July 2022

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Label-free three-photon imaging of intact human cerebral organoids for tracking early events in brain development and deficits in Rett syndrome

    Murat Yildirim et al.
    Label-free three-photon imaging of whole, uncleared intact organoids generated from Rett syndrome patients show shorter migration distances and slower migration speeds of mutant radially migrating neurons with more tortuous trajectories.
    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology

    Locally adaptive temperature response of vegetative growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Pieter Clauw et al.
    Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings at low temperatures differs between plants that hail from different parts of the world in a way that suggests climate adaptation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Manganese is a physiologically relevant TORC1 activator in yeast and mammals

    Raffaele Nicastro et al.
    Manganese drives the activation of the ‘target of rapamycin complex 1’ and uncouples sensing and response to nutrient availability.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Natural killer (NK) cell-derived extracellular-vesicle shuttled microRNAs control T cell responses

    Sara G Dosil et al.
    Extracellular vesicles derived from natural killer cells contain a specific repertoire of microRNAs that promote Th1 responses.
    1. Cell Biology

    Ubiquitination drives COPI priming and Golgi SNARE localization

    Swapneeta S Date et al.
    The ability of COPI to bind polyubiquitin is a key determinant for SNARE incorporation into intracellular vesicles and for maintenance of a functional Golgi complex.
    1. Cell Biology

    CXCR4high megakaryocytes regulate host-defense immunity against bacterial pathogens

    Jin Wang et al.
    scRNA-seq identified CXCR4high MKs can funtionally regulate host-defense immune response against bacterial infection.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Global analysis of cytosine and adenine DNA modifications across the tree of life

    Sreejith Jayasree Varma et al.
    By using mass spectrometry, we determined the global levels of various DNA modifications across species and tissues.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Large protein complex interfaces have evolved to promote cotranslational assembly

    Mihaly Badonyi, Joseph A Marsh
    Analysis of protein interfaces suggests cotranslational assembly can be an adaptive process, likely serving to minimise non-specific interactions with other proteins in the cell.
    1. Neuroscience

    Exogenous capture accounts for fundamental differences between pro- and antisaccade performance

    Allison T Goldstein et al.
    The detection of a salient stimulus triggers a stereotypical oculomotor response, an impulse to look toward it, whose timing and strength are largely independent of behavioral significance and top-down control.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Distinct elongation stalls during translation are linked with distinct pathways for mRNA degradation

    Anthony J Veltri et al.
    Genetic screens and functional assays utilizing reporter mRNAs triggering NGD or COMD provide a basis for understanding the unique contributions of each pathway to translation-coupled mRNA decay and contextualizes their effects in the larger cellular process of translation surveillance.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Unsupervised detection of fragment length signatures of circulating tumor DNA using non-negative matrix factorization

    Gabriel Renaud et al.
    Non-negative Matrix Factorization is a powerful strategy for unsupervised analysis of cell-free DNA that enables simultaneous estimation of the blood tumor fraction and the fragment length distribution of circulating tumor DNA.
    1. Neuroscience

    Flexible and efficient simulation-based inference for models of decision-making

    Jan Boelts et al.
    A new machine learning method makes it possible to efficiently identify the parameters of cognitive models using Bayesian inference, even when only model simulations are available.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Three-dimensional structure of kinetochore-fibers in human mitotic spindles

    Robert Kiewisz et al.
    Comprehensive 3D electron tomography reconstructions of metaphase spindles in human tissue culture cells reveal that kinetochore-fibers broaden as they extend polewards, forming semi-direct connections to the pole, where they preferentially interact with the spindle network.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Population-based sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals how current population dynamics are shaped by past epidemics

    Irving Cancino-Muñoz et al.
    Low-burden does not mean low local transmission, and tailor-made strategies are needed to control TB based on the knowledge of the local transmission dynamics.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Lung evolution in vertebrates and the water-to-land transition

    Camila Cupello et al.
    The primitive state of vertebrate lungs is unpaired, evolving to be truly paired in the lineage towards the tetrapods, increasing the pulmonary efficiency during the water-to-land transition.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopamine neuron morphology and output are differentially controlled by mTORC1 and mTORC2

