June 2022

Research articles

    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Gene expression phylogenies and ancestral transcriptome reconstruction resolves major transitions in the origins of pregnancy

    Katelyn Mika et al.
    Mammals evolved an invasive placenta early in the origins of pregnancy.
    1. Neuroscience

    State-dependent activity dynamics of hypothalamic stress effector neurons

    Aoi Ichiyama et al.
    Hypothalamic stress effector neurons rapidly change activity patterns via recurrent inhibition, representing state-dependent activity switch between baseline and elevated stress levels.
    1. Cell Biology

    Adaptor linked K63 di-ubiquitin activates Nedd4/Rsp5 E3 ligase

    Lu Zhu et al.
    Arrestin-related trafficking adaptors (ARTs) undergo a K63 linked di-ubiquitin modification to promote Rsp5 E3 ligase recruitment and enhance cargo protein ubiquitination.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations in the pliant and light chain-binding regions of the lever arm of human β-cardiac myosin have divergent effects on myosin function

    Makenna M Morck et al.
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing mutations in the light chain-binding region of β-cardiac myosin's lever arm appear to disrupt myosin tail-based autoinhibition, while mutations in the pliant region of the lever arm reduce autoinhibition in the presence of actin and impact myosin’s powerstroke.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    DIP2 is a unique regulator of diacylglycerol lipid homeostasis in eukaryotes

    Sudipta Mondal et al.
    DIP2 is a conserved protein across fungi and animals that regulates specific diacylglycerol pools by diverting them to storage lipid biosynthesis to enable cellular homeostasis and adaptations.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Waveform detection by deep learning reveals multi-area spindles that are selectively modulated by memory load

    Maryam H Mofrad et al.
    A new computational approach for detecting sleep waveforms reveals that the 11–15 Hz sleep 'spindle', a neural rhythm implicated in memory consolidation, co-occurs widely across cortex much more often than previously thought.
    1. Neuroscience

    Connectomic analysis of the Drosophila lateral neuron clock cells reveals the synaptic basis of functional pacemaker classes

    Orie T Shafer et al.
    The most influential clocks within the Drosophila circadian clock neuron network form the fewest synapses within the network, and neurons that do not themselves contain molecular clocks mediate connections between those that do, suggesting a key role in timekeeping.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Medicine

    Evolution-based mathematical models significantly prolong response to abiraterone in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer and identify strategies to further improve outcomes

    Jingsong Zhang et al.
    Integration of evolutionary dynamics framed through a mathematical model improved outcomes in abiraterone monotherapy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Aberrant cortical development is driven by impaired cell cycle and translational control in a DDX3X syndrome model

    Mariah L Hoye et al.
    The RNA helicase DDX3X controls neural progenitor division, cell fate, and translation during embryonic brain development.
    1. Medicine

    US women screen at low rates for both cervical and colorectal cancers than a single cancer: a cross-sectional population-based observational study

    Diane M Harper et al.
    Only about half of women 50–64 years old are up-to-date for both cervical and colorectal cancer screening.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Domain fusion TLR2-4 enhances the autophagy-dependent clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in the genetic engineering goat

    Mengyao Wang et al.
    The Toll-like receptor 2-4 genetic modification goat improves effectively resistance against Staphylococcus aureus infection by enhancing autophagy level, and it provides a novel strategy for challenge of S. aureus-caused infections.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Understanding drivers of phylogenetic clustering and terminal branch lengths distribution in epidemics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Fabrizio Menardo
    Populations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with clustering and shorter terminal branches are not necessarily transmitting more.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Gill developmental program in the teleost mandibular arch

    Mathi Thiruppathy et al.
    Lineage tracing and genetic analysis in zebrafish show that the pseudobranch is a serial homolog of the gills arising from the jaw-forming mandibular arch, thus supporting the model that vertebrate jaws derived from an ancestral mandibular gill.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    High-throughput Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 and hrp3 gene deletion typing by digital PCR to monitor malaria rapid diagnostic test efficacy

    Claudia A Vera-Arias et al.
    A novel high-throughput method for Plasmodium falciparum genotyping will enable malaria control programs to make informed decisions about the best tool to use for the diagnosis of malaria.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    SNTA1 gene rescues ion channel function and is antiarrhythmic in cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from muscular dystrophy patients

    Eric N Jimenez-Vazquez et al.
    Important mechanistic details on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy arrhythmogenesis are revealed, providing a crucial lead for investigators interested in developing therapeutic solutions for this deadly disease.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    CAMSAP2 organizes a γ-tubulin-independent microtubule nucleation centre through phase separation

    Tsuyoshi Imasaki et al.
    CAMSAP2 co-condensates with αβ-tubulin to induce microtubule nucleation and growth, serving as a microtubule-organizing centre for non-centrosomal microtubules.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Stable antibiotic resistance and rapid human adaptation in livestock-associated MRSA

    Marta Matuszewska et al.
    The dominant MRSA circulating in European livestock has stably maintained genes associated with resistance to antibiotic treatments over several decades and when it is transmitted to humans it can rapidly acquire genes that allow it to evade human immune responses.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Antibacterial potency of type VI amidase effector toxins is dependent on substrate topology and cellular context

    Atanas Radkov et al.
    Distinct surfaces of an interbacterial competition cell wall toxin mediate interactions with different cellular binding partners, resulting in an inherent evolutionary trade-off across the toxin superfamily.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Robotic search for optimal cell culture in regenerative medicine

