June 2020

Research articles

    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Membrane characteristics tune activities of endosomal and autophagic human VPS34 complexes

    Yohei Ohashi et al.
    The lipid kinase VPS34 complexes I and II are both activated by unsaturation of substrate and non-substrate lipids, curvature, electrostatics and polyphosphoinositides, which play roles in localisation and cellular function.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    HA stabilization promotes replication and transmission of swine H1N1 gamma influenza viruses in ferrets

    Meng Hu et al.
    Infection experiments in ferrets reveal swine influenza viruses need their hemagglutinin antigen to become stabilized for transmissibility, adding a new property to consider when triaging field isolates for pandemic potential.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Generation of inner ear hair cells by direct lineage conversion of primary somatic cells

    Louise Menendez et al.
    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to an inner ear sensory hair cell-like state provides an experimental platform to identify causes and treatments for hair cell loss and hearing deficits.
    1. Neuroscience

    Parvalbumin interneurons provide spillover to newborn and mature dentate granule cells

    Ryan J Vaden et al.
    Fast-spiking parvalbumin-expressing interneurons generate slow spillover-mediated GABAergic transmission to young adult-born and neighboring mature neurons of the dentate gyrus.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Alcids ‘fly’ at efficient Strouhal numbers in both air and water but vary stroke velocity and angle

    Anthony B Lapsansky et al.
    Four species of seabird produce efficient propulsive wakes while flying in the air and while swimming underwater suggesting that selection has optimized these species for locomotion in remarkably different fluids.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Transient role of the middle ear as a lower jaw support across mammals

    Neal Anthwal et al.
    The incus of the middle ear plays a role in supporting the lower jaw prior to the formation of the mammalian jaw joint allowing early feeding in monotremes and marsupials.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of MlaFB uncovers novel mechanisms of ABC transporter regulation

    Ljuvica R Kolich et al.
    Structure of MlaFB reveals how a small binding protein and the C-terminal tail on an ATPase subunit work together to regulate the assembly and function of an ABC transporter.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Targeted surveillance strategies for efficient detection of novel antibiotic resistance variants

    Allison L Hicks et al.
    Sampling informed by pathogen genomic data may facilitate more efficient detection of novel antibiotic resistance than random sampling.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Divergent sensory investment mirrors potential speciation via niche partitioning across Drosophila

    Ian W Keesey et al.
    Phototaxis and courtship behavioral preferences reflect strong correlation with differences in olfactory and visual nervous system investment across five monophyletic Drosophila species, and could help explain their speciation events.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibition stabilization is a widespread property of cortical networks

    Alessandro Sanzeni et al.
    The strongly coupled theoretical regime describes the function of mouse sensory and motor cortical areas.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    CARD14E138A signalling in keratinocytes induces TNF-dependent skin and systemic inflammation

    Joan Manils et al.
    Expression of a psoriasis-associated CARD14E138A mutant in keratinocytes induces TNF-dependent localised skin and systemic inflammation independently of the adaptive immune system.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    A non-mosaic transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome carrying the long arm of human chromosome 21

    Yasuhiro Kazuki et al.
    TcMAC21 is an appropriate “next gen” mouse model for DS research, and provides a proof of concept of using artificial chromosomes to generate non-mosaic humanized animal models of chromosome disorders.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Tetramerisation of the CRISPR ring nuclease Crn3/Csx3 facilitates cyclic oligoadenylate cleavage

    Januka S Athukoralage et al.
    A widespread ribonuclease is a CRISPR-associated ring nuclease with a highly unusual cooperative mechanism involving tetramerisation of the enzyme.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Golgi compartments enable controlled biomolecular assembly using promiscuous enzymes

    Anjali Jaiman, Mukund Thattai
    By partitioning promiscuous enzymes across multiple Golgi compartments, eukaryotic cells can tightly control the synthesis of complex sugar oligomers.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The role of Rif1 in telomere length regulation is separable from its role in origin firing

    Calla B Shubin, Carol W Greider
    Telomere length is linked to DNA replication, and we found excessive telomeric origin firing caused by several distinct mutants did not lengthen telomeres, narrowing possible mechanisms.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A Tgfbr1/Snai1-dependent developmental module at the core of vertebrate axial elongation

    André Dias et al.
    During vertebrate axial extension, the tail bud originates from the activation of a developmental module in a subset of axial progenitors, concurrent but different to gastrulation.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Aromatic interactions with membrane modulate human BK channel activation

    Mahdieh Yazdani et al.
    Computation and experiment together demonstrate that nonspecific membrane–protein interactions could regulate transmembrane protein function and suggest that covalent linkers can be an integral component of the sensing apparatus.
    1. Ecology

    Biodiversity mediates the effects of stressors but not nutrients on litter decomposition

    Léa Beaumelle et al.
    The consequences of real-world biodiversity change for ecosystem functioning depend on the type of global change driver and can be particularly significant when human activities decrease biodiversity.
    1. Neuroscience

    A Matlab-based toolbox for characterizing behavior of rodents engaged in string-pulling

    Samsoon Inayat et al.
    Analysis methods for video data of rodents engaged in string-pulling behavior have been developed and used to highlight differences in motion profiles of Swiss Webster and C57Bl/6 mice.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    A decentralised neural model explaining optimal integration of navigational strategies in insects

    Xuelong Sun et al.
    The first biology-constrained neural model of insect navigation guidance systems was explained including path integration, visual homing and route following, and their optimal coordination.
    1. Neuroscience

    Estimating and interpreting nonlinear receptive field of sensory neural responses with deep neural network models

    Menoua Keshishian et al.
    A comprehensive, data-driven and interpretable nonlinear computational modeling framework based on deep neural networks uncovers different nonlinear transformations of speech signal in the human auditory cortex.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Doa10 is a membrane protein retrotranslocase in ER-associated protein degradation