    Polina Kosillo et al.
    Chronic inhibition of mTORC1 signaling strongly affects the morphology, physiology and output of dopamine neurons leading to impaired dopaminergic function in mice.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Flagellar energy costs across the tree of life

    Paul E Schavemaker, Michael Lynch
    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella follow a common trend in swimming cost-effectiveness, but eukaryotic flagella are too large for cells with prokaryote volumes, yielding insight into flagellar dissimilarity between taxa.
    1. Neuroscience

    Prenatal development of neonatal vocalizations

    Darshana Z Narayanan et al.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Mutational robustness changes during long-term adaptation in laboratory budding yeast populations

    Milo S Johnson, Michael M Desai
    Yeast populations lose mutational robustness during evolution in one environment but not in another due to the collective effect of a large number of idiosyncratic epistatic interactions.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Unsuppressed HIV infection impairs T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and abrogates T cell cross-recognition

    Thandeka Nkosi et al.
    Cross-reactive T cell immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 is severely compromised in HIV viremic individual.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Type 1 piliated uropathogenic Escherichia coli hijack the host immune response by binding to CD14

    Kathrin Tomasek et al.
    By binding with their type 1 pili to the cell surface receptor CD14, pathogenic E. coli suppress the capacity of dendritic cells to activate T cells.
    1. Medicine

    Senescent preosteoclast secretome promotes metabolic syndrome associated osteoarthritis through cyclooxygenase 2

    Weiping Su et al.
    Under metabolic syndrome, joint subchondral preosteoclasts acquire a senescence-associated secretome, which causes a rapid structural alteration of subchondral bone and contributes to the development of osteoarthritis.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Speed variations of bacterial replisomes

    Deepak Bhat et al.
    1. Cell Biology

    Selective endocytosis controls slit diaphragm maintenance and dynamics in Drosophila nephrocytes

    Konrad Lang et al.
    To maintain the filtration barrier, slit diaphragms are cleansed by rapid cycles of raft-mediated endocytosis, while dynamin-dependent endocytosis prevents lateral diffusion of slit diaphragm protein.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A network of cytosolic (co)chaperones promotes the biogenesis of mitochondrial signal-anchored outer membrane proteins

    Layla Drwesh et al.
    An array of cytosolic co-chaperones and chaperones helps to maintain newly synthesized mitochondrial outer membrane proteins in an import competent state.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    ATP binding facilitates target search of SWR1 chromatin remodeler by promoting one-dimensional diffusion on DNA

    Claudia C Carcamo et al.
    In vitro single-particle tracking reveals that ATP binding increases the one-dimensional diffusion of yeast chromatin remodeler SWR1 on DNA stretched between optical tweezers and diffusion is confined by protein roadblocks and nucleosomes.
    1. Neuroscience

    A viral toolbox for conditional and transneuronal gene expression in zebrafish

    Chie Satou et al.
    Novel procedures for viral gene transfer in zebrafish enable visualization and manipulation of specific neurons.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Tracking receptor motions at the plasma membrane reveals distinct effects of ligands on CCR5 dynamics depending on its dimerization status

    Fanny Momboisse et al.
    Combining particle tracking in living cells with statistical analysis demonstrates how the oligomeric organization of cell surface receptor influences their function, a necessary step in the development of drugs targeting specific receptor conformation.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Enhancing and inhibitory motifs regulate CD4 activity

    Mark S Lee et al.
    Eutherian CD4 evolved counterbalancing motifs in the extracellular, transmembrane, and intracellular domains that regulate CD4+ T cell responses to peptide antigens presented by class II MHC (pMHCII).
    1. Cell Biology

    Claudin5 protects the peripheral endothelial barrier in an organ and vessel-type-specific manner

    Mark Richards et al.
    Organ and vessel-type-specific differences in endothelial cell barrier composition and properties uncover the distinct importance of the major tight junction protein Claudin5 in restricting agonist-induced leakage.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mapping odorant sensitivities reveals a sparse but structured representation of olfactory chemical space by sensory input to the mouse olfactory bulb

    Shawn D Burton et al.
    Large-scale mapping of sensory input to the mouse olfactory bulb reveals exceptionally narrow tuning of olfactory receptor input to glomeruli and defines a functional map of glomerular sensitivities that is structured with respect to olfactory chemical space.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Targeted depletion of uterine glandular Foxa2 induces embryonic diapause in mice