    Genki N Kanda et al.
    Robotic AI system automated discovery of optimum cell culture protocol, a most experience-dependent process in regenerative medicine.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Global cellular response to chemical perturbation of PLK4 activity and abnormal centrosome number

    Johnny M Tkach et al.
    Genome-wide CRISPR screens in human cells identifies a role for TRIM37 in growth arrest after chemical inhibition of PLK4.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Cystathionine-β-synthase is essential for AKT-induced senescence and suppresses the development of gastric cancers with PI3K/AKT activation

    Haoran Zhu et al.
    Cystathionine-β-synthase is a novel metabolic regulator of AKT-induced senescence and a potential tumor suppressor in gastric cancer pathogenesis which can be harnessed to target PI3K/AKT-driven cancers.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Cardiac differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells using defined extracellular matrix proteins reveals essential role of fibronectin

    Jianhua Zhang et al.
    Investigation of defined extracellular matrix proteins in differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to cardiomyocytes reveals fibronectin, in addition to soluble factors, is required for cardiogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Integration of visual and antennal mechanosensory feedback during head stabilization in hawkmoths

    Payel Chatterjee et al.
    Compensatory head movements in hawkmoths are influenced by the combined feedback from vision and antennal mechanosensory Johnston’s organs, similar to the combined role of vision and halteres in Diptera.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-electron tomography of Birbeck granules reveals the molecular mechanism of langerin lattice formation

    Toshiyuki Oda et al.
    A honeycomb-lattice assembly within the skin and mucosa protects us from invading pathogens.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Phosphoregulation of DSB-1 mediates control of meiotic double-strand break activity

    Heyun Guo et al.
    Opposing activities of ATR kinase and PP4 phosphatase balance phosphorylation of the protein DSB-1 to produce sufficient but not excessive amount of DNA double-strand breaks during meiotic prophase in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The integrated stress response remodels the microtubule-organizing center to clear unfolded proteins following proteotoxic stress

    Brian Hurwitz et al.
    In response to proteotoxic stress, squamous cell carcinoma cells hijack the integrated stress response to promote recovery by bolstering protection of microtubule dynamics.
    1. Cell Biology

    Transferrin receptor 1-mediated iron uptake regulates bone mass in mice via osteoclast mitochondria and cytoskeleton

    Bhaba K Das et al.
    Transferrin receptor 1-mediated iron uptake plays a pivotal role in osteoclast energy metabolism and cytoskeleton and regulates bone remodeling in female mice.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Structure-based electron-confurcation mechanism of the Ldh-EtfAB complex

    Kanwal Kayastha et al.
    The cryo-EM structural and functional analyses reveals the lactate dehydrogenase/electron-transferring flavoprotein (Ldh-EtfAB) in its enzymatically active form and the geometry of the confurcating flow of two energetically spitted electrons via 2 FAD and 1 [4Fe-4S] cluster to a central FAD.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tongue immune compartment analysis reveals spatial macrophage heterogeneity

    Ekaterini Maria Lyras et al.
    The tongue is a unique barrier organ, which is constantly exposed to environmental pathogens, and therefore is expected to host an immune cell network ensuring local immune defence, which we characterised during development, health, and disease.
    1. Cell Biology

    Oscillatory movement of a dynein-microtubule complex crosslinked with DNA origami

    Shimaa A Abdellatef et al.
    A pair of microtubules, ensembles of oppositely oriented axonemal dyneins, and inter-microtubule crosslinkers are the minimum components needed for oscillation and repetitive bending motions.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cd59 and inflammation regulate Schwann cell development

    Ashtyn T Wiltbank et al.
    Cd59 and developmental inflammation are key players in myelinating glial cell development, highlighting the collaboration between glia and the innate immune system to ensure normal neural development.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Zebrafish fin regeneration involves generic and regeneration-specific osteoblast injury responses

    Ivonne Sehring et al.
    Osteoblast dedifferentiation and migration are injury responses that are differentially regulated and independent of regenerative bone formation.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Metformin abrogates pathological TNF-α-producing B cells through mTOR-dependent metabolic reprogramming in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Na Xiao et al.
    Pathological TNF-α-producing B cells are involved in the pathological process of polycystic ovary syndrome, and metformin inhibits mTOR phosphorylation, affects metabolic reprogramming, and further inhibits TNF-α expression in pathological B cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    The molecular mechanism of load adaptation by branched actin networks

    Tai-De Li et al.
    An actin-based Brownian Ratchet enables branched actin networks to generate pushing forces, while a capping protein-based Brownian Ratchet provides force feedback that enables these networks to adapt their architecture in response to changing loads.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Amoxicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae can be resensitized by targeting the mevalonate pathway as indicated by sCRilecs-seq

    Liselot Dewachter et al.
    High-throughput single-cell based, genome-wide gene silencing screening (sCRilecs-seq) revealed that drugging the mevalonate pathway resensitizes amoxicillin-resistant pneumococci.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Recurrent neural networks enable design of multifunctional synthetic human gut microbiome dynamics

    Mayank Baranwal et al.
    Recurrent neural network models enable prediction and design of health-relevant metabolite dynamics in synthetic human gut communities.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Integrating multi-omics data reveals function and therapeutic potential of deubiquitinating enzymes