    Claudia C Schmidt et al.
    Doa10, a membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligase, facilitates the removal of membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and cooperates with the Cdc48 ATPase in this process.
    1. Neuroscience

    Different methods of fear reduction are supported by distinct cortical substrates

    Belinda PP Lay et al.
    Extinction and overexpectation lead to the same behavioural outcome, that is, reduction in learned fear, but engage different cortical areas.
    1. Neuroscience

    3,6’-dithiopomalidomide reduces neural loss, inflammation, behavioral deficits in brain injury and microglial activation

    Chih-Tung Lin et al.
    The new drug 3,6’-dithiopomalidomide mitigates key markers of neuronal death and neuroinflammation and improves acute behavioral outcome measures in traumatic brain injury, a common, debilitating disorder that lacks effective treatment.
    1. Ecology

    Diversity-decomposition relationships in forests worldwide

    Liang Kou et al.
    Carbon dynamics and the relative availability of key nutrients during litter decomposition are modified by changing biodiversity in the Earth’s forests.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Alternative polyadenylation mediates genetic regulation of gene expression

    Briana E Mittleman et al.
    Genetic variation can impact multiple levels of gene regulation and disease through alternative polyadenylation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Numerical magnitude, rather than individual bias, explains spatial numerical association in newborn chicks

    Rosa Rugani et al.
    Spatial numerical association in three-day-old domestic chicks linearly decreases as numerical magnitude increases (2>5>8), supporting the hypothesis that numerical magnitude guides the spatial numerical association.
    1. Neuroscience

    Controlling motor neurons of every muscle for fly proboscis reaching

    Claire E McKellar et al.
    A new collection of fly strains comprehensively targets the motor neurons of the proboscis, allowing separate control of every muscle to determine how this appendage achieves flexible, directed reaching.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Specific labeling of synaptic schwann cells reveals unique cellular and molecular features

    Ryan Castro et al.
    The discovery of markers specific to perisynaptic Schwann cells will accelerate the discovery of mechanisms important for their differentiation and function.
    1. Cell Biology

    A microscopy-based kinetic analysis of yeast vacuolar protein sorting

    Jason C Casler, Benjamin S Glick
    In yeast, a fluorescent vacuolar cargo departs from Golgi cisternae early in the TGN stage of maturation, and traffic from prevacuolar endosomes to the vacuole apparently involves a kiss-and-run mechanism.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Mouse brain transcriptome responses to inhaled nanoparticulate matter differed by sex and APOE in Nrf2-Nfkb interactions

    Amin Haghani et al.
    Transcriptome analysis of mouse brain revealed that the APOE4 allele and sex can alter air pollution neurotoxicity in adults.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Differential accumulation of storage bodies with aging defines discrete subsets of microglia in the healthy brain

    Jeremy Carlos Burns et al.
    Two novel subsets of microglia identified by their unique autofluorescence profiles differ in their subcellular organization, proteomic signatures and in their response to aging and lysosomal dysfunction.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Mitigating memory effects during undulatory locomotion on hysteretic materials

    Perrin E Schiebel et al.
    Undulatory animals moving on the surface must manage material memory by either having a slender anatomy that facilitates avoiding previously remodeled substrate, or using waveshapes that effectively utilize the memory.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Structural basis for capsid recruitment and coat formation during HSV-1 nuclear egress

    Elizabeth B Draganova et al.
    Interactions were visualized between the nuclear egress complex from herpes simplex virus and a capsid protein that could promote nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the capsid in infected cells.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Slow oscillation-spindle coupling predicts enhanced memory formation from childhood to adolescence

    Michael A Hahn et al.
    An individualized cross-frequency coupling approach identified slow oscillation-spindle coupling strength as a novel mechanism that mediates memory formation during cortical maturation.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Echinoderms provide missing link in the evolution of PrRP/sNPF-type neuropeptide signalling

    Luis Alfonso Yañez-Guerra et al.
    Discovery of a novel neuropeptide signalling system in a deuterostome invertebrate reveals the evolutionary origin of prolactin-releasing peptide and its relationship with neuropeptides in protostome invertebrates.
    1. Neuroscience

    Control of adaptive action selection by secondary motor cortex during flexible visual categorization

    Tian-Yi Wang et al.
    The secondary motor cortex causally contributes to flexible action selection during stimulus categorization with the representations of upcoming choice and sensory history regulated by the demand to remap stimulus–action association.
    1. Cell Biology

    Nanobody-directed targeting of optogenetic tools to study signaling in the primary cilium

    Jan N Hansen et al.
    Trafficking of optogenetic tools to primary cilia using nanobodies allows to study cAMP signaling with spatial and temporal resolution independent of the cell body.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    AR phosphorylation and CHK2 kinase activity regulates IR-stabilized AR–CHK2 interaction and prostate cancer survival

    Huy Q Ta et al.
    CHK2 directly binds the AR to mediate transient suppression of AR activity and thus loss of CHK2 function in prostate cancer increases AR activity, DNA damage response and radiation resistance.
    1. Neuroscience

    Microglia TREM2R47H Alzheimer-linked variant enhances excitatory transmission and reduces LTP via increased TNF-α levels

    Siqiang Ren et al.
    Analysis of rats carrying the microglia gene and Alzheimer risk factor Trem2R47H variant shows increased glutamatergic transmission via supraphysiological TNF-α brain concentrations, linking a microglia pathogenic variant to neuronal dysfunction.
    1. Neuroscience

    SynGAP isoforms differentially regulate synaptic plasticity and dendritic development

