Local presynaptic protein synthesis occurring at established nerve terminals in the mammalian brain provides a mechanism for rapidly controlling or restoring presynaptic proteins that affect neurotransmitter release and presynaptic efficiency.
Protein coding genes strongly support a sister group relationship between Placozoa and Cnidaria to the exclusion of Bilateria, contradicting previous phylogenies, which have likely been misled by pervasive compositional heterogeneity.
The genetic make-up of dominating MDR-TB clades in Central Asia is shaped by programmatic and socio-economic changes that led to fixation of resistance and bacterial fitness related mutations in the Soviet era.
Experimental and mathematical modeling approaches identify a novel mechanism of heart failure, linking disrupted calcium homeostasis and impaired contractility of cardiacmyocytes to nanoscale reorganization of calcium release channels.
Cells resolve unassigned codons with near-cognate suppression, frameshifting, and ribosomal rescue mechanisms, demonstrating that unassigned codons are permissible in both natural and engineered genetic codes as barriers to horizontal gene transfer.
A bioengineering approach identifies tissue morphology as an effective variable for controlling the inception of neural organoid morphogenesis via induction of a biomimetic, singular neural rosette tissue cytoarchitecture.
Defects in synapse regeneration limit functional circuit recovery after nerve injury by misdirecting information via ectopic dendritic synapses, and also by functional and molecular deficits in reformed axonal synapses.
The classical experimental paradigm of "enriched environments" is repositioned as a tool to address the question of how behavioral activity and the environment contribute to specific differences between individuals.
Profiling chromatin accessibility and nuclear transcription across Caenorhabditis elegans development and ageing generated the first map of transcriptional regulatory elements and their activities across an animal's life.
Heterogeneous epidermal stem cells define a niche for tactile sensation via providing a unique ECM and tissue architecture for nerves, revealing their new functions in coordinated sensory organ formation.
Combining GABA with fMRI measurements in the human brain uncovers distinct suppression mechanisms that optimize perceptual decisions through learning and experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex.
Inhibition enhances the spatial specificity of high calcium influx for cooperatively stimulated synapses, suggesting that inhibitory inputs may regulate both synapse-specific and heterosynaptic plasticity to support learning and memory.
The evolution of the light-sensitive visual pigment rhodopsin involved functional tradeoffs that may have sacrificed rod photosensitivity for active-state protein stability to mitigate phototoxicity in tetrapods, but not in fishes.
LSD induces a pattern of changed global brain connectivity characterized by hypo-connectivity in associative areas and hyper-connectivity across sensory and somatomotor areas that is dependent on the serotonin 2A receptor.
Sequential live imaging of abnormal skull bone fusion in zebrafish reveals a deeply conserved role of two transcription factors, Twist1 and Tcf12, in regulating stem cell activity during growth of the skull.
Pet1 neurons actively maintain cardiorespiratory tone and dynamic range in mouse neonates and critically support the recovery response to apneas, informing brain findings in the sudden infant death syndrome.
Neurons can synchronize, supporting flexible communication among brain areas; closed-loop optogenetics allows the frequency and power of population oscillations to be dissociated, providing a tool to interrogate how networks couple.
The transcription factor CrebB mediates long-term memory formation in different neurons within the mushroom body learning circuit, including mushroom body intrinsic and output neurons but not dopaminergic input neurons.
When a familiar environment is reshaped, the grid cell spatial code is dynamically anchored to recently encountered boundaries and changes throughout exploration with the specific movement history of the navigator.
Affinity capture of polyribosomes followed by RNAseq(ACAPSeq) is a technique that harnesses massively parallel sequencing to identify protein-protein interactions from any source from which polyribosomes can be purified.
Serially remembered items are successively reactivated during memory maintenance in the human brain, and replay profiles, temporally compressed and reverse in order, are associated with recency effect in behavioral performance.
The first genomic view of beetle luciferase evolution indicates evolutionary independence of luciferase between fireflies and click-beetles, and provide valuable datasets which will accelerate the discovery of new biotechnological tools.
Polar elongating mycobacteria (Mycobacterium smegmatis) require specific cell wall chemistries, those catalyzed by targets of critical antibiotics, to maintain rod shape at aging sites of the bacillus.
Dopamine is able to ensure that neural networks maintain critical features of their output, such as synchrony of neuron firing, by directly increasing coupling strength to ensure robust output is maintained.
Bone cells exposed to physiological forces release ATP through repairable membrane injury, generating an intercellular signal that conveys the destructive potential of forces and the adaptive capacity of endangered cells.
