    Katrin Franke et al.
    Towards a community effort, we here present a flexible yet standardised visual stimulator design based on open hardware and software.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    TRAIP drives replisome disassembly and mitotic DNA repair synthesis at sites of incomplete DNA replication

    Remi Sonneville et al.
    The TRAIP ubiquitin ligase is required during mitosis to disassemble the replisome at sites of incomplete DNA replication, and activate the mitotic DNA repair pathway, thus preserving genome integrity.
    1. Developmental Biology

    An autoregulatory cell cycle timer integrates growth and specification in chick wing digit development

    Joseph Pickering et al.
    A cell cycle timing mechanism similar to one operating in cultured adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells controls the growth and patterning of the embryonic chick wing bud.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Evolutionary emergence of Hairless as a novel component of the Notch signaling pathway

    Steven W Miller et al.
    Hairless emerged as an evolutionarily novel regulatory protein that replaced an ancestral paradigm of direct co-repressor recruitment by Suppressor of Hairless, its partner transcription factor in the Notch signaling pathway.
    1. Neuroscience

    Optical dopamine monitoring with dLight1 reveals mesolimbic phenotypes in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis type 1

    J Elliott Robinson et al.
    Heterozygous Nf1 knockout mice exhibit distinct dopaminergic phenotypes in vivo, as revealed by the genetically encoded dopamine sensor dLight1, patch clamp electrophysiology, optogenetics, and novel viral tools for morphological analysis.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    A scalable platform for the development of cell-type-specific viral drivers

    Sinisa Hrvatin et al.
    Highly paralleled functional evaluation of enhancer activity in single cells generates new cell-type-specific tools with broad medical and scientific applications.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide mitigates interneuronopathy associated with ethanol exposure in utero

    Alexander GJ Skorput et al.
    Prenatal ethanol exposure results in aberrant tangential migration by altering NKCC1-mediated chloride homeostasis that can be mitigated by bumetanide.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Viral miRNA adaptor differentially recruits miRNAs to target mRNAs through alternative base-pairing

    Carlos Gorbea et al.
    iRICC, a new method to identify RNA-RNA interactions in vivo, provides mechanistic insight into the function of a viral non-coding RNA.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Fgf-signaling is compartmentalized within the mesenchyme and controls proliferation during salamander limb development

    Sruthi Purushothaman et al.
    While movement of Fgf-signaling to the limb mesenchyme accompanied a shift in function, the ultimate outcome remains a convergent tetrapod limb phenotype.
    1. Plant Biology

    Proximity labeling of protein complexes and cell-type-specific organellar proteomes in Arabidopsis enabled by TurboID

    Andrea Mair et al.
    Proximity-labeling using engineered biotin ligases TurboID and miniTurbo enables detection of cell-type-specific and low abundance protein complexes and subcellular proteomes in Arabidopsis and other plants.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    A distinct cardiopharyngeal mesoderm genetic hierarchy establishes antero-posterior patterning of esophagus striated muscle

    Glenda Comai et al.
    Tbx1-Isl1-Met defines a unique genetic hierarchy that regulates esophagus myogenesis and patterning in the mouse.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    A distinct transition from cell growth to physiological homeostasis in the tendon

    Mor Grinstein et al.
    Mitotic labeling defines a change in cell division kinetics from growth to homeostasis and identifies slowly cycling cells in the adult tendon.
    1. Neuroscience

    ON selectivity in the Drosophila visual system is a multisynaptic process involving both glutamatergic and GABAergic inhibition

    Sebastian Molina-Obando et al.
    A fundamental visual computation, the establishment of ON selectivity, is established across distributed circuits, allowing for more robust and flexible coding than suggested by core circuit motifs.
    1. Plant Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Protein engineering expands the effector recognition profile of a rice NLR immune receptor

    Juan Carlos De la Concepcion et al.
    Structure-led protein engineering can expand the effector recognition profile of plant intracellular NLR immune receptors, providing a proof-of-principle for the development of novel disease resistance mechanisms in plants.
    1. Neuroscience

    RIM-BP2 primes synaptic vesicles via recruitment of Munc13-1 at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Marisa M Brockmann et al.
    The active zone scaffold protein RIM-BP2 performs distinct functions in vesicle release at two hippocampal synapses, providing insights on how synapses express diversity in release properties.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM analyses reveal the common mechanism and diversification in the activation of RET by different ligands