    Mitsunori Matsuo et al.
    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) suppression is not sufficient to maintain long-term uterine quiescence like in ovariectomized mice maintained on progesterone supplement, and estrogen has an adverse impact on uterine quiescence independent of FOXA2 (forkhead box protein A2)/LIF.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    µ-Theraphotoxin Pn3a inhibition of CaV3.3 channels reveals a novel isoform-selective drug binding site

    Jeffrey R McArthur et al.
    The spider venom peptide Pn3a recognizes a pharmacophore unique to CaV3.3 amongst T-type calcium channels, underscoring its potential as a novel molecular tool for the study of CaV3.3-mediated currents in native cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopamine D2Rs coordinate cue-evoked changes in striatal acetylcholine levels

    Kelly M Martyniuk et al.
    Pharmacological and genetic studies in the mouse reveal how dopamine D2 receptors on cholinergic interneurons regulate cue-evoked changes in the levels of striatal acetylcholine and dopamine during behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    The rapid developmental rise of somatic inhibition disengages hippocampal dynamics from self-motion

    Robin F Dard et al.
    The first postnatal week ends with the development of perisomatic innervation and with an abrupt switch in the representation of self-motion in the region CA1 of the mouse hippocampus.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Key features of the genetic architecture and evolution of host-microbe interactions revealed by high-resolution genetic mapping of the mucosa-associated gut microbiome in hybrid mice

    Shauni Doms et al.
    Genetic variation influencing the gut microbiome is abundant among incipient mammalian host species, and cospeciating bacterial taxa display a unique genetic architecture.
    1. Cell Biology

    Ndc1 drives nuclear pore complex assembly independent of membrane biogenesis to promote nuclear formation and growth

    Michael Sean Mauro et al.
    Discovery of how cells couple addition of membranes with insertion of nuclear pore complexes to form and grow the nucleus.
    1. Cell Biology

    Recruitment of clathrin to intracellular membranes is sufficient for vesicle formation

    Cansu Küey et al.
    Clathrin-coated vesicles can be made to form on intracellular membranes using a minimal molecular system, which defines the core vesicle budding machinery.
    1. Ecology

    Both prey and predator features predict the individual predation risk and survival of schooling prey

    Jolle Wolter Jolles et al.
    Detailed tracking of live predators attacking live schools of prey reveals the crucial interplay between predator attack strategy and prey behaviour and positioning in determining the predation risk within mobile animal groups.
    1. Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Reconstruction of transmission chains of SARS-CoV-2 amidst multiple outbreaks in a geriatric acute-care hospital: a combined retrospective epidemiological and genomic study

    Mohamed Abbas et al.
    Nosocomial transmission of SARS-Cov-2 in geriatric settings is complex, with different patterns between patients and healthcare workers working in Covid/non-Covid wards that should be taken into account when designing infection control strategies.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Interplay of surface interaction and magnetic torque in single-cell motion of magnetotactic bacteria in microfluidic confinement

    Agnese Codutti et al.
    Confined magnetotactic bacteria exhibit circling and U-turn trajectories explained by a competition of alignment with a magnetic field and alignment along the confining walls as well as considerable cell-to-cell heterogeneity.
    1. Cell Biology

    Deconstructing cold-induced brown adipocyte neogenesis in mice

    Rayanne B Burl et al.
    Single-cell RNA-sequencing, spatial genomics, and histological analyses reveal that cold-induced brown adipose neogenesis is a complex adaptive response to elevated metabolic demand involving dynamic interactions between recruited immune cells and a subpopulation of poised adipocyte progenitors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stress diminishes outcome but enhances response representations during instrumental learning

    Jacqueline Katharina Meier et al.
    Decoding of neural outcome and response representations allows dissecting goal-directed and habitual contributions to behaviour and reveals how acute stress biases the instrumental control of behaviour.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Comparison of freshly cultured versus cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cells in animal models of inflammation: A pre-clinical systematic review

    Chintan Dave et al.
    Administration of cryopreserved as compared freshly cultured MSCs do not appear to negatively impact measures of in vivo efficacy or in vitro potency in animal models of inflammation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Phosphoregulation accommodates Type III secretion and assembly of a tether of ER-Chlamydia inclusion membrane contact sites