    Yoichi Araki et al.
    Detailed SYNGAP1 splice variant characterization uncovers distinct isoform functions and biochemical properties contributing to critical aspects of neurodevelopment, providing previously unknown isoform-level insight into SYNGAP1-related cognitive disorders.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Dynamic behavior of the locus coeruleus during arousal-related memory processing in a multi-modal 7T fMRI paradigm

    Heidi IL Jacobs et al.
    By combining ultra-high-field imaging with physiological and saliva measures it is established that interactions between locus coeruleus, hippocampus and amygdala vary along emotional memory stages, putatively reflecting distinct cognitive states.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Unsupervised machine learning reveals risk stratifying glioblastoma tumor cells

    Nalin Leelatian et al.
    A new automated and unsupervised algorithm, Risk Assessment Population IDentification, identifies risk-stratifying cells in single cell datasets with robust statistical and biological validation.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    A new genetic strategy for targeting microglia in development and disease

    Gabriel L McKinsey et al.
    P2ry12-CreER robustly and specifically labels microglia in fate-mapping and ribosomal profiling experiments, revealing new markers for myeloid subpopulations in the central nervous system.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and their potential for therapeutic passive immunization

    PJ Klasse, John P Moore
    Antibodies hold promise for breakthrough treatment of COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Sequentially induced motor neurons from human fibroblasts facilitate locomotor recovery in a rodent spinal cord injury model

    Hyunah Lee et al.
    Sequential introduction of transcription factors enables large-scale generation of induced motor neurons (iMNs) from human somatic cells, and transplantation of iMNs exhibit therapeutic effects in spinal cord injury model.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Developmental Biology

    The E2 Marie Kondo and the CTLH E3 ligase clear deposited RNA binding proteins during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

    Michael Zavortink et al.
    In fruit flies, maternally deposited RNA-binding proteins are removed during the maternal-to-zygotic transition via a mechanism of translational upregulation of Kondo, the key E2 enzyme, at egg activation.
    1. Plant Biology

    Lack of evidence for associative learning in pea plants

    Kasey Markel
    A fully blinded replication of the most convincing report of associative learning in plants failed to reproduce the phenomenon.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Skd3 (human ClpB) is a potent mitochondrial protein disaggregase that is inactivated by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria-linked mutations

    Ryan R Cupo, James Shorter
    Skd3 (human ClpB) is a potent ATP-dependent mitochondrial protein disaggregase that is activated by the rhomboid protease, PARL, and inactivated by MGCA7-linked mutations.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Moyamoya disease factor RNF213 is a giant E3 ligase with a dynein-like core and a distinct ubiquitin-transfer mechanism

    Juraj Ahel et al.
    RNF213 is a giant E3 ligase with a dynein-like core and a unique ubiquitination mechanism that proceeds in a RING-independent manner and is linked with the Moyamoya disease.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Tuning of feedforward control enables stable muscle force-length dynamics after loss of autogenic proprioceptive feedback

    Joanne C Gordon et al.
    Running guinea fowl maintain stable running after loss of the stretch reflex in a major ankle extensor muscle, by increasing feedforward muscle activation to maintain ankle stiffness and work output.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Combined deletion of Glut1 and Glut3 impairs lung adenocarcinoma growth

    Caroline Contat et al.
    In lung adenocarcinoma, deleting one glucose transporter, whether it is Glut1 or Glut3 is insufficient, whereas their dual deletion reduces tumor growth.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    A single-cell transcriptomic and anatomic atlas of mouse dorsal raphe Pet1 neurons

    Benjamin W Okaty et al.
    Dorsal raphe Pet1 neurons are molecularly heterogeneous, comprising as many as fourteen distinct subtypes that show biased cell body distributions across dorsal raphe subdomains.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A divergent cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complex controls the atypical replication of a malaria parasite during gametogony and transmission

    Aurélia C Balestra et al.
    Multiple steps of the atypical cell cycles underlying Plasmodium gametogony are controlled by a divergent cyclin/cyclin-dependent complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Brain states govern the spatio-temporal dynamics of resting-state functional connectivity

    Felipe Aedo-Jury et al.
    Distinct brain states govern resting state functional architecture revealed by neurophysiologically defined simultaneous optic-fiber-based calcium recordings and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in rats.
    1. Developmental Biology

    The Wg and Dpp morphogens regulate gene expression by modulating the frequency of transcriptional bursts

    Rachael Bakker et al.
    Experimental results in Drosophila support a model in which gene expression is fundamentally controlled by morphogens tuning the same transcription parameter for genes that are expressed in highly diverse patterns.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Local frustration determines loop opening during the catalytic cycle of an oxidoreductase

    Lukas S Stelzl et al.
    The cysteine pair oxidation state in nDsbD acts as a ‘switch’ controlling the presence or absence of frustration in the active-site and determining the dynamic behavior of the cap loop.
    1. Neuroscience

    The caudate nucleus contributes causally to decisions that balance reward and uncertain visual information

    Takahiro Doi et al.
    Caudate neurons encode reward and sensory information and the effects of caudate microstimulation mimic the monkeys' voluntary reward bias strategy.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Evidence for transmission of COVID-19 prior to symptom onset

    Lauren C Tindale et al.
    Control of COVID-19 will require strong case finding and isolation of exposed individuals because transmission can occur days prior to symptom onset.
    1. Neuroscience

    Aberrant sorting of hippocampal complex pyramidal cells in type I lissencephaly alters topological innervation

    James A D'Amour et al.
    The loss of lamination in mammalian brain structures under cellular heterotopia carries with it non-uniform ramifications for the various components of the canonical CA1 microcircuitry.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Effective control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission between healthcare workers during a period of diminished community prevalence of COVID-19