    Jie Li et al.
    Cryo-EM studies reveal structural basis for the activation, auto-inhibition and regulation of RET receptor tyrosine kinase.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Molecular function limits divergent protein evolution on planetary timescales

    Mariam M Konaté et al.
    Orthologous proteins that continuously maintain the same molecular function do not usually diverge beyond a certain level of sequence and structural similarity.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Phylodynamic theory of persistence, extinction and speciation of rapidly adapting pathogens

    Le Yan et al.
    A model of pathogen co-evolving with host population continuously acquiring immunity is used to identify evolutionary parameters allowing pathogen population to persist without going extinct or splitting into independent lineages.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    ENaC-mediated sodium influx exacerbates NLRP3-dependent inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    Thomas Scambler et al.
    Dysfunction and overexpression of ENaC-mediated sodium influx exacerbates activation of NLRP3-inflammasome mediated inflammation in cells with CF-associated mutations and is modulated by inhibition of these amiloride-sensitive sodium (Na+) channels.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    NHR-14 loss of function couples intestinal iron uptake with innate immunity in C. elegans through PQM-1 signaling

    Malini Rajan et al.
    Nuclear receptor NHR-14 regulates the subcellular localization of the zinc transcription factor PQM-1 to coordinate innate immunity with iron sequestration during pathogen infection in C. elegans..
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Rats exhibit similar biases in foraging and intertemporal choice tasks

    Gary A Kane et al.
    In both foraging and intertemporal choice tasks, rats prefer immediate rewards to delayed rewards, and this preference can be explained by a form of hyperbolic discounting.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Learning is enhanced by tailoring instruction to individual genetic differences

    David G Mets, Michael S Brainard
    Tailoring instructive experience to individual genetic biases improves vocal learning outcomes across genetic backgrounds in the Bengalese finch.
    1. Neuroscience

    Evolution of neuronal anatomy and circuitry in two highly divergent nematode species

    Ray L Hong et al.
    The substrate for evolutionary divergence does not lie in changes in neuronal cell number or targeting, but rather in sensory perception and synaptic partner choice within invariant, prepatterned neuronal processes.
    1. Cell Biology

    A critical role of VMP1 in lipoprotein secretion

    Hideaki Morishita et al.
    The ER transmembrane protein VMP1 is important for release of lipoproteins from the ER membrane into the ER lumen for secretion.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Cell-autonomous regulation of epithelial cell quiescence by calcium channel Trpv6

    Yi Xin et al.
    Genetics, in vivo imaging, and unbiased chemical biology screens reveal that Trpv6 functions as a cellular quiescence regulator and delineates a Trpv6-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway maintaining the quiescent state.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Mechanisms of iron- and O2-sensing by the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the global iron regulator RirA

    Ma Teresa Pellicer Martinez et al.
    Molecular details of how the iron–sulfur cluster cofactor of a bacterial global iron regulatory protein simultaneously senses iron and O2 are revealed by mass spectrometry and spectroscopy.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Multivariable two-sample Mendelian randomization estimates of the effects of intelligence and education on health

    Neil Martin Davies et al.
    Many of the effects of intelligence on health and social outcomes later in life are mediated via education.
    1. Neuroscience

    Self-organization of modular network architecture by activity-dependent neuronal migration and outgrowth

    Samora Okujeni, Ulrich Egert
    Activity-dependent neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration interact to shape modular mesoscale network architecture by homeostatic self-organization.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The Photorhabdus asymbiotica virulence cassettes deliver protein effectors directly into target eukaryotic cells

    Isabella Vlisidou et al.
    The insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus has evolved astonishing nano-scale analogues of hypodermic syringes that it uses to inject toxins into host cells.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A contractile injection system stimulates tubeworm metamorphosis by translocating a proteinaceous effector

    Charles F Ericson et al.
    Bacteria produce a syringe-like structure, loaded with a single protein within the lumen of its needle-like tube, that is sufficient for stimulating animal metamorphosis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Single molecule mechanics resolves the earliest events in force generation by cardiac myosin

    Michael S Woody et al.
    Cardiac myosin converts energy from ATP into mechanical work by transitioning from a short-lived force-bearing state, to a post working stroke state before the release of inorganic phosphate.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Dynamic turnover of centromeres drives karyotype evolution in Drosophila

    Ryan Bracewell et al.
    De novo formation of centromeres creates diverse karyotypes in flies and is accompanied by rapid turnover of centromere-associated satellite repeats.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human motor fatigability as evoked by repetitive movements results from a gradual breakdown of surround inhibition