    Laura M Doherty et al.
    The integration of experimental and data mining approaches provides novel insights into deubiquitinating enzymes individually and as a gene family.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    The orphan ligand, activin C, signals through activin receptor-like kinase 7

    Erich J Goebel et al.
    Activin class member, activin C, is a canonical TGFβ family member that signals through the type I receptor, action receptor-like kinase 7 and is resistant to follistatin antagonism.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Filamentation modulates allosteric regulation of PRPS

    Huan-Huan Hu et al.
    Cryo-EM structures of two types of prokaryotic Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase filaments reveal that filamentation into cytoophidia provides a new layer of metabolic regulation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Circadian programming of the ellipsoid body sleep homeostat in Drosophila

    Tomas Andreani et al.
    The circadian clock gates sleep drive by modulating sleep homeostat neurons.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Host chitinase 3-like-1 is a universal therapeutic target for SARS-CoV-2 viral variants in COVID-19

    Suchitra Kamle et al.
    Intervention of CHI3L1 using anti-CHI3L1 monoclonal antibody or chitinase inhibitor kasugamycin blocks epithelial infection of various SARS-CoV2 variants, suggesting that CHI3L1 is a universal and effective therapeutic target of COVID-19 infection, including recent omicron variants.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Developmental Biology

    Rapid and specific degradation of endogenous proteins in mouse models using auxin-inducible degrons

    Lewis Macdonald et al.
    Auxin-inducible degradation of CRISPR-tagged endogenous proteins in mice reveals cell-type-specific dependence on the mitotic chromosome condensation proteins.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cognitive experience alters cortical involvement in goal-directed navigation

    Charlotte Arlt et al.
    The areas of the cerebral cortex that are necessary for mice to perform goal-directed navigation differ depending on previous experience in cognitively challenging tasks.
    1. Cell Biology

    Live imaging of the co-translational recruitment of XBP1 mRNA to the ER and its processing by diffuse, non-polarized IRE1α

    Silvia Gómez-Puerta et al.
    Development of a live single-molecule imaging approach to visualize XBP1 mRNAs, which are recruited for translation on the ER and efficiently spliced in the absence of large IRE1α foci.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress activates human IRE1α through reversible assembly of inactive dimers into small oligomers

    Vladislav Belyy et al.
    Stress sensors in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum respond to the accumulation of unfolded proteins by briefly forming small phosphorylation-competent oligomers and dissolving back into active dimers.
    1. Cell Biology

    Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 is involved in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Yan Zou et al.
    Activation of TRPV4 induced increases in Ca2+ influx, activated CaMKII, enhanced pro-inflammatory NFκB-NLRP3 signaling, and promoted inflammation response, thus contributing to pathological cardiac remodeling.
    1. Neuroscience

    Perceptual restoration fails to recover unconscious processing for smooth eye movements after occipital stroke

    Sunwoo Kwon et al.
    V1 damage impairs unconscious following movements of stimulus motion, even after conscious perception has been restored through psychophysical training, thus demonstrating distinct neural pathways for perception and action.
    1. Neuroscience

    Different brain systems support learning from received and avoided pain during human pain-avoidance learning

    Marieke Jepma et al.
    Pharmacological fMRI study provides evidence that learning from the unexpected presence and absence of pain is mediated by different brain systems.
    1. Cell Biology

    Lipolysis of bone marrow adipocytes is required to fuel bone and the marrow niche during energy deficits

    Ziru Li et al.
    Bone marrow adipocyte lipolysis is required for maintaining bone mass under conditions of energy deficiency and is necessary for myelopoiesis following caloric restriction and irradiation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus onset using logistic regression-based scorecards

    Yochai Edlitz, Eran Segal
    Computational methods were used to develop accurate manual scorecards for early detection of participants at risk of type 2 diabetes based on the UK Biobank database.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A new insight into RecA filament regulation by RecX from the analysis of conformation-specific interactions

    Aleksandr Alekseev et al.
    RecX effectively disrupts dynamic conformational changes in the RecA-ssDNA filament by stabilizing its inactive form.
    1. Cell Biology

    Pathogenic mutations in the chromokinesin KIF22 disrupt anaphase chromosome segregation

    Alex F Thompson et al.
    Pathogenic mutations in KIF22, which dominantly cause bone dysplasia, improperly activate the motor during anaphase in dividing cells leading to chromosome recongression.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A second DNA binding site on RFC facilitates clamp loading at gapped or nicked DNA

    Xingchen Liu et al.
    Structural, biochemical, and cellular data reveal the mechanism by which the clamp loader attaches sliding clamps at gapped and nicked DNA to support DNA damage repair.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rapid adaptation of a complex trait during experimental evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Tracy M Smith et al.
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis, can evolve rapidly in response to new environments by mutating genetic regulators that control multiple genes at once.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    An M protein coiled coil unfurls and exposes its hydrophobic core to capture LL-37

    Piotr Kolesinski et al.
    Streptococcus pyogenes M87 protein unfurls its coiled coil to capture and neutralize the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Lactococcus lactis NCDO2118 exerts visceral antinociceptive properties in rat via GABA production in the gastro-intestinal tract

    Valérie Laroute et al.
    Generally recognised as safe GABA-producing L. lactis strains could be considered as future therapeutic agents for the management of visceral pain and the anxious profile of IBS patients.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Projected resurgence of COVID-19 in the United States in July—December 2021 resulting from the increased transmissibility of the Delta variant and faltering vaccination