    Nick K Jones et al.
    Diminished incidence of COVID-19 amongst healthcare workers in a comprehensive screening programme demonstrates how effective infection control measures and staff testing can prevent hospitals becoming independent 'hubs' of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Dynamic control of adipose tissue development and adult tissue homeostasis by platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha

    Sunhye Shin et al.
    Combined fate mapping and genetic deletion studies reveal that PDGFRα+ cells and PDGFRα gene itself are required for adipose tissue development but not for adult tissue homeostasis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    A trans-eQTL network regulates osteoclast multinucleation and bone mass

    Marie Pereira et al.
    MMnet is a conserved, trans-regulated gene network that controls skeletal homeostasis through osteoclast multinucleation and bone resorptive function.
    1. Cell Biology

    A quantitative inventory of yeast P body proteins reveals principles of composition and specificity

    Wenmin Xing et al.
    Quantitative analyses of yeast P bodies reveals a small number of highly concentrated proteins and many weakly concentrated proteins, suggesting that the compartments are compositionally simpler than previously thought.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    MEIS-mediated suppression of human prostate cancer growth and metastasis through HOXB13-dependent regulation of proteoglycans

    Calvin VanOpstall et al.
    The HOXB13 binding partner MEIS1 suppresses prostate cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis by promoting expression of the anti-oncogenic extracellular proteoglycan Decorin.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ciliate mitoribosome illuminates evolutionary steps of mitochondrial translation

    Victor Tobiasson, Alexey Amunts
    The ciliate mitoribosome structure provides new insights into the diversity of translation and its evolution.
    1. Ecology

    Positive density dependence acting on mortality can help maintain species-rich communities

    Thomas G Aubier
    Some forms of positive density-dependence can favor species coexistence even if competitive species benefit the most from positive density-dependence.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    LUZP1, a novel regulator of primary cilia and the actin cytoskeleton, is a contributing factor in Townes-Brocks Syndrome

    Laura Bozal-Basterra et al.
    LUZP1 is required for proper cilia and cytoskeleton formation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    MxB sensitivity of HIV-1 is determined by a highly variable and dynamic capsid surface

    Richard J Miles et al.
    Conformational flexibility in HIV-1 capsid, provided by cyclophilin A binding, facilitates evasion of capsid-targeting restriction factor MxB, while allowing sequence change to facilitate cytotoxic T-cell evasion.
    1. Neuroscience

    The roles of online and offline replay in planning

    Eran Eldar et al.
    Replay of recently experienced trajectories during a decision task is coupled with more effective adaptation to change, whereas replay during rest is associated with limited decision making flexibility.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Droplet-based high-throughput cultivation for accurate screening of antibiotic resistant gut microbes

    William J Watterson et al.
    High-throughput droplet-based cultivation of gut microbes reduces biases of traditional cultivation strategies and thereby enables detection of difficult-to-culture organisms, which is required in applications such as antibiotic screening.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ca2+ entry through NaV channels generates submillisecond axonal Ca2+ signaling

    Naomi AK Hanemaaijer et al.
    High-speed calcium imaging from the axon initial segment shows that sodium channels are in part permeable to calcium ions.
    1. Ecology

    Vessel noise levels drive behavioural responses of humpback whales with implications for whale-watching

    Kate R Sprogis et al.
    Controlled exposure experiments reveal that underwater vessel noise level from a motorised vessel is an adequate driver of behavioural disturbance in humpback whales.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Pyphe, a python toolbox for assessing microbial growth and cell viability in high-throughput colony screens

    Stephan Kamrad et al.
    An open-source python package for phenotype analyses provides a versatile, modular and user-friendly solution to determine complementary fitness-related traits from large-scale assays of microbial colonies.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Hepatitis C virus exploits cyclophilin A to evade PKR

    Che C Colpitts et al.
    Hepatitis C virus evades IRF1-dependent intrinsic antiviral immunity by exploiting cyclophilin A and its regulation of PKR.
    1. Ecology

    Magnetic alignment enhances homing efficiency of hunting dogs

    Kateřina Benediktová et al.
    Before returning home, and when using novel routes, dogs align along the north-south axis, presumably to bring the mental map into register with the magnetic compass.
    1. Neuroscience

    Pupil-linked phasic arousal predicts a reduction of choice bias across species and decision domains

    Jan Willem de Gee et al.
    Across species and domains of decision-making, pupil-linked phasic arousal predicts suppression biases in the accumulation of evidence leading up to a choice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dietary sugar inhibits satiation by decreasing the central processing of sweet taste

    Christina E May et al.
    Taste-dependent satiation, which induces proper cessation of feeding in mammals as well as insects, is weakened by sugar-diet-driven taste impairment in the fruit fly.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Topologically correct synthetic reconstruction of pathogen social behavior found during Yersinia growth in deep tissue sites

    Stacie A Clark et al.
    Tissue infection by an extracellular pathogen is recapitulated by encasing a bacterial colony within a droplet gel to allow immune cell attack, driving spatially-controlled microbial social behavior.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Nucleosome-CHD4 chromatin remodeler structure maps human disease mutations

    Lucas Farnung et al.
    The structure of the chromatin remodeller CHD4 bound to a nucleosome reveals differences to the known Chd1-nucleosome complex and maps cancer mutations.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    HIV-1 Vpr induces cell cycle arrest and enhances viral gene expression by depleting CCDC137

    Fengwen Zhang, Paul D Bieniasz
    A key target of the HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein is identified, whose depletion causes increased HIV-1gene expression and cell cycle arrest.
    1. Neuroscience

    Leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity via induction of its own receptor in the paraventricular nucleus