    Marc Bächinger et al.
    Motor fatigability is associated with a decrease in inhibition throughout the motor network, suggesting that selective inhibitory control is a key mechanism to maintain motor efficiency during repetitive movements.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Mechanically activated piezo channels modulate outflow tract valve development through the Yap1 and Klf2-Notch signaling axis

    Anne-Laure Duchemin et al.
    High resolution in vivo imaging of the zebrafish heart morphogenesis allows quantitative testing of the impact of stretch sensitive channels during outflow tract valve development.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neurexophilin4 is a selectively expressed α-neurexin ligand that modulates specific cerebellar synapses and motor functions

    Xiangling Meng et al.
    A combination of mouse genetics and biochemistry approaches reveals neurexophilin4 (Nxph4) as a context-specific α-neurexin ligand, which regulates Golgi-granule cell inhibitory synapses and motor functions.
    1. Plant Biology

    Anion channel SLAH3 is a regulatory target of chitin receptor-associated kinase PBL27 in microbial stomatal closure

    Yi Liu et al.
    S-type anion channel activity, which promotes stomatal closure and improves anti-fungal immunity in plants, is directly regulated through phosphorylation by a kinase of the chitin receptor complex.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Self-assembling manifolds in single-cell RNA sequencing data

    Alexander J Tarashansky et al.
    An iterative self-assembling algorithm identifies the intrinsic structures in single-cell transcriptomic data and helps to discover new cell populations that are undetectable by existing methods.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The ER membrane protein complex is required to ensure correct topology and stable expression of flavivirus polyproteins

    Ashley M Ngo et al.
    The ER membrane protein complex (EMC) facilitates the correct topology of the flavivirus non-structural proteins NS4A and NS4B at the ER membrane critical for viral replication.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Evolutionary pathways to antibiotic resistance are dependent upon environmental structure and bacterial lifestyle

    Alfonso Santos-Lopez et al.
    Bacteria growing in biofilms evolve antimicrobial resistance via different pathways and generate greater genetic diversity than well-mixed populations, selecting fitter but less resistant genotypes.
    1. Cell Biology

    Proteostasis collapse, a hallmark of aging, hinders the chaperone-Start network and arrests cells in G1

    David F Moreno et al.
    Cells accumulate damaged proteins during aging and, by compromising the function of chaperones in folding newly synthesized G1 cyclins, proteostasis breakdown inhibits cell-cycle entry and drives yeast cells into senescence.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ligand recognition and gating mechanism through three ligand-binding sites of human TRPM2 channel

    Yihe Huang et al.
    High-resolution structures of human TRPM2 in different functional states provided the mechanism underlying ligand recognition, channel activation and inhibition.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Electron cryo-microscopy of bacteriophage PR772 reveals the elusive vertex complex and the capsid architecture

    Hemanth KN Reddy et al.
    The structure and composition of the elusive vertex complex in Tectiviridae is finally revealed and the newly reported protein conformations help to maintain the capsid architecture.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Extensive ribosome and RF2 rearrangements during translation termination

    Egor Svidritskiy et al.
    Ensemble cryo-EM visualizes how structural rearrangements poise the newly made protein and release factor RF2 to dissociate in preparation for ribosome recycling.
    1. Developmental Biology

    TEADs, Yap, Taz, Vgll4s transcription factors control the establishment of Left-Right asymmetry in zebrafish

    Jonathan Fillatre et al.
    Transcription factors downstream of Hippo signaling control formation of the Left-Right Organizer by regulating major signaling pathways, expression of transcription factors and regulators of epigenetic programming involved in this process.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Neural stem cell temporal patterning and brain tumour growth rely on oxidative phosphorylation

    Jelle van den Ameele, Andrea H Brand
    Mitochondrial dysfunction in neural stem cells and brain tumour cells decreases proliferation and affects the generation of neuronal diversity and tumour heterogeneity.
    1. Ecology

    Entomopathogenic nematodes increase predation success by inducing cadaver volatiles that attract healthy herbivores

    Xi Zhang et al.
    By changing the smell of their host, entomopathogenic nematodes attract future hosts and increase their predation success.
    1. Neuroscience

    Classical conditioning drives learned reward prediction signals in climbing fibers across the lateral cerebellum