    Shaun Truelove et al.
    Multi-model ensembling projected that the Delta variant would lead to a substantial COVID-19 resurgence in the US, with higher vaccination uptake being a critical factor for limiting transmission and impact between states.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Nanoscale architecture and coordination of actin cores within the sealing zone of human osteoclasts

    Marion Portes et al.
    Cutting-edge super-resolution microscopy methods reveal the architecture and dynamics of the sealing zone formed by human osteoclasts and composed of coordinated groups of podosomal cores encircled by adhesion complexes.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Using population selection and sequencing to characterize natural variation of starvation resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Amy K Webster et al.
    A powerful sequencing approach is used to elucidate the genetic basis of a complex organismal trait, and members of the irld gene family that affect starvation resistance are identified.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sigma oscillations protect or reinstate motor memory depending on their temporal coordination with slow waves

    Judith Nicolas et al.
    Sigma oscillations have a dual role in motor memory consolidation depending on their temporal coordination with slow waves during post-learning sleep.
    1. Neuroscience

    Biophysical Kv3 channel alterations dampen excitability of cortical PV interneurons and contribute to network hyperexcitability in early Alzheimer’s

    Viktor J Olah et al.
    Electrophysiological and genetic analyses reveal a biophysical mechanism in parvalbumin interneurons, uncoupled from changes in gene expression, resulting in reduced cortical inhibition in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A nucleation barrier spring-loads the CBM signalosome for binary activation

    Alejandro Rodriguez Gama et al.
    Switches in cell state downstream of pathogen exposure are driven by a deeply conserved disorder-to-order phase transition in an immunity signaling network.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Vision-related convergent gene losses reveal SERPINE3’s unknown role in the eye

    Henrike Indrischek et al.
    Specific evolutionary gene loss signatures indicated an eye-related function for the uncharacterized SERPINE3 gene, which was experimentally confirmed by zebrafish gene knockouts, showing how comparative genomics can provide insights into the function of uncharacterized genes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    A dual-target herbicidal inhibitor of lysine biosynthesis

    Emily RR Mackie et al.
    The first recently discovered inhibitors of lysine biosynthesis with in planta activity have a dual-target mode of action, which provides proof-of-concept for the development of multi-target ‘resistance-resistant’ herbicides with a novel mode of action.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    NAD kinase promotes Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis by supporting production of virulence factors and protective enzymes

    Clarisse Leseigneur et al.
    Staphylococcus aureus NAD kinase promotes infection by protecting bacteria from host antimicrobial defenses and by supporting production of major virulence factors.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    The role of surface adhesion on the macroscopic wrinkling of biofilms

    Steffen Geisel et al.
    The three-dimensional structure of bacterial biofilms is governed by a buckling-delamination process that is determined by basic physical parameter that allow us to predict and control the biofilm morphology.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    An expanded toolkit for Drosophila gene tagging using synthesized homology donor constructs for CRISPR-mediated homologous recombination

    Oguz Kanca et al.
    New construct designs and gene targeting strategies from the Gene Disruption Project allow efficient tagging of almost all Drosophila genes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A native chemical chaperone in the human eye lens

    Eugene Serebryany et al.
    The human eye lens imports and concentrates within itself a naturally abundant small molecule that inhibits cataract-associated aggregation of an eye lens protein before the aggregates get large enough to scatter light.
    1. Neuroscience

    Learning accurate path integration in ring attractor models of the head direction system

    Pantelis Vafidis et al.
    A theoretical model combines self-supervised predictive learning with structural inductive biases to reveal how quasi-continuous attractors that perform accurate angular path integration can be learned from experience during development in the Drosophila and potentially other animal models.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Comprehensive fitness landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro reveals insights into viral resistance mechanisms

    Julia M Flynn et al.
    Comprehensive mutational scanning of the SARS-CoV-2 protease, Mpro, provides functional and structural information to aid in the design of more effective inhibitors against the protease with reduced potential of evolving viral resistance.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Sequential addition of neuronal stem cell temporal cohorts generates a feed-forward circuit in the Drosophila larval nerve cord

    Yi-wen Wang et al.
    A newly identified pattern of circuit assembly shows connectivity between small groups of neurons born in tight time windows from different stem cells, with outputs from one lineage born before inputs from other lineages.
    1. Neuroscience

    Homotopic contralesional excitation suppresses spontaneous circuit repair and global network reconnections following ischemic stroke

    Annie R Bice et al.
    Excitation of contralesional cortex after stroke suppresses the expression of genes related to plastic neuronal reintegration and accordingly modulates perilesional remodeling and functional network communication at local and global scales.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Loss of Elp1 disrupts trigeminal ganglion neurodevelopment in a model of familial dysautonomia

    Carrie E Leonard et al.
    Trigeminal nerve deficits observed in familial dysautonomia, which arises from mutations in ELP1, are due to loss of neural crest-derived TrkA nociceptors, while placode-derived TrkB and TrkC neurons are spared.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cre/lox regulated conditional rescue and inactivation with zebrafish UFlip alleles generated by CRISPR-Cas9 targeted integration

    Fang Liu et al.
    A novel strategy to create genetic mosaics in zebrafish for cell type-specific analysis of gene function that can be applied to any gene of interest.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Functional requirements for a Samd14-capping protein complex in stress erythropoiesis