    Zhigang Shi et al.
    Leptin acts in the paraventricular nucleus to slowly increase sympathetic nerve activity to skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue via induction of its own receptor in TRH glutamatergic neurons.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    The transition state and regulation of γ-TuRC-mediated microtubule nucleation revealed by single molecule microscopy

    Akanksha Thawani et al.
    Four αβ-tubulin dimers associate laterally on γ-TuRC to define the rate-limiting transition state for microtubule nucleation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Synergy between SIRT1 and SIRT6 helps recognize DNA breaks and potentiates the DNA damage response and repair in humans and mice

    Fanbiao Meng et al.
    SIRT1 deacetylates SIRT6 at K33 to facilitate DNA double-strand breaks-recognition, subsequent expansion and local chromatin remodeling.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Isolation and transcriptomic analysis of Anopheles gambiae oenocytes enables the delineation of hydrocarbon biosynthesis

    Linda Grigoraki et al.
    Delineation of the cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthetic pathway in malaria vectors is a key step in understanding how mosquitoes adapt to anthropogenic change and vector control interventions.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Quantitative modeling of the effect of antigen dosage on B-cell affinity distributions in maturating germinal centers

    Marco Molari et al.
    Detailed and inferred model reproduces B-cell affinity distributions measured in mice immunized according to various protocols and explains non-monotonous effects of antigen dosage on maturation.
    1. Neuroscience

    PreBötzinger complex neurons drive respiratory modulation of blood pressure and heart rate

    Clément Menuet et al.
    The PreBötzinger complex, which contains neurons that are the kernel for inspiratory rhythm generation, also contains sympathoexcitatory and parasympathoinhibitory neurons that drive respiratory-phase oscillations in blood pressure and heart rate.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Evolutionarily conserved regulation of immunity by the splicing factor RNP-6/PUF60

    Chun Kew et al.
    The splicing factor RNP-6/PUF60 suppresses immunity by modulating host splicing and transcriptional responses to infection.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Fatty acid β-oxidation is required for the differentiation of larval hematopoietic progenitors in Drosophila

    Satish Kumar Tiwari et al.
    Genetic and molecular analyses reveal the decisive role of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) acting downstream to the ROS-JNK circuit essential for hemocyte progenitor differentiation in Drosophila..
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    FoxO suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress to inhibit growth of Tsc1-deficient tissues under nutrient restriction

    Avantika Gupta, Hugo Stocker
    Transcriptomic and genetic analyses of FoxO target genes reveal a key function of ER-associated protein degradation in growth regulation of Tsc1-deficient tissues.
    1. Neuroscience

    mPFC spindle cycles organize sparse thalamic activation and recently active CA1 cells during non-REM sleep

    Carmen Varela, Matthew A Wilson
    Sleep spindles provide a temporal framework to organize the reactivation of behaviorally relevant CA1 cells and sparsely active cells in the limbic thalamus.
    1. Neuroscience

    Different neuronal populations mediate inflammatory pain analgesia by exogenous and endogenous opioids

    Xin-Yan Zhang et al.
    Exogenous opioid analgesia is mediated by MORs expressed in glutamatergic neurons, whereas endogenous opioid analgesia is mediated by MORs expressed in GABAergic neurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct signals in medial and lateral VTA dopamine neurons modulate fear extinction at different times

    Lili X Cai et al.
    Dopamine neurons in medial versus lateral VTA encode different signals during fear extinction, yet inhibition of both populations influences fear extinction, at different times.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    CRISPR-Cas12a exploits R-loop asymmetry to form double-strand breaks

    Joshua C Cofsky et al.
    The DNA flanks on either side of an R-loop differ in stability, and CRISPR-Cas12 enzymes form double-strand breaks by targeting the more unstable flank with their single DNase active site.
    1. Neuroscience

    The neurons that mistook a hat for a face

    Michael J Arcaro et al.
    Neuronal recordings reveal complex, heterogeneous inputs to face-selective neurons, suggesting that inferotemporal neurons do not represent objects in isolation, but are also sensitive to object relationships that reflect environmental regularities.
    1. Neuroscience

    Globus pallidus dynamics reveal covert strategies for behavioral inhibition

    Bon-Mi Gu et al.
    Rats can pre-position the state of their basal ganglia neural networks to adaptively influence their subsequent response to a Go signal.
    1. Neuroscience

    Acute disruption of the synaptic vesicle membrane protein synaptotagmin 1 using knockoff in mouse hippocampal neurons

    Jason D Vevea, Edwin R Chapman
    Knockoff is a tool for researchers who wish to acutely disrupt a membrane protein.
    1. Neuroscience

    Modulation of dopamine D1 receptors via histamine H3 receptors is a novel therapeutic target for Huntington's disease

    David Moreno-Delgado et al.
    Progression of Huntington's disease can be slowed by altering dopamine signalling through the Dopamine 1 receptor - Histamine 3 receptor heteromer.
    1. Cancer Biology

    The testis protein ZNF165 is a SMAD3 cofactor that coordinates oncogenic TGFβ signaling in triple-negative breast cancer

    Zane A Gibbs et al.
    Anomalous expression of the testis protein ZNF165 in cancer cells promotes assembly of a neomorphic transcriptional complex that modulates transcription of TGFβ target genes to support tumor cell survival.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mature oligodendrocytes bordering lesions limit demyelination and favor myelin repair via heparan sulfate production

    Magali Macchi et al.
    Heparan sulfate synthesis by mature oligodendrocytes creates a protective and permissive environment controling microglia and oligodendrocyte progenitors reactivation during remyelination.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    An ECF-type transporter scavenges heme to overcome iron-limitation in Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    Angelika Jochim et al.
    An ECF-type transporter serves as broad-spectrum heme iron scavenger and allows an opportunistic pathogen to use multiple eukaryotic hemoproteins to overcome nutritional iron-limitation.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Analysis of pulsed cisplatin signalling dynamics identifies effectors of resistance in lung adenocarcinoma