By moving from correlations to causality in cancer signal transduction using optogenetics, the sufficiency of RalB activation to trigger invasion and the underlying molecular mechanisms were established.
Genetic knock-outs of the dynein-2 intermediate chains reveals that both are essential for correct cilia function and transition zone organization, but play different functions in the assembly of dynein-2 motor and in primary cilia formation.
Motor axons undergo dynamic branch-specific changes for weeks before complete neuronal degeneration in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, highlighting the importance of peripheral factors, intrinsic and extrinsic to motoneurons.
Loss miRNA maturation in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons causes metabolic dysregulation and favors the differentiation of Pomc progenitors into neuropeptide Y neurons, a developmental process that appears to specifically involve miR-103/107.
Genome-wide chromatin mapping during bacterial-fungal cocultivation identifies the Myb-like transcription factor BasR as the major regulatory node of bacteria-triggered production of fungal secondary metabolites.
Sensory deprivation suppresses cortical responsiveness through a selective remodeling of excitatory and inhibitory microcircuit motifs, by simultaneously amplifying feedforward and suppressing feedback excitation.
The requirement for WNT signaling in mesendoderm differentiation is temporally separate from that of ACTIVIN signaling and acts to switch the output of ACTIVIN/SMAD2 from pluripotency maintenance to mesendoderm patterning.
Ion conduction in the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is directly regulated by calcium, which binds to a site close to the pore thereby shaping the electrostatics at its intracellular entrance.
The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin is central player and missing link in the chloroplast thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network, and participates in oxidative inactivation of reductively activated enzymes in photosynthesis.
Live-cell microscopy and genome-wide screens reveal how slow transitions in metabolism can underlie metabolic memory, providing a model for organisms demonstrating similar history-dependent behaviour and routes to improve industrial microbes.
Cardiac-specific overexpression of a recently discovered micropeptide, DWORF, enhances calcium cycling and contractility in the heart and rescues the heart failure phenotype of a genetic mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Signals from primate rod photoreceptors do not exhibit the light-level-dependent routing through parallel retinal circuits observed in rodents and often invoked in interpreting psychophysical experiments.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
Dopamine neurons make novel glutamatergic connections to striatal cholinergic interneurons in the lateral dorsal striatum that are mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors coupled to TrpC channels.
Structural and biochemical analyses of BRCT domain interactions defines TOPBP1/Rad4 selectivity for phosphorylated motifs, allowing identification of new interactions, and providing insights into assembly of different TOPBP1-scaffolded DNA repair complexes.
Neurophysiological and behavioral approaches reveal how coordinated input from descending pathways shapes the tuning properties of electrosensory neurons in order to optimize coding of natural stimuli through temporal whitening.
Combining powerful simulation methods uncovers the structural and dynamical changes driving G protein activation in atomic detail, revealing the allosteric network that triggers GDP release and reconciling diverse experimental data.
Ablation of the Cdkn1c cell cycle inhibitor leads to defective muscle stem cell dynamics and myogenic potential, while progressive cytoplasmic to nuclear cellular localization of the Cdkn1c protein regulates growth arrest.
Structure, dynamics, and mutation of a gamete fusion protein and comparisons to viral homologues suggest that after trimerization the domain bearing the membrane-inserting fusion loops can pivot with respect to the trimer 3-fold axis.
Yeast RNA helicase Ded1 stimulates ribosome recruitment of structure-laden native mRNAs in a reconstituted system by interactions between domains in Ded1 and initiation factor eIF4G that stabilizes a Ded1-eIF4F complex.
A novel B12 containing photoreceptor is synthesized as two different isoforms that interact with the same transcription factor, with one isoform directing activation and the other promoting repression of photosystem synthesis.
Meiosis and differentiation of basidium, a defining sexual structure of the phylum Basidiomycota, are genetically integrated by a shared regulatory program to ensure the formation of infectious meiospores in Cryptococcus neoformans.
An integrative approach, combining genetic mouse and large-scale human genetics studies, was used to reveal a novel role for the Bcl-2 protein Bid in maintenance of mitochondrial function that alters susceptibility to myocardial infarction.
To regulate DNA copy number during development in Drosophila, the SUUR protein recruits Rif1 to replisomes where Rif1 inhibits replication fork progression, thus controlling copy number independently of origin firing.
Integrating decades of small-scale experiments with human gene expression data provides a systems-level view of the coordinated molecular processes triggered by spinal cord injury, and their relationship to recovery.
Citizen science camera trapping showing suburban and wild areas maintain similar levels of mammalian diversity and relative abundance, challenging conventional thoughts about the impacts of urbanization on wildlife.