    Suhita Ray et al.
    Genetic complementation approaches in a mouse model of anemia reveals new protein interactions which aid cell survival and promote sensing of environmental cues.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Obligate sexual reproduction of a homothallic fungus closely related to the Cryptococcus pathogenic species complex

    Andrew Ryan Passer et al.
    A novel form of self-fertility evolved in Cryptococcus depauperatus, a close relative to the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species, in which sexual development is attained by self-signaling of a cognate pheromone and pheromone-receptor pair.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Convergent mosaic brain evolution is associated with the evolution of novel electrosensory systems in teleost fishes

    Erika L Schumacher, Bruce A Carlson
    In teleost fishes, the independent evolution of electrosensory systems was repeatedly associated with evolutionary changes in brain region scaling that were independent of changes in brain–body allometry.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of Synaptotagmin-SNARE-complexin complexes bridging a vesicle and a flat lipid bilayer

    Josep Rizo et al.
    Novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter release are provided by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations including SNARE proteins, synaptotagmin-1, complexin-1, a vesicle and a flat bilayer.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Evolutionary convergence of a neural mechanism in the cavefish lateral line system

    Elias T Lunsford et al.
    The underlying neurophysiology of the lateral line system in blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus) has evolutionarily converged on elevated afferent neuron activity and partial loss of function in inhibitory efferent neurons, both of which contribute to enhanced sensitivity to flow stimuli.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct representation of cue-outcome association by D1 and D2 neurons in the ventral striatum’s olfactory tubercle

    Nuné Martiros et al.
    Real-time imaging of neural activity in behaving mice reveals that the two canonical types of neurons in the olfactory tubercle carry distinct information about learned odor cues, with D1 neurons representing stimulus valence and D2 neurons mainly representing stimulus identity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Dynamics of allosteric regulation of the phospholipase C-γ isozymes upon recruitment to membranes

    Edhriz Siraliev-Perez et al.
    PLC-γ isozymes are activated by a combination of receptor engagement and membrane proximity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Self-organization of in vitro neuronal assemblies drives to complex network topology

    Priscila C Antonello et al.
    Effectively connected neurons self-organize forming networks with a small-world architecture composed of modules, with most likely few and nearby neurons, integrated by more topologically important and high firing rate neurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Multiple timescales of sensory-evidence accumulation across the dorsal cortex

    Lucas Pinto et al.
    Sensory-evidence accumulation is a distributed cortical computation, but frontal cortical areas contribute to accumulation on longer timescales than posterior cortical areas.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    On demand expression control of endogenous genes with DExCon, DExogron and LUXon reveals differential dynamics of Rab11 family members

    Jakub Gemperle et al.
    DExCon, LUXon, and DExogron approaches simultaneously block endogenous gene expression and permit tuning of re-expression levels in time and space; proof-of-principle reveals unforeseen differences in protein kinetics, cargo handling, and cell migration regulation between closely related Rab11 family members.
    1. Neuroscience

    Selfee, self-supervised features extraction of animal behaviors

    Yinjun Jia et al.
    Selfee, a self-supervised learning approach, is designed to extract comprehensive and discriminative features directly from raw videos of animal behaviors which can be used for in-depth analysis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The KASH5 protein involved in meiotic chromosomal movements is a novel dynein activating adaptor

    Ritvija Agrawal et al.
    KASH5 uses an EF-hand domain to directly interact with the light intermediate chain of dynein, promotes processive dynein motility, and facilitates dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope during prophase I of meiosis.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Admixture of evolutionary rates across a butterfly hybrid zone

    Tianzhu Xiong et al.
    Genetic barriers to gene flow maintain divergent linked substitution rates in hybridization.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A dysmorphic mouse model reveals developmental interactions of chondrocranium and dermatocranium

    Susan M Motch Perrine et al.
    Analysis of 3D reconstructions of chondrocrania of the FgfrcC342Y/+ Crouzon syndrome mouse show the direct effects of this Fgfr2 mutation on embryonic cranial cartilage formation and the indirect effects of chondrocranial morphology on cranial dermal bone development.
    1. Neuroscience

    Age-associated changes to neuronal dynamics involve a disruption of excitatory/inhibitory balance in C. elegans

    Gregory S Wirak et al.
    Comprehensive multi-neuron fluorescence imaging in C. elegans reveals age-associated changes in neuronal activity that include a breakdown of system-wide organization, changes in neuronal frequency dynamics, and a disruption of the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signaling.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The metabolome of Mexican cavefish shows a convergent signature highlighting sugar, antioxidant, and Ageing-Related metabolites

    J Kyle Medley et al.
    Metabolomics data reveals unique metabolic insights into how cavefish adapt to nutrient limited environments while staying healthy.
    1. Neuroscience

    Semantic relatedness retroactively boosts memory and promotes memory interdependence across episodes

    James W Antony et al.
    The more semantically related a later experience is to an earlier one (along multiple dimensions), the more likely humans are to think back to and strengthen the memory of the earlier experience and mentally link the two experiences.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Analysis of combinatorial chemokine receptor expression dynamics using multi-receptor reporter mice

    Laura Medina-Ruiz et al.
    The use of multi-chemokine receptor reporter mice helps to unravel the dynamics of receptor involvement in leukocyte migration in vivo and suggests specificity, rather than redundancy, in receptor use.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Niche-specific genome degradation and convergent evolution shaping Staphylococcus aureus adaptation during severe infections