    Jordan F Hastings et al.
    Overlaying single cell readouts of cell cycle and apoptosis onto a multidimensional analysis of pulsed cisplatin signalling dynamics reveals targetable mechanisms of platinum resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.
    1. Cell Biology

    G protein-regulated endocytic trafficking of adenylyl cyclase type 9

    André M Lazar et al.
    An adenylyl cyclase isoform is shown to dynamically traffic to endosomes after activation by G protein in mammalian cells, contributing to cellular cAMP signaling by internalized GPCRs.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Squalene emulsion-based vaccine adjuvants stimulate CD8 T cell, but not antibody responses, through a RIPK3-dependent pathway

    Eui Ho Kim et al.
    Experiments in mice provide insights into the immunological mechanisms of action the vaccine adjuvant MF59.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Delineating the early transcriptional specification of the mammalian trachea and esophagus

    Akela Kuwahara et al.
    Tracheal and esophageal fate specification underlies human structural anomalies, multiple cancers, and human pluripotent stem cell approaches for generating respiratory and esophageal cell types for tissue engineering.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hippocampal remapping as hidden state inference

    Honi Sanders et al.
    Context representation in the hippocampus incorporates uncertainty and requires inference based on past experience.
    1. Neuroscience

    Social aversive generalization learning sharpens the tuning of visuocortical neurons to facial identity cues

    Yannik Stegmann et al.
    Measures of visuocortical activity during aversive generalization learning revealed sharpened representations of facial identity, reflecting inhibitory interactions between neuronal populations that represent facial features associated with threat versus safety.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Activin A forms a non-signaling complex with ACVR1 and type II Activin/BMP receptors via its finger 2 tip loop

    Senem Aykul et al.
    The non-signaling complex formed by Activin A and ACVR1 is operant in vivo and is required to temper the degree of heterotopic ossification in the genetic disorder fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Cohesion is established during DNA replication utilising chromosome associated cohesin rings as well as those loaded de novo onto nascent DNAs

    Madhusudhan Srinivasan et al.
    Sister chromatid cohesion is established during replication by two independent pathways operating in parallel, one converts chromosomal cohesin into cohesive structures while the other loads cohesin onto nascent DNAs.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Existence and functions of a kisspeptin neuropeptide signaling system in a non-chordate deuterostome species

    Tianming Wang et al.
    Identification and functional characterization of the first non-chordate kisspeptin neuropeptide system in the sea cucumber indicates the ancient origin of the intracellular signaling and physiological functions of this molecular system.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dreaming with hippocampal damage

    Goffredina Spanò et al.
    A provoked awakening protocol during sleep reveals that selective bilateral hippocampal damage in humans is associated with reduced frequency, quality, and content of dreaming.
    1. Neuroscience

    Whole-organism behavioral profiling reveals a role for dopamine in state-dependent motor program coupling in C. elegans

    Nathan Cermak et al.
    Simultaneous quantification of each of the main motor programs in the roundworm C. elegans yields new insights into the neural mechanisms that coordinate animal behavior.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Formin-like 1 mediates effector T cell trafficking to inflammatory sites to enable T cell-mediated autoimmunity

    Scott B Thompson et al.
    Lymphocyte migration and autoimmunity induction rely on Formin-like 1-mediated actin network remodeling to push the lymphocyte nucleus through restrictive endothelial barriers.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Shear stimulation of FOXC1 and FOXC2 differentially regulates cytoskeletal activity during lymphatic valve maturation

    Pieter R Norden et al.
    Genetic and molecular analyses show that FOXC1 and FOXC2 play a role in controlling lymphatic valve maintenance as key mediators of mechanotransduction to control cytoskeletal organization and RhoA/ROCK signaling.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A non-canonical role for the EDC4 decapping factor in regulating MARF1-mediated mRNA decay

    William R Brothers et al.
    Crosslink immunopreciptiation (iCLIP) studies reveal important mechanistic insights into how MARF1 post-transcriptionally regulates targeted mRNAs and uncover a novel mode by which EDC4 regulates mRNA metabolism.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Predicting geographic location from genetic variation with deep neural networks

    CJ Battey et al.
    Neural networks allow fast and accurate prediction of individual spatial locations from genotypes or sequencing data.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    TMAO, a seafood-derived molecule, produces diuresis and reduces mortality in heart failure rats

    Marta Gawrys-Kopczynska et al.
    Trimethylamine-oxide (TMAO), a molecule present in seafood, reduces mortality and exerts beneficial effects on the circulatory system in heart failure rats.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Near-atomic structures of the BBSome reveal the basis for BBSome activation and binding to GPCR cargoes

    Shuang Yang et al.
    Membrane recruitment of BBSome is coupled to a conformational change, and interaction of the BBSome with GPCR cargoes depends on the GPCRs releasing their amphipathic helix 8 from the membrane.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    FMRP promotes RNA localization to neuronal projections through interactions between its RGG domain and G-quadruplex RNA sequences

    Raeann Goering et al.
    The molecular determinants for neuronal subcellular RNA transport by FMRP are defined, with interactions between RNA G-quadruplexes and the RGG domain of FMRP being of critical importance.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A non-linear system patterns Rab5 GTPase on the membrane

    Alice Cezanne et al.
    Both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions are essential for Rab5 symmetry breaking at the early endosome.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Biochemical basis for the regulation of biosynthesis of antiparasitics by bacterial hormones

    Iti Kapoor et al.
    Biochemical and structural biological analyses show how bacteria can recognize hormones that control the production of important secondary metabolites such as antiparasitics and antibiotics.
    1. Neuroscience