    Rachel J Ende et al.
    To establish membrane contacts between its vacuole and the endoplasmic reticulum, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis has evolved complex molecular strategies to mimic emerging regulatory processes that control contact-dependent organelle–organelle communication.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Age and diet shape the genetic architecture of body weight in diversity outbred mice

    Kevin M Wright et al.
    Genetic effects on body weight in mice are highly heterogeneous, dynamic, and nonlinear with respect to genomic background, age, and diet.
    1. Neuroscience

    Brain-wide screen of prelimbic cortex inputs reveals a functional shift during early fear memory consolidation

    Lucie Dixsaut, Johannes Gräff
    Prelimbic cortical inputs are differentially recruited during early memory consolidation, with claustrum projections involved at encoding and insular cortex projections recruited for recent recall.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Analysis of allelic cross-reactivity of monoclonal IgG antibodies by a multiplexed reverse FluoroSpot assay

    Henriette Hoffmann-Veltung et al.
    An improved 'plug-and-play' reversed FluoroSpot assay is described and validated that allows the simultaneous assessment of antibody cross-reactivity at the single-cell level against up to four variants of a polymorphic antigen of interest.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    Immune dynamics in SARS-CoV-2 experienced immunosuppressed rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis patients vaccinated with mRNA-1273

    Niels JM Verstegen et al.
    SARS-CoV-2 experienced ocrelizumab-treated MS patients benefit from SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination by inducing broadprotective CD8+ T-cells, whereas methotrexate-treated RA patients induce delayed but strong antibody responses, which support vaccine strategies for these patient groups.
    1. Neuroscience

    Brain-wide analysis of the supraspinal connectome reveals anatomical correlates to functional recovery after spinal injury

    Zimei Wang et al.
    Three-dimensional imaging and automated, brain-wide cell counting yield new insight into the diversity of neurons that connect the brain to the spinal cord and their different sensitivity to spinal cord damage.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    A non-transcriptional function of Yap regulates the DNA replication program in Xenopus laevis

    Rodrigo Meléndez García et al.
    Yap interacts with Rif1, a major DNA replication timing factor, and functions as a brake to control the DNA replication program in Xenopus early embryos and post-embryonic stem cells.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Fitness consequences of outgroup conflict

    Ines Braga Goncalves et al.
    A detailed discussion of the broad range of immediate, delayed, cumulative, and third-party fitness consequences arising from outgroup conflict showcases the importance of this neglected aspect of sociality as a powerful and widespread evolutionary force.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural tracking of phrases in spoken language comprehension is automatic and task-dependent

    Sanne ten Oever et al.
    The brain’s projection of linguistic knowledge onto speech is reflected by the automatic, reflexive neural tracking of phrases, while the distribution of phrasal-rate tracking and connectivity, particularly the involvement of inferior frontal cortex, is subject to task demands.
    1. Neuroscience

    Impaired astrocytic Ca2+ signaling in awake-behaving Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice

    Knut Sindre Åbjørsbråten et al.
    Noradrenaline-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling in behavior is reduced in awake-behaving tg-ArcSwe Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.
    1. Cell Biology

    Arl15 upregulates the TGFβ family signaling by promoting the assembly of the Smad-complex

    Meng Shi et al.
    The active small G protein, Arl15-GTP, interacts with the MH2 domain of Smad4 and positively regulates the TGFß family signaling pathway by promoting the assembly of the Smad-complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ channel abundance at active zones through a balance of delivery and turnover

    Karen L Cunningham et al.
    Voltage-gated calcium channel delivery to synaptic active zones (AZs) occurs broadly across the population, correlates with AZ size, and is regulated by α2δ, while channel recycling is promoted by new delivery to generate an upper limit on AZ accumulation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Using adopted individuals to partition indirect maternal genetic effects into prenatal and postnatal effects on offspring phenotypes

    Liang-Dar Hwang et al.
    Adopted individuals in large-scale population based cohorts can be leveraged to partition maternal genetic effects into prenatal and postnatal components, helping elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind these associations, and for diseases, yielding important information regarding the optimal timing of interventions.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    A CD4+ T cell reference map delineates subtype-specific adaptation during acute and chronic viral infections

