TCR and CD40L microclusters are linked in synaptic ectosomes (extracellular vesicles) and released in the immunological synapse by helper T cells and induce dendritic cell maturation and cytokine production.
Cryo-EM reveals how a protein called NECAP inactivates the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex through concerted engagement of two domains which confer specificity for membrane-activated and phosphorylated AP2.
Pronounced cerebellar activation during unexpected omission of a potentially harmful event suggests that the cerebellum has to be added to the neural network processing prediction errors underlying emotional associative learning.
The rate of DNA unwinding by RecQ helicases is dramatically modulated by the DNA duplex stability in a geometry-dependent manner, providing an intrinsic mechanism for suppressing illegitimate recombination.
Genetic analyses combining photoconvertible cell signalling reporters with gain- and loss-of function manipulations reveal a novel role for Notch signalling in controlling Hedgehog response in neural progenitor cells.
Sister projection neurons in the mammalian olfactory system do not share sensory synaptic input indicating that lineage-independent mechanisms regulate their synaptic connectivity with the olfactory sensory neurons.
Ultra-high field neuroimaging dissects the ventral medial geniculate body (vMGB) of the primary auditory pathway from other MGB subregions and reveals that vMGB top-down modulation is relevant for speech recognition.
Biochemical and biological studies reveal that caspases feed back onto the Unfolded Protein Response by cleaving the ER-stress sensor IRE1 to produce a cytoprotective N-terminal fragment that inhibits BAX-dependent apoptosis.
Increased levels of brain Hebp1 starting from the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer’s disease contributes to progressive neuronal loss by triggering mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in neurons exposed to elevated heme.
Nationally-representative verbal autopsies can be linked to seasonal patterns, clinical syndromes, and climate regions to describe novel insights regarding the microbiologic etiologies of childhood pneumonia and diarrhea in India.
The Drosophila tracheal fate is stabilized by the combination of transcriptional programs to control tissue architecture and tissue-level input sensitive to tubular geometry, ensuring the robust mechanism of organ determination.
Genetic and biochemical analysis of two enzymes reveals that inositol pyrophosphate signaling molecules allow plants to sense and regulate cellular phosphate levels, and to take up more phosphate when needed.
Crystal structures provide structural rationales for the transport stoichiometry of the gastric proton pump, which suffices the energy requirement for the generation of a million-fold proton gradient across the membrane.
Biochemical fractionation of vesicle sub-populations and in vitro reconstitution studies reveal that Lupus La protein mediates the selective sorting of miR-122 into extracellular vesicles in vitro and in vivo.
A new cell–cell communication system in Streptococcus salivarius, a human gut commensal, discriminates between close signaling molecules to specifically produce bacteriocin-based antimicrobials and disconnects it from foreign DNA acquisition.
Microbial-sensing TLRs drive responses to the microbiota, while nucleic-acid sensing TLRs control responses to endogenous ligands, revealing novel regulation of B-1a responses through integrated BCR/TLR mediated activation.
B-1 cell unresponsiveness to antigen-stimulation is overcome during infections when Toll-like receptor engagement removes negative regulators of B cell receptor signaling, thereby supporting B-1 cell differentiation to IgM-secreting plasmablasts.
Polarizing susceptibilities to recurrent bladder infection are shaped by a duality in TNFɑ-mediated inflammation dynamics upon challenge infection that is dictated by the outcome of the initial infection.
Telomeric TRF1 controls the transcriptional programmes of pluripotent stem cells by recruiting PRC2 to pluripotency and differentiation genes by controlling the expression of those gene sites and the binding of TERRA RNAs to them.
Among children in low-resource settings, diverse enteropathogens share common, population-level antibody dynamics, which creates a new opportunity to estimate transmission through serologic surveillance.
Quantitative live-cell microscopy and molecular perturbations in Drosophila and human cells reveal a crosstalk between molecular 'rulers' (Aurora B) and 'clocks' (Cdk1) that coordinates mitotic exit in space and time.
Analysis of bearded dragon model reveals a novel tooth replacement strategy that demonstrates the critical importance of epithelial patterning, cell migration, and putative stem cell functional specialization in tissue regeneration.
Quantitative genetic analyses reveal remarkably broad genetic variation underlies the requirement for two critical regulatory inputs into a core embryonic gene regulatory network within one animal species.
Human ferritin light chain (FTL) mRNA translation is regulated via its 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) by three mechanisms: RNA folding, iron response protein binding, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3 binding.
Lineage analysis reveals that cardiac neural crest contributes to cardiomyocytes across vertebrates and consistent with this, the neural crest gene regulatory program is reactivated upon heart regeneration in zebrafish.
Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to conversion of natural killer cells into cells resembling innate lymphoid cells, group 1, that circulate widely, disrupting current notions suggesting that these cells have distinct lineages.
The high affinity α-synuclein-monomer binder AS69 converts into a strong sub-stoichiometric inhibitor of nucleation processes upon formation of the AS69-α-synuclein complex, achieving reduced aggregation in vitro and in vivo.
Perception of vibrotactile frequency depends on the neural discharge pattern rather than the afferent type, thus requiring a reevaluation of the notion of Pacinian/non-Pacinian channels in tactile sensory system.
A neuroanatomical analysis of Rimicaris exoculata provides insights into these animal’s brain architecture to illustrate possible adaptations to the hydrothermal vent habitat with its extreme physicochemical conditions.
When landing, Pacific parrotlets exhibit stereotyped leg and wing dynamics regardless of perch diameter and texture, but foot and claw kinematics become surface-specific upon touchdown to successfully grasp the perch.
First comprehensive genetic analysis of a Myt1 family protein reveals that neurogenesis requires direct repression of non-neuronal identities by the Myt1 family protein through MuvB co-repressor complex.
Blood flow-driven shear forces guide the sequential signaling of two antagonistic paired receptors, a critical bi-facet step that first supports leukocyte docking, then initiates transmigration through endothelium.
The crystal structure of a ternary complex of a TonB-dependent transporter containing a signalling domain, bound to siderophore as well as TonB, provides mechanistic insights into siderophore uptake and signalling.
Several new magneto-mechanical and magneto-thermal mechanisms of ion channel activation in magnetogenetics are proposed that may explain some of the mysteries that challenge current understanding of the magnetogenetics experiments.
The genomic architecture of allopatric species is a mosaic of many conserved genes and a few adaptive ones, reflecting balance between conservation of ancestral functions and evolution of new features.
MRI methods are promising techniques for investigating the human subcortical auditory system, and these publicly available data, atlases, and tools make researching human audition simpler and more reliable.