    Fibrillar Aβ triggers microglial proteome alterations and dysfunction in Alzheimer mouse models

    Laura Sebastian Monasor et al.
    APPPS1 microglia express disease-associated proteomic signatures of Alzheimer's disease earlier, compared to the APP-KI, and these differences correlate with the levels of fibrillar Aβ and impaired microglial phagocytic function.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    The dynamic transmission of positional information in stau- mutants during Drosophila embryogenesis

    Zhe Yang et al.
    In stau-mutants, the Hunchback boundary shifts posteriorly by 10% EL but shows comparable variability to that of the wild type in short time windows in nuclear cycle 14.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Comprehensive exploration of the translocation, stability and substrate recognition requirements in VIM-2 lactamase

    John Z Chen et al.
    Comprehensive mutational characterisation of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase deciphered the residues responsible for key functional behavior, including translocation, stability, substrate recognition and catalysis.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Self-restoration of cardiac excitation rhythm by anti-arrhythmic ion channel gating

    Rupamanjari Majumder et al.
    Customization of ion channel gating enhances homeostatic regulation through automatic detection and correction of abnormal physiological changes, as illustrated by self-restoration of excitation rhythm in cardiac arrhythmias.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    CD56 regulates human NK cell cytotoxicity through Pyk2

    Justin T Gunesch et al.
    CD56/NCAM, the prototypical marker of human natural killer cells, promotes lytic function towards susceptible target cells by signaling through protein tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2).
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Mechanisms of nucleotide selection by telomerase

    Matthew A Schaich et al.
    The roles of key telomerase active site residues were elucidated to determine how telomerase selects the correct from the incorrect nucleotide to maintain telomere integrity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Flexible motor sequence generation during stereotyped escape responses

    Yuan Wang et al.
    Time-ordered and flexible motor sequences in C.elegans are generated by combining an excitatory feedforward coupling and mutual inhibitions between neurons in different functional modules.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Tgfβ signaling is required for tenocyte recruitment and functional neonatal tendon regeneration

    Deepak A Kaji et al.
    TGFß signaling regulates migration of tenogenic cells from Scx- and non-Scx lineages and is required for functional regeneration after neonatal tendon injury.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Diverse nucleosome Site-Selectivity among histone deacetylase complexes

    Zhipeng A Wang et al.
    By analyzing five purified recombinant histone deacetylase complexes and designer acetylated mononucleosome substrates, the molecular basis of the unusual substrate specificity of the CoREST complex was revealed.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    An image-based data-driven analysis of cellular architecture in a developing tissue

    Jonas Hartmann et al.
    A computational strategy for extracting representative numerical features from 3D microscopy data enables in-depth quantitative analysis of cell and tissue organization through machine learning-driven data integration and context-guided visualization.
    1. Neuroscience

    Circuits that encode and guide alcohol-associated preference

    Kristin M Scaplen et al.
    Alcohol modifies dopaminergic microcircuits required for acquisition and expression of sensory memories in Drosophila resulting in a shift in behavioral response from malleable to inflexible.
    1. Neuroscience

    Microstructural organization of human insula is linked to its macrofunctional circuitry and predicts cognitive control

    Vinod Menon et al.
    In vivo quantitative analysis of multi-shell diffusion MRI reveals novel insights into microstructure of human insular cortex and its functional circuits associated with the salience network and cognitive control.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Hippocampal neural stem cells facilitate access from circulation via apical cytoplasmic processes

    Tamar Licht et al.
    Neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus have unique cytoplasmic processes that promote privileged access to circulating factors by a unique contact point with an endothelial cell.
    1. Neuroscience

    Activity-dependent tuning of intrinsic excitability in mouse and human neurogliaform cells

    Ramesh Chittajallu et al.
    Similar to their mouse counterparts, human neurogliaform cells that comprise a specialized from of inhibitory neuron, possess the ability to modulate their intrinsic excitability in response to ongoing network activity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Specialization of the chromatin remodeler RSC to mobilize partially-unwrapped nucleosomes

    Alisha Schlichter et al.
    A SWI/SNF-family chromatin remodeling subcomplex from yeast is identified (RSC1) that is specialized to slide nucleosomes residing on DNA sequences that confer partial nucleosome unwrapping, with assistance from accessory factors.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The His-Gly motif of acid-sensing ion channels resides in a reentrant ‘loop’ implicated in gating and ion selectivity

    Nate Yoder, Eric Gouaux
    The amino terminus of acid-sensing ion channel 1a forms a reentrant 'loop' that frames the lower pore and harbors a conserved 'His-Gly' motif implicated in gating and ion selectivity mechanisms.
    1. Neuroscience

    Feedback contribution to surface motion perception in the human early visual cortex

    Ingo Marquardt et al.
    Novel evidence for a role of feedback in the perception of uniform surfaces in the human brain suggests that feedback already re-enters at an early visual processing stage.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Genome editing enables reverse genetics of multicellular development in the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta

    David S Booth, Nicole King
    Genome editing in the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta opens newfound possibilities to functionally probe choanoflagellate genes that may illuminate the origin of their closest relatives, the animals.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Damage-responsive, maturity-silenced enhancers regulate multiple genes that direct regeneration in Drosophila

    Robin E Harris et al.
    The reduced ability of Drosophila imaginal discs to regenerate as they mature can be explained by the silencing of damage-responsive enhancers that regulate expression of genes required for regeneration.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Synaptotagmin-1 is the Ca2+ sensor for fast striatal dopamine release

    Aditi Banerjee et al.
    Genetic and electrophysiological analyses reveal calcium-triggering mechanisms for dopamine release in the striatum that may enable fast and slow dopamine coding.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Caenorhabditis elegans PIEZO channel coordinates multiple reproductive tissues to govern ovulation