    Massimo Andreatta et al.
    Description of the transcriptional and clonal landscape of virus-specific CD4+ T cells in acute and chronic viral infections, and a new reference map to interpret CD4 T cell diversity across tissues and biological models.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    HIF-1α induces glycolytic reprograming in tissue-resident alveolar macrophages to promote cell survival during acute lung injury

    Parker S Woods et al.
    Transcriptomic and bionergetic analysis shows the importance of HIF-1α activation in enabling tissue-resident alveolar macrophages to perform glycolytic metabolism, which prevents their death and attenuates influenza A virus-induced acute lung injury.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human muscle spindles are wired to function as controllable signal-processing devices

    Michael Dimitriou
    By acting as versatile signal-processors that encode flexible coordinate representations, muscle spindles challenge current widely held views concerning the role of proprioceptors and the peripheral nervous system in sensorimotor function.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Cryo-EM structures reveal that RFC recognizes both the 3′- and 5′-DNA ends to load PCNA onto gaps for DNA repair

    Fengwei Zheng et al.
    Cryo-EM shows a 5’ DNA site on the RFC clamp loader, in addition to the 3’ site, and biochemical study shows the 5’ site facilitates PCNA loading onto gaps, consistent with genetics indicating the 5’ DNA site facilitates gap repair.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Intracerebral mechanisms explaining the impact of incidental feedback on mood state and risky choice

    Romane Cecchi et al.
    Invasive electrophysiological recordings from the human brain reveal that different mood levels translate into different brain states that predispose subjects to make risky or safe decisions.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Morphometric analysis of lungfish endocasts elucidates early dipnoan palaeoneurological evolution

    Alice M Clement et al.
    Cranial endocasts of fossil and extant lungfish, analysed via tomography and novel principle component analyses designed for use with missing data, show that lungfish forebrain and inner ear regions show the most variation in brain shape evolution through time.
    1. Neuroscience

    BK channel properties correlate with neurobehavioral severity in three KCNMA1-linked channelopathy mouse models

    Su Mi Park et al.
    Among three new models for KCNMA1 channelopathy, the most severe gain-of-function variant (Kcnma1N999S/WT) displays a particular type of immobilizing paroxysmal dyskinesia observed in patients, including amphetamine responsiveness.
    1. Neuroscience

    UP-DOWN states and ripples differentially modulate membrane potential dynamics across DG, CA3, and CA1 in awake mice

    Koichiro Kajikawa et al.
    The majority of hippocampal neurons in CA3 experience inhibition before and during ripple buildup, while dentate and CA1 cells display depolarizing transients preceding and following ripple onset pointing to a long and orchestrated awake ripple initiation process.
    1. Plant Biology

    Increased signal-to-noise ratios within experimental field trials by regressing spatially distributed soil properties as principal components

    Jeffrey C Berry et al.
    A method to reduce the noise present in field experiments by accounting for heterogeneity in field soils.
    1. Neuroscience

    Exploring the expression patterns of palmitoylating and de-palmitoylating enzymes in the mouse brain using the curated RNA-seq database BrainPalmSeq

    Angela R Wild et al.
    A curated resource to study the brain RNA expression patterns of the genes that regulate palmitoylation is presented, alongside a detailed exploration of how these patterns can inform future research.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The evolutionary history of human spindle genes includes back-and-forth gene flow with Neandertals

    Stéphane Peyrégne et al.
    Analyses of spindle genes with missense changes in modern humans reveal evidence for positive selection since the split with archaic humans and show that modern humans interacted with Neandertals more than once in the past 200,000 years.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cancer type classification using plasma cell-free RNAs derived from human and microbes

    Shanwen Chen et al.
    Both human and microbe cell-free RNA features in plasma could distinguish tumors of different primary locations.
    1. Neuroscience

    Non-uniform distribution of dendritic nonlinearities differentially engages thalamostriatal and corticostriatal inputs onto cholinergic interneurons

    Osnat Oz et al.
    The membrane nonlinearities of the dendritic arbor of striatal cholinergic interneurons conspire with the spatial distribution of its excitatory inputs to preferentially boost thalamic inputs.
    1. Neuroscience