    Stefano G Giulieri et al.
    A large-scale analysis of Staphylococcus aureus within-host evolution based on a comprehensive catalogue of bacterial genetic variation reveals an excess of genome degradation signatures in infecting strains and new genetic loci of clinically relevant adaptation.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Inferring characteristics of bacterial swimming in biofilm matrix from time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Guillaume Ravel et al.
    A new mathematical method has been developed, implemented and validated for the analysis of time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy images to characterize the swimming behavior of bacterial swimmers moving in the exogenous matrix of pathogenic biofilms.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional abnormalities in the cerebello-thalamic pathways in a mouse model of DYT25 dystonia

    Hind Baba Aïssa et al.
    In a mouse model of DYT25 dystonia with disruption of striatal neurotransmission by Gnal mutation, the cerebello-thalamic excitability is increased following symptom expression and θ-burst cerebellar stimulations during cholinergic-induced dystonia depress the cerebello-thalamic transmission and reduce the motor symptom severity.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Elevated brain-derived cell-free DNA among patients with first psychotic episode – a proof-of-concept study

    Asael Lubotzky et al.
    Liquid biopsy methods utilizing brain-specific cell-free DNA methylation markers can detect brain cell death and potentially assist early detection and monitoring of schizophrenia.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Androglobin, a chimeric mammalian globin, is required for male fertility

    Anna Keppner et al.
    Androglobin, a newly identified mammalian globin with a unique modular structure including a protease and calmodulin binding IQ domain within a circularly permuted globin domain, is implicated in murine spermatogenesis.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Transmission networks of SARS-CoV-2 in Coastal Kenya during the first two waves: A retrospective genomic study

    Charles N Agoti et al.
    Genomic analysis of initial SARS-CoV-2 waves in Kenya revealed Mombasa City as a key gateway for variants entering Coastal Kenya with onward inter-county transmission highlighting significance of surveillance in major cities for early warning of lineages entering local populations.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Decoding the activated stem cell phenotype of the neonatally maturing pituitary

    Emma Laporte et al.
    The neonatally maturing pituitary harbors an activated stem cell compartment and shows prominent regenerative capacity, as revealed by single-cell transcriptomic profiling and in vitro (organoid) and in vivo (mouse) exploration.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Quantitative prediction of variant effects on alternative splicing in MAPT using endogenous pre-messenger RNA structure probing

    Jayashree Kumar et al.
    A novel model is presented that reconciles in-cell structure probing data with splicing regulatory elements to predict exon 10 inclusion of the Tau gene with high accuracy for 53 splice altering mutations.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Systematic lncRNA mapping to genome-wide co-essential modules uncovers cancer dependency on uncharacterized lncRNAs

    Ramkrishna Mitra et al.
    The discovery of uncharacterized lncRNAs that regulate cell proliferation/growth across cancer types, including two p53 regulated tumor suppressive lncRNAs, were identified through systematic analyses of multi-omics data and provides a computational framework resource to cancer researchers.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    RNA-binding proteins direct myogenic cell fate decisions

    Joshua R Wheeler et al.
    Temporally regulated RNA-binding proteins orchestrate RNA splicing to drive myogenesis.
    1. Cell Biology

    Endocytic trafficking promotes vacuolar enlargements for fast cell expansion rates in plants

    Kai Dünser et al.
    Cellular and vacuolar size expansion are coordinated.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Ancestral reconstruction of duplicated signaling proteins reveals the evolution of signaling specificity

    Isabel Nocedal, Michael T Laub
    Ancestral reconstruction of a signaling pathway reveals the mutations responsible for producing specificity of the two paralogous pathways produced by a duplication event.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer screening indicators in a Spanish population-based program: a cohort study

    Guillermo Bosch et al.
    The COVID-19 pandemic reduced participation in a Spanish population-based breast cancer screening program, especially among regular participants, while other outcomes like recall and cancer detection were not negatively affected by the interruption of screening.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Sequence and structural conservation reveal fingerprint residues in TRP channels

    Deny Cabezas-Bratesco et al.
    Joint sequence, structure, and phylogenetic analyses identify highly conserved features in transmembrane domains of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel proteins that offer a novel explanation for how TRPs could integrate stimuli into cellular signals.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Tyrosine phosphorylation tunes chemical and thermal sensitivity of TRPV2 ion channel

    Xiaoyi Mo et al.
    Mg2+-dependent JAK1-mediated phosphorylation sensitizes TRPV2 activity and thermo-threshold, which is counterbalanced by PTPN1-mediated dephosphorylation, highlighting a role of phosphorylation homeostasis in setting the basal activity of TRPV2.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Dynamic spreading of chromatin-mediated gene silencing and reactivation between neighboring genes in single cells

    Sarah Lensch et al.
    In a synthetic system, spreading of chromatin-mediated silencing to nearby genes depends on distance and can bypass genetic insulators, while reactivation after release of gene targeting is coordinated by insulators and promoters.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Hypoxia controls plasma membrane targeting of polarity proteins by dynamic turnover of PI4P and PI(4,5)P2

    Juan Lu et al.
    When challenged by energetic stresses triggered by hypoxia and ATP inhibition, plasma membrane PI4P and PIP2 in cells undergo dramatic turnovers that have profound impact on many cellular processes including electrostatic PM targeting of numerous polybasic proteins.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Heavy isotope labeling and mass spectrometry reveal unexpected remodeling of bacterial cell wall expansion in response to drugs