    Xiaofei Bai et al.
    Depletion of the mechanosensitive ion channel PEZO-1 in C. elegans disrupts the sheath and spermathecae cells to disrupt oocyte ovulation, resulting in crushed oocytes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A conserved RNA degradation complex required for spreading and epigenetic inheritance of heterochromatin

    Gergana Shipkovenska et al.
    Genetic and biochemical studies show that a conserved ribosome biogenesis complex also localizes to heterochromatin, where it triggers RNA degradation and promotes the spreading and epigenetic inheritance of histone methylation.
    1. Neuroscience

    A size principle for recruitment of Drosophila leg motor neurons

    Anthony W Azevedo et al.
    Motor neurons controlling the leg of the fruit fly exhibit a gradient of physiological and functional properties that correlate with the order in which they fire during behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional specification of CCK+ interneurons by alternative isoforms of Kv4.3 auxiliary subunits

    Viktor János Oláh et al.
    Single cell RNA, protein and electrophysiology data revealed that combinatorial availability of three auxiliary subunit isoforms of a single ion channel is sufficient for generating distinct, input frequency-sensitive firing phenotypes.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Dithranol targets keratinocytes, their crosstalk with neutrophils and inhibits the IL-36 inflammatory loop in psoriasis

    Theresa Benezeder et al.
    Targeting the differentiation regulators and/or AMPs of keratinocytes, rather than targeting immune cells, may be an alternative approach for topical anti-psoriatic treatment, an area with high need for new drugs.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    TMEM95 is a sperm membrane protein essential for mammalian fertilization

    Ismael Lamas-Toranzo et al.
    TMEM95, a protein localized to the sperm acrosome cap, is essential for fertilization.
    1. Cancer Biology

    MARCH5 mediates NOXA-dependent MCL1 degradation driven by kinase inhibitors and integrated stress response activation

    Seiji Arai et al.
    MARCH5 mediates a pathway driving MCL1 degradation in response to cellular stress, which sensitizes to BH3 mimetic drugs targeting BCLXL and provides a broadly effective therapeutic strategy for solid tumors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopaminergic modulation of the exploration/exploitation trade-off in human decision-making

    Karima Chakroun et al.
    Dopamine attenuates exploration during decision-making via a reduction of neural tracking of uncertainty.
    1. Cell Biology

    Lysosome activity is modulated by multiple longevity pathways and is important for lifespan extension in C. elegans

    Yanan Sun et al.
    Cell biological and genetic studies reveal age-associated alterations of lysosomes and modulation of lysosomal activity by longevity pathways.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hyperalignment: Modeling shared information encoded in idiosyncratic cortical topographies

    James V Haxby et al.
    Hyperalignment provides a conceptual framework for cortical architecture that captures how shared information is encoded in idiosyncratic cortical topographies that preserve vector geometry for population response and connectivity patterns.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Dynamic metastable long-living droplets formed by sticker-spacer proteins

    Srivastav Ranganathan, Eugene I Shakhnovich
    Multi-scale simulations reveal a potential, ATP-independent mechanism resulting in the formation of the long-living multi-droplet state by multi-valent, spacer-sticker proteins.
    1. Cell Biology

    Shear stress activates ADAM10 sheddase to regulate Notch1 via the Piezo1 force sensor in endothelial cells

    Vincenza Caolo et al.
    Cell protease and cell fate decisions are regulated by a bone fide force-sensor, the Piezo1 channel, and by this means achieve integration with the mechanical environment.
    1. Neuroscience

    Temperature compensation in a small rhythmic circuit

    Leandro M Alonso, Eve Marder
    Computational models demonstrate that circuit resilience to temperature perturbations are associated with smooth transitions between cellular mechanisms as the contributions of different currents are altered while activity is maintained.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Diverse homeostatic and immunomodulatory roles of immune cells in the developing mouse lung at single cell resolution

    Racquel Domingo-Gonzalez et al.
    Single cell transcriptomics reveal a complex orchestration of lung immune cells during the transition from fetal to air-breathing life to fill context-specific functions in tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and immunity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Retrocopying expands the functional repertoire of APOBEC3 antiviral proteins in primates

    Lei Yang et al.
    Genomes take advantage of the gene-duplicating ability of retroelements to birth novel innate immune defense genes.
    1. Cell Biology

    The copy-number and varied strengths of MELT motifs in Spc105 balance the strength and responsiveness of the spindle assembly checkpoint

    Babhrubahan Roy et al.
    Cell biological and genetic analyses reveal how budding yeast cells optimize Spindle Assembly checkpoint signaling to maximize chromosome segregation accuracy and minimize unnecessary delays in anaphase onset.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tissue-resident macrophages promote extracellular matrix homeostasis in the mammary gland stroma of nulliparous mice

    Ying Wang et al.
    A distinct resident macrophage subpopulation that localizes to the adipose stroma and fibrous capsule of the nulliparous mammary gland and to extracellular matrix-enriched stroma surrounding mammary tumors is identified.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    KRAB-zinc finger protein gene expansion in response to active retrotransposons in the murine lineage

    Gernot Wolf et al.
    Unbiased ChIP-seq screens and genetic knockouts of large Kruppel associated box zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) clusters reveal that evolutionarily young KRAB-ZFPs play a redundant role in retrotransposon restriction in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    A Bayesian and efficient observer model explains concurrent attractive and repulsive history biases in visual perception

    Matthias Fritsche et al.
    Attractive and repulsive history biases in visual perception occur simultaneously, yet over dissociable timescales, and are explained by efficient encoding and Bayesian decoding of visual information in a stable environment.

Magazine

  1. Racism in Science: We need to act now

    Michael B Eisen