    William Heffley, Court Hull
    Cerebellar climbing fibers can generate learned reward-predictive instructional signals, suggesting a role for cerebellar learning in the reinforcement of reward-driven behaviors.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Calcium-driven regulation of voltage-sensing domains in BK channels

    Yenisleidy Lorenzo-Ceballos et al.
    Gating currents analysis at different Ca2+ concentrations of BK channels reveals a strong allosteric coupling between Ca2+- and voltage-sensing modules via equivalent contributions exerted by the RCK1 and RCK2 Ca2+-sites.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Actomyosin regulation by Eph receptor signaling couples boundary cell formation to border sharpness

    Jordi Cayuso et al.
    Boundary cell identity and sharpening of borders are coupled in hindbrain development since both are regulated by mechanical tension.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Lack of activity of recombinant HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) on reported non-HIF substrates

    Matthew E Cockman et al.
    Assays using recombinant HIF prolyl hydroxylases did not support hydroxylation of more than 20 reported non-HIF substrates under conditions where robust HIF hydroxylation was observed.
    1. Neuroscience

    Representational untangling by the firing rate nonlinearity in V1 simple cells

    Merse E Gáspár et al.
    Firing rate nonlinearity recovers linear decodability of orientation information from simple cells of the primary visual cortex under uncertainty of nuisance parameters phase and spatial frequency.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    How prolonged expression of Hunchback, a temporal transcription factor, re-wires locomotor circuits

    Julia L Meng et al.
    In vivo stem cell reprogramming in the well-studied stem cell NB7-1 using the classic temporal transcription factor Hunchback increases motor neuron number and re-specifies dendritic morphology and neuromuscular synaptic partnerships.
    1. Neuroscience

    MRGPRX4 is a bile acid receptor for human cholestatic itch

    Huasheng Yu et al.
    Bile acid and it's receptor MRGPRX4, but not TGR5, is one of the ligand-receptor pairs for chronic itch in patients with liver diseases.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Functional metagenomics-guided discovery of potent Cas9 inhibitors in the human microbiome

    Kevin J Forsberg et al.
    A high-throughput, activity-based selection identifies many phage-derived inhibitors of Cas9 from human fecal and oral metagenomes, with at least one inhibitor acting via a novel mechanism.
    1. Neuroscience

    Processing of different spatial scales in the human brain

    Michael Peer et al.
    When subjects perform spatial judgments in environments of increasing scale, brain activity shifts along posterior-anterior gradients, advancing from the visual system to the default-mode network.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Seminal fluid compromises visual perception in honeybee queens reducing their survival during additional mating flights

    Joanito Liberti et al.
    After insemination, honeybee queens experience a rapid reduction in vision and flight performance, consistent with an ongoing sexual conflict over the number of mating flights that queens embark on.
    1. Neuroscience

    The paraventricular thalamus is a critical mediator of top-down control of cue-motivated behavior in rats

    Paolo Campus et al.
    A top-down circuit generating from the prelimbic cortex and projecting to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus mediates individual differences in cue-elicited responding by affecting subcortical dopamine-dependent incentive learning.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Consistent and correctable bias in metagenomic sequencing experiments

    Michael R McLaren et al.
    A mathematical model of bias in marker-gene and metagenomic sequencing measurements explains systematic errors in defined mixtures of microbial species, and enables quantitative and reproducible investigation of biological communities.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Notch signaling restricts FGF pathway activation in parapineal cells to promote their collective migration

    Lu Wei et al.
    Notch signaling controls the collective migration of parapineal cells through its capacity to restrict FGF pathway activation to a few leading cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    The nature of the animacy organization in human ventral temporal cortex

    Sushrut Thorat et al.
    The animacy organization in human ventral visual cortex is driven by both the presence of animal-diagnostic visual features and the psychological property of agency.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Mitochondria supply ATP to the ER through a mechanism antagonized by cytosolic Ca2+

    Jing Yong et al.
    ATP enters the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen through an SLC35B1/AXER-dependentCaATiER mechanism, and ATP usage in the ER renders 'anti-Warburg' effect by increasing ATP regeneration from OxPhos while decreasing glycolysis.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Kinesin and dynein use distinct mechanisms to bypass obstacles

    Luke S Ferro et al.
    Dynein bypasses obstacles on microtubules more efficiently than single kinesin, and kinesins overcome this limitation when transporting intracellular cargos in teams.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Evolution of Yin and Yang isoforms of a chromatin remodeling subunit precedes the creation of two genes