    A single exposure to altered auditory feedback causes observable sensorimotor adaptation in speech

    Lana Hantzsch et al.
    Hearing a single auditory error while speaking causes an adaptive change that corrects for that error the next time we say a word, providing empirical support for current models of speech sensorimotor adaptation and aligning speech with other motor domains.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    The human amniotic epithelium confers a bias to differentiate toward the neuroectoderm lineage in human embryonic stem cells

    Daniela Ávila-González et al.
    Interaction of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) confers hESC a pluripotent potential that resembles the anteriorized epiblast, which is predisposed to form the neural ectoderm.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Engineered natural killer cells impede the immunometabolic CD73-adenosine axis in solid tumors

    Andrea M Chambers et al.
    Genetically engineered, CD73-redirected human NK cells show potent antitumor activity in vivo by impairing adenosinergic activity of CD73 in cancer.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Metabolic requirement for GOT2 in pancreatic cancer depends on environmental context

    Samuel A Kerk et al.
    Inhibition of GOT2 drives growth inhibitory reductive stress that can be rescued by electron acceptors in vitro, whereas GOT2 inhibition in endogenous or transplanted tumor models is tolerated without consequence, highlighting the importance of context when studying tumor metabolism.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Metabolic arsenal of giant viruses: Host hijack or self-use?

    Djamal Brahim Belhaouari et al.
    Metabolic pathways found to date in giant virus raise the question if these viral enzymes provide some level of autonomy to viruses or if they are used to expand the host metabolism.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Intact Drosophila central nervous system cellular quantitation reveals sexual dimorphism

    Wei Jiao et al.
    Fewer neurons and more glia than previously predicted plus substantial differences between males and females are revealed when entire intact Drosophila larval central nervous systems are quantified using a synthesis of genetic, imaging, and computation technologies.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Modelling the response to vaccine in non-human primates to define SARS-CoV-2 mechanistic correlates of protection

    Marie Alexandre et al.
    A model-based approach for modelling the immune control of viral dynamics is applied to quantify the effect of several SARS-CoV-2 vaccine platforms and to define mechanistic correlates of protection.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Ecology

    Green fluorescent protein-like pigments optimise the internal light environment in symbiotic reef-building corals

    Elena Bollati et al.
    Scalar irradiance microsensor measurements performed inside the tissue of living corals show that absorption and fluorescence emission by host pigments produce dramatic spectral alterations in the light environment experienced by the symbionts.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Validation of a multi-ancestry polygenic risk score and age-specific risks of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis within diverse populations

    Fei Chen et al.
    A previously developed multi-ancestry polygenic risk score is potentially an effective prostate cancer risk stratification tool across ancestry populations.
    1. Neuroscience

    Predictions and experimental tests of a new biophysical model of the mammalian respiratory oscillator

    Ryan S Phillips et al.
    The predictive power of a computational model advances understanding of the neuronal and circuit biophysical mechanisms that generate the respiratory rhythm and neural activity patterns in the mammalian brainstem.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The influence of biological, epidemiological, and treatment factors on the establishment and spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    Thiery Masserey et al.
    Models of malaria and treatment dynamics were combined with emulator-based global sensitivity analysis to elucidate the interplay between drug, biology, and epidemiological factors on the evolution of resistance to malaria treatments, including artemisinin.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Morphogenetic forces planar polarize LGN/Pins in the embryonic head during Drosophila gastrulation

    Jaclyn Camuglia et al.
    Morphogenetic forces from tissue invagination orient cell division through a previously undescribed mechanism of force-dependent LGN/Pins polarization.
    1. Medicine

    Insights from full-text analyses of the Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine

    Moustafa Abdalla et al.
    Historical analysis of nearly half-a-million articles from the Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine since their inception frames the shifting scientific, material, ethical, and epistemic underpinnings of medicine over time, including today.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatially bivariate EEG-neurofeedback can manipulate interhemispheric inhibition

    Masaaki Hayashi et al.
    Interhemispheric inhibition can be manipulated by directly and bidirectionally modulating the bilateral sensorimotor excitabilities in a spatially bivariate Brain-Computer Interface-based neurofeedback paradigm.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    The E3 ligase Thin controls homeostatic plasticity through neurotransmitter release repression