    Heiner Atze et al.
    Labeling with 13C and 15N in the absence of metabolic engineering enabled the exploration of peptidoglycan metabolism at a very fine level of detail based on kinetic characterization of isotopologues predicted to occur according to known recycling and biosynthesis pathways.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Towards a unified model of naive T cell dynamics across the lifespan

    Sanket Rane et al.
    Naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in mice increase their survival capacity with age, but their numbers are not homeostatically regulated.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    METTL18-mediated histidine methylation of RPL3 modulates translation elongation for proteostasis maintenance

    Eriko Matsuura-Suzuki et al.
    METTL18 methylates histidine 245 of ribosomal protein RPL3, retards ribosome traversal at tyrosine codons, and thus ensures nascent protein folding for proteostasis maintenance.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Squamation and scale morphology at the root of jawed vertebrates

    Yajing Wang, Min Zhu
    New morphological data of a primitive placoderm fish demonstrate both high regionalization of squamation and the bipartite histological structure of scale are plesiomorphic for jawed vertebrates.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Alone, in the dark: The extraordinary neuroethology of the solitary blind mole rat

    Yael Kashash et al.
    A new ethologically relevant model for investigating the neurobiology of solitary, asocial behavior in the blind mole rat.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sparse genetically defined neurons refine the canonical role of periaqueductal gray columnar organization

    Mimi Q La-Vu et al.
    Molecular genetic identity is a vital but unexplored axis of functional organization in the brainstem periaqueductal gray.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Towards a molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial protein import through the TOM and TIM23 complexes

    Holly C Ford et al.
    Determination of a model of mitochondrial protein import elucidated using a high-resolution transport assay and kinetic modelling.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Fast bacterial growth reduces antibiotic accumulation and efficacy

    Urszula Łapińska et al.
    Phenotypic variants that avoid antibiotic accumulation within clonal bacterial populations are a significant contributor to antibiotic treatment failure and can rely on previously unrecognised survival strategies such as fast growth during drug treatment.
    1. Neuroscience

    The control and training of single motor units in isometric tasks are constrained by a common input signal

    Mario Bräcklein et al.
    Humans trained to flexibly control individual motor units within a muscle do not naturally learn to gain control over recruitment order.
    1. Cell Biology

    Functional coupling between TRPV4 channel and TMEM16F modulates human trophoblast fusion

    Yang Zhang et al.
    A previously unknown calcium channel in human placental trophoblasts provides a calcium source for activating TMEM16F lipid scramblase that flip-flops phospholipids on cell surface, demonstrating a physiological mechanism that helps to understand how lipid dynamics regulates cell fusion.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Tonic inhibition of the chloride/proton antiporter ClC-7 by PI(3,5)P2 is crucial for lysosomal pH maintenance

    Xavier Leray et al.
    Inhibiyiton of the lysosomal chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 by the signaling lipid PI(3,5)P2 is important for lysosomal pH maintenance and is disrupted by a disease-causing gain-of-function mutation.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells driven by T-cell intrinsic IL-18R/MyD88 signaling predominantly infiltrate Trypanosoma cruzi-infected hearts

    Carlos-Henrique D Barbosa et al.
    Cytotoxic CD4 T lymphocytes are abundantly generated in T. cruzi-infected mice, predominantly infiltrate infected hearts, depend on T-cell intrinsic IL-18R/MyD88 signaling for expansion and their blood frequency correlates with the severity of chronic myocarditis in patients with Chagas disease.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    A mechanism with severing near barbed ends and annealing explains structure and dynamics of dendritic actin networks

    Danielle Holz et al.
    Computational modeling and single molecule imaging data support frequent disassembly and annealing of newly assembled actin, a process that can underlie structural changes of lamellipodial actin networks.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Lactoferricins impair the cytosolic membrane of Escherichia coli within a few seconds and accumulate inside the cell

    Enrico F Semeraro et al.
    The damage of the bacterial cell envelope is found to be only a secondary effect of the antimicrobial activity of lactoferricin derivatives.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Genome editing in the unicellular holozoan Capsaspora owczarzaki suggests a premetazoan role for the Hippo pathway in multicellular morphogenesis

    Jonathan E Phillips et al.
    Genome editing in a close unicellular relative of animals suggests a premetazoan function of the Hippo pathway effector YAP/TAZ/Yorkie in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and multicellular morphogenesis but not proliferation.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Strength of interactions in the Notch gene regulatory network determines patterning and fate in the notochord

    Héctor Sánchez-Iranzo et al.
    Interaction strength in Notch signaling determines lateral inhibition patterning and drives fate in the unidimensional cell arrangement of the zebrafish notochord.
    1. Neuroscience

    A general decoding strategy explains the relationship between behavior and correlated variability

    Amy M Ni et al.
    The frequently observed relationship between perceptual performance and correlated variability in sensory cortex can be explained by observers using a decoding strategy that prioritizes generality for many stimuli over precision.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct but overlapping roles of LRRTM1 and LRRTM2 in developing and mature hippocampal circuits

    Shreya H Dhume et al.
    LRRTM1 and LRRTM2 play multifaceted roles in the molecular organization of neuronal circuits through mediating context-dependent functions in synapse development but independent roles in plasticity and cognition.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Transposon mutagenesis in Mycobacterium abscessus identifies an essential penicillin-binding protein involved in septal peptidoglycan synthesis and antibiotic sensitivity