    Wen Xu et al.
    Gene sharing through different isoforms can precede the formation of independent genes.
    1. Cell Biology

    Evidence that a positive feedback loop drives centrosome maturation in fly embryos

    Ines Alvarez-Rodrigo et al.
    Polo kinase recruitment by the protein Spd-2 to the pericentriolar scaffold is a key element of the positive feedback loop which drives the expansion of the mitotic centrosomes in flies.
    1. Neuroscience

    HCN channel-mediated neuromodulation can control action potential velocity and fidelity in central axons

    Niklas Byczkowicz et al.
    The cAMP-HCN pathway can control action potential conduction velocity providing neuromodulators with the ability to tune energy consumption and temporal delays across axons in the brain.
    1. Neuroscience

    Long-term adult human brain slice cultures as a model system to study human CNS circuitry and disease

    Niklas Schwarz et al.
    Viral transduction and gene manipulation of adult human brain slices will be of great value allowing investigations including therapeutic screening, electrophysiological and structural studies of properties of human CNS circuitry.
    1. Cell Biology

    Regulator of G protein signaling 12 enhances osteoclastogenesis by suppressing Nrf2-dependent antioxidant proteins to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species

    Andrew Ying Hui Ng et al.
    Rgs12 protein is a novel regulator of the Nrf2 protein by facilitating the proteasomal degradation of the transcription factor during osteoclast differentiation.
    1. Neuroscience

    An open cortico-basal ganglia loop allows limbic control over motor output via the nigrothalamic pathway

    Sho Aoki et al.
    A novel connection from ventral striatum to motor cortex enables emotion and motivation to influence action and motor control.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Remote control of microtubule plus-end dynamics and function from the minus-end

    Xiuzhen Chen et al.
    A mechanism for yeast centrosomes to differentiate the microtubule cytoskeleton.
    1. Neuroscience

    Entrained neuronal activity to periodic visual stimuli in the primate striatum compared with the cerebellum

    Masashi Kameda et al.
    Neurons in the striatum exhibited periodic firing in monkeys attempting to detect omission of repetitive visual stimulus, while the phase of neuronal activity differed from that observed in the cerebellum.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Deep generative models for T cell receptor protein sequences

    Kristian Davidsen et al.
    Deep learning improves estimation of T cell receptor cohort frequencies and learns the rules of VDJ recombination, potentially making it helpful for vaccine design.
    1. Neuroscience

    RIM is essential for stimulated but not spontaneous somatodendritic dopamine release in the midbrain

    Brooks G Robinson et al.
    Midbrain dopamine neurons use sophisticated secretory machinery to establish specialized sites for action potential-evoked release of dopamine from their cell bodies and dendrites.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Release of cholesterol-rich particles from the macrophage plasma membrane during movement of filopodia and lamellipodia

    Xuchen Hu et al.
    Macrophages release 30-nm vesicular particles enriched in accessible cholesterol during cellular locomotion, a discovery that is likely relevant to cholesterol disposal by these cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    TRPC3 is a major contributor to functional heterogeneity of cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Bin Wu et al.
    Purkinje cells feature molecular heterogeneity that introduces differentiation in physiological properties between zebrin-identified cerebellar modules and thereby underlies the differential control on sensorimotor integration.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Myosin II isoforms play distinct roles in adherens junction biogenesis

    Mélina L Heuzé et al.
    Myosin isoforms exhibit different functions in the formation of adherens junctions and the transmission of mechanical forces.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Decoding WW domain tandem-mediated target recognitions in tissue growth and cell polarity

    Zhijie Lin et al.
    A systematic and quantitative investigation showing how highly specific WW domain-mediated protein-protein interaction network is organized in cell growth and polarity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Asexual reproduction reduces transposable element load in experimental yeast populations

    Jens Bast et al.
    Sexual reproduction is responsible for the evolutionary success of selfish transposable elements.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Human perivascular stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles mediate bone repair

    Jiajia Xu et al.
    Perivascular extracellular vesicles induce bone repair, and do so via tetraspanin binding to recipient skeletal progenitor cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    TMEM16B regulates anxiety-related behavior and GABAergic neuronal signaling in the central lateral amygdala

    Ke-Xin Li et al.
    SOM+ GABAergic neuronal signaling and inhibitory transmission in the central lateral amygdala is regulated by TMEM16B, which is also involved in fear and anxiety-like behaviors.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Activation of hedgehog signaling in mesenchymal stem cells induces cartilage and bone tumor formation via Wnt/β-Catenin