    Martin Baccino-Calace et al.
    An electrophysiology-based genetic screen in Drosophila identified a role for the E3 ligase Thin in presynaptic homeostatic plasticity.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The giant staphylococcal protein Embp facilitates colonization of surfaces through Velcro-like attachment to fibrillated fibronectin

    Nasar Khan et al.
    Fibronectin can shift from a globular to fibrillated form when adsorbing to implant surfaces, and this shift makes it accessible to attachment by Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is the leading cause of implant-associated infections.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Regionally distinct trophoblast regulate barrier function and invasion in the human placenta

    Bryan Marsh et al.
    Single cell RNA-sequencing of distinct regions of the human placenta identifies a smooth chorion-specific cytotrophoblast population responsible for unique functions of the smooth chorion, including acting as a barrier and restricting invasion.
    1. Cell Biology

    The relative binding position of Nck and Grb2 adaptors impacts actin-based motility of Vaccinia virus

    Angika Basant, Michael Way
    The ability of Vaccinia virus to induce actin polymerisation depends on the relative binding position of adaptors within the signalling network activating the Arp2/3 complex.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    An entropic safety catch controls hepatitis C virus entry and antibody resistance

    Lenka Stejskal et al.
    The entry glycoproteins of hepatitis C virus, E1E2, possess a novel regulatory mechanism in which protein disorder is harnessed to control their activity and their ability to evade antibodies.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural mechanisms underlying the temporal organization of naturalistic animal behavior

    Luca Mazzucato
    Naturalistic animal behavior exhibits a complex organization in the temporal domain, whose variability stems from hierarchical, contextual, and stochastic sources and can be naturally explained in terms of metastable attractor models.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    The transcription factor RUNX2 drives the generation of human NK cells and promotes tissue residency

    Sigrid Wahlen et al.
    RUNX2 plays an important role in human NK cell biology by driving differentiation, inhibiting cytokine production, and inducing a tissue-resident phenotype, which has implications for improving NK cell therapy for cancer patients.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Combining hypothesis- and data-driven neuroscience modeling in FAIR workflows

    Olivia Eriksson et al.
    Increased usability and validity of neuroscience models, through FAIR workflows for the whole modeling process, including data and model management, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and model analysis.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Host-parasite coevolution promotes innovation through deformations in fitness landscapes

    Animesh Gupta et al.
    An interdisciplinary approach combining high throughput genotype-to-phenotype mapping, population genetic simulations, and experimental evolution provides an answer to the question of how populations evolve new functions by providing tests of the role antagonistic coevolution plays in pressuring populations to innovate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Taste quality and hunger interactions in a feeding sensorimotor circuit

    Philip K Shiu et al.
    Gustatory information and hunger state impinge on a local, multilayered circuit that drives feeding initiation.
    1. Neuroscience

    β2-subunit alternative splicing stabilizes Cav2.3 Ca2+ channel activity during continuous midbrain dopamine neuron-like activity

    Anita Siller et al.
    Regulation of Cav2.3 Ca2+ channels by membrane-bound β2 subunit splice variants permits long-lasting channel activity even during prolonged and continuous activity in dopamine neurons, with implications for Parkinson's disease pathophysiology.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Genome-wide detection of imprinted differentially methylated regions using nanopore sequencing

    Vahid Akbari et al.
    A genome-wide map of human allele-specific methylation using long-read sequencing detects novel imprinted DNA methylation events and reveals large blocks of subtle parent-of-origin bias in DNA methylation with mutual exclusive allelic H3K36me3 and H3K27me3 histone modifications.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Single-cell glycomics analysis by CyTOF-Lec reveals glycan features defining cells differentially susceptible to HIV

    Tongcui Ma et al.
    Glycans are remodeled by HIV and are determinants of CD4+ T cell susceptibility to HIV infection.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    Unbiased mosaic variant assessment in sperm: a cohort study to test predictability of transmission

    Martin W Breuss et al.
    The abundance of mosaic variants detected directly in sperm accurately predicts their transmission to concepti.
    1. Cell Biology

    Reconstitution of kinetochore motility and microtubule dynamics reveals a role for a kinesin-8 in establishing end-on attachments