    Chidiebere Akusobi et al.
    PBP-lipo is an essential cell-wall synthesis enzyme in Mycobacterium abscessus that localizes to the septum and whose expression is required for normal cell growth and division, as well as mediating sensitivity to several antibiotics including the β-lactams, ampicillin, and amoxicillin.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cross-modality synthesis of EM time series and live fluorescence imaging

    Anthony Santella et al.
    A landmark-based cross-modality alignment method robust to variation in landmark sets is applied to annotate an EM time series of Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic development as a community resource.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Quantifying concordant genetic effects of de novo mutations on multiple disorders

    Hanmin Guo et al.
    EncoreDNM identifies abundant enrichment correlations across disorders for de novo mutations.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Species-specific sensitivity to TGFβ signaling and changes to the Mmp13 promoter underlie avian jaw development and evolution

    Spenser S Smith et al.
    Multiple levels of gene regulation in the TGFβ signaling pathway mediate the expression of Mmp13, establish species-specific domains of bone resorption, and likely generate evolutionary variation in jaw length.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Visualizing molecules of functional human profilin

    Morgan L Pimm et al.
    Fluorescently-tagged profilin-1 behaves similar to the tag-free protein in biochemical and cell-based assays.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sleep-dependent upscaled excitability, saturated neuroplasticity, and modulated cognition in the human brain

    Mohammad Ali Salehinejad et al.
    The sleep-deprived brain in humans undergoes upscaled intracortical excitability which diminishes induction of LTP-like plasticity via transcranial electrical stimulation while converting the LTD-like to LTP-like plasticity and these physiological changes couple with impaired learning, memory, and attention at behavioral level.
    1. Neuroscience

    Prefrontal cortex supports speech perception in listeners with cochlear implants

    Arefeh Sherafati et al.
    The use of high-density optical brain imaging in listeners with cochlear implants shows increased activity in frontal cortex during speech perception compared to those with normal hearing.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Predictors of human-infective RNA virus discovery in the United States, China, and Africa, an ecological study

    Feifei Zhang et al.
    In three different regions including the United States, China, and Africa, virus discoveries were strongly associated with GDP and land use, but were less likely to be associated with climate and biodiversity variables than at a global scale.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Efferocytosis of SARS-CoV-2-infected dying cells impairs macrophage anti-inflammatory functions and clearance of apoptotic cells

    Ana CG Salina et al.
    Internalization of apoptotic SARS-CoV-2 infected cells leads to proinflammatory macrophage activation and reduction in macrophage capacity to perform further efferocytosis.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Cells use molecular working memory to navigate in changing chemoattractant fields

    Akhilesh Nandan et al.
    Combined experimental and theoretical analysis identifies a molecular mechanism akin to working memory that enables single cells to perform complex navigation tasks in changing growth factor fields, beyond simple stimulus-response associations.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Hydrodynamic model of fish orientation in a channel flow

    Maurizio Porfiri et al.
    A hydrodynamic model of fish swimming in a channel predicts a critical flow speed for fish to successfully swim against a flow, unveiling a passive mechanism for rheotaxis to emerge without access to any sensory information.
    1. Cell Biology

    Distinct roles for two Caenorhabditis elegans acid-sensing ion channels in an ultradian clock

    Eva Kaulich et al.
    Two acid-sensing members of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel family play distinct roles in controlling different aspects of rhythmic proton and calcium oscillations in the nematode intestine.
    1. Neuroscience

    A neural mechanism for detecting object motion during self-motion

    HyungGoo R Kim et al.
    Neural recordings from macaque area MT reveal a novel mechanism for detecting moving objects during self-motion, involving neurons with incongruent tuning for depth from motion parallax and binocular disparity cues.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Subtype-specific responses of hKv7.4 and hKv7.5 channels to polyunsaturated fatty acids reveal an unconventional modulatory site and mechanism

    Damon JA Frampton et al.
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids facilitate or impede Kv7 channel activation, depending on channel subtype and their dominant functional site(s).
    1. Neuroscience

    Minian, an open-source miniscope analysis pipeline

    Zhe Dong et al.
    Minian is an open-source analysis pipeline for calcium imaging data that enhances usability with low memory demands and transparency with user-friendly interactive visualizations.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Differentiated glioma cell-derived fibromodulin activates integrin-dependent Notch signaling in endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis and growth

    Shreoshi Sengupta et al.
    Comprehensive proteomic investigation and functional studies unravel an essential role of differentiated glioma cell-secreted fibromodulin (FMOD) in regulating glioblastoma tumor growth by inducing angiogenesis by activating integrin-dependent Notch signaling in endothelial cells, highlighting FMOD as a potential therapeutic target.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Distinctive mechanisms of epilepsy-causing mutants discovered by measuring S4 movement in KCNQ2 channels

    Michaela A Edmond et al.
    Because voltage-gated KCNQ2 channels are central to physiological and pathophysiological events, understanding how disease-causing mutations in different channel regions disrupt function will help future development of mutation-specific antiepileptic therapies.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    A biophysical threshold for biofilm formation

    Jenna A Moore-Ott et al.
    A biophysical model of the process by which bacteria transition from the motile planktonic state to the immobilized biofilm state yields testable predictions in terms of two dimensionless parameters, one describing nutrient availability and the other describing cellular dispersal.