    Qi Deng et al.
    Cartilage and bone tumors arise from chondrocyte or osteoblast progenitors but not differentiated cells or multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via the IHH-Wnt/β-Catenin pathway.
    1. Developmental Biology

    MicroRNA-mediated control of developmental lymphangiogenesis

    Hyun Min Jung et al.
    Lymphatic-enriched microRNA miR-204 is required for lymphatic development through its effects on the key lymphatic transcription factor NFATC1.
    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Endangered wild salmon infected by newly discovered viruses

    Gideon J Mordecai et al.
    Newly discovered viruses in dead and dying farmed Chinook salmon are widely distributed in threatened wild Chinook and sockeye salmon populations.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Neighbor predation linked to natural competence fosters the transfer of large genomic regions in Vibrio cholerae

    Noémie Matthey et al.
    Whole-genome sequencing reveals the remarkable extent of horizontally moving genetic material in naturally competent Vibrio cholerae after a prey-killing DNA acquisition process.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Reduced metabolism supports hypoxic flight in the high-flying bar-headed goose (Anser indicus)

    Jessica U Meir et al.
    Measurements of bar-headed geese flying in a wind tunnel in hypoxia reveal that these birds sustain aerobic flight at high altitude via a reduction in metabolism.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Correlated evolution between repertoire size and song plasticity predicts that sexual selection on song promotes open-ended learning

    Cristina M Robinson et al.
    A longer birdsong-learning window evolves in response to sexual selection for song complexity and is associated with faster evolution of song performance characteristics.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Hemimetabolous insects elucidate the origin of sexual development via alternative splicing

    Judith Wexler et al.
    Sexual differentiation controlled by sex-specific mRNA splicing evolved in a step-wise manner in insects.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Parental vaccination to reduce measles immunity gaps in Italy

    Valentina Marziano et al.
    Offering measles vaccination to parents who bring their children to receive any dose of measles vaccine can accelerate measles elimination in Italy.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Single-amino acid variants reveal evolutionary processes that shape the biogeography of a global SAR11 subclade

    Tom O Delmont et al.
    An in-depth metagenomic analysis of possibly the most abundant and widespread microbial lineage in the surface ocean teases apart evolutionary processes that maintain its genomic heterogeneity and biogeography.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural state recognition facilitates tip tracking of EB1 at growing microtubule ends

    Taylor A Reid et al.
    EB1 targeting to growing microtubule plus-ends is facilitated by tapered microtubule tip structures.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Interferon lambda 4 impacts the genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus

    M Azim Ansari et al.
    Interferon lambda 4, a protein part of the innate immune response, drives major amino acids selection in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A single H/ACA small nucleolar RNA mediates tumor suppression downstream of oncogenic RAS

    Mary McMahon et al.
    Cancer-associated changes in small nucleolar RNAs and site-specific pseudouridine modifications impact ribosome activity.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Androgen-regulated transcription of ESRP2 drives alternative splicing patterns in prostate cancer

    Jennifer Munkley et al.
    The male steroid hormone testosterone regulates splicing patterns by controlling the expression of a key splicing regulator protein.
    1. Cancer Biology

    FAK activity sustains intrinsic and acquired ovarian cancer resistance to platinum chemotherapy

    Carlos J Diaz Osterman et al.
    Genomic gains in ovarian cancer can promote cisplatin resistance via a FAK, Wnt/beta-catenin and Myc signaling pathway supporting pluripotency genes and tumorspheres that can acquire FAK dependence for survival.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Adaptation of hepatitis C virus to interferon lambda polymorphism across multiple viral genotypes

    Nimisha Chaturvedi et al.
    Integrated analysis of IFN-λ and HCV amino acid variation indicates the key role of host innate immunity in viral control.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Retrograde Ret signaling controls sensory pioneer axon outgrowth

    Adam Tuttle et al.
    Long-range Ret receptor signaling promotes axon outgrowth and regulates growth cone dynamics in pioneer neurons by inducing transcriptional changes in Myosin-X expression.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Cortical tau deposition follows patterns of entorhinal functional connectivity in aging

    Jenna N Adams et al.
    Tau deposition in the aging brain follows patterns of functional connectivity that correspond to specific neural memory networks, and this relationship is strengthened in the presence of amyloid-β.

Magazine

    1. Neuroscience

    Spatial Navigation: A question of scale

    Muireann Irish, Siddharth Ramanan