    Julia R Torvi et al.
    Kip3, a kinesin-8, has a role in chromosome congression as shown by reconstitution of kinetochore and microtubule dynamics.
    1. Medicine

    Genomic landscape of lymphatic malformations: a case series and response to the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib in an N-of-1 clinical trial

    Montaser F Shaheen et al.
    Pathogenic activating mutations in PIK3CA or NRAS were the most common genetic findings in a lymphatic malformation patient cohort and an N-of-1 trial of the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib in a patient with a PIK3CA mutation confirmed these findings are actionable.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Controlling SARS-CoV-2 in schools using repetitive testing strategies

    Andrea Torneri et al.
    In primary schools, where vaccination coverage can be low, a repetitive testing strategy reduces SARS-CoV-2 infections while keeping classes and schools open, as such limiting infection transmissions and absenteeism.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Immunopathology and Trypanosoma congolense parasite sequestration cause acute cerebral trypanosomiasis

    Sara Silva Pereira et al.
    While Trypanosoma congolense is mostly known to cause a chronic wasting disease in animals, a new mouse model shows that acute cerebral trypanosomiasis is triggered by parasite sequestration and infiltration of T helper cells in the brain parenchyma.
    1. Cell Biology

    Self-assembly of pericentriolar material in interphase cells lacking centrioles

    Fangrui Chen et al.
    In the absence of centrioles, components of pericentriolar material can self-organize into a single compact microtubule-organizing center through dynein-mediated transport of pericentrin-containing protein complexes if CAMSAP- and Golgi-mediated pathways of microtubule minus-end stabilization and anchoring are disabled.
    1. Neuroscience

    Developmental changes in story-evoked responses in the neocortex and hippocampus

    Samantha S Cohen et al.
    Brain responses to a narrative movie change over the course of childhood and adolescence, shifting from event-boundary responses in the hippocampus to stable and anticipatory event representations in the neocortex.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Investigating the relationship of COVID-19 related stress and media consumption with schizotypy, depression, and anxiety in cross-sectional surveys repeated throughout the pandemic in Germany and the UK

    Sarah Daimer et al.
    The uncertainties of the pandemic and the restrictions on social life have a strong impact on mental well-being, and especially on the expression of schizotypal traits, which are further boosted by excessive media consumption.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Process- and product-related impurities in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine

    Lea Krutzke et al.
    Analysis of protein content and protein composition of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, but not of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, indicated significantly higher than expected levels of host cell proteins (HCPs) and of free viral proteins.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    A high-throughput yeast display approach to profile pathogen proteomes for MHC-II binding

    Brooke D Huisman et al.
    Yeast surface-displayed libraries, when coupled with pooled oligonucleotide synthesis and next-generation sequencing, can be used as a platform to assess binding of whole viral proteomes to class II major histocompatibility complex proteins.
    1. Neuroscience

    Therapeutic deep brain stimulation disrupts movement-related subthalamic nucleus activity in parkinsonian mice

    Jonathan S Schor et al.
    In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts movement-related neural activity in parallel with relieving motor symptoms.
    1. Neuroscience

    Visualizing synaptic dopamine efflux with a 2D composite nanofilm

    Chandima Bulumulla et al.
    A technology for measuring release of dopamine simultaneously from hundreds of release sites at the spatial resolution of a synapse is provided.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ancestral acetylcholine receptor β-subunit forms homopentamers that prime before opening spontaneously

    Christian JG Tessier et al.
    Reconstructed ancestral muscle-type acetylcholine receptor β-subunits readily form homopentameric ion channels that open spontaneously, and display functional hallmarks of the modern-day heteropentameric receptor despite being devoid of canonical agonist-binding sites.
    1. Neuroscience

    Long-term transverse imaging of the hippocampus with glass microperiscopes

    William T Redman et al.
    Two-photon imaging through glass microperiscopes allows imaging of the transverse plane of the hippocampus, including all major subfields, in awake behaving mice.
    1. Ecology

    Life history predicts global population responses to the weather in terrestrial mammals

    John Jackson et al.
    In mammals, how populations respond to extremes in the weather is related to their pace of life, with shorter living species having stronger responses than their longer living counterparts.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Genetic dissection of the RNA polymerase II transcription cycle

    Shao-Pei Chou et al.
    Natural genetic variation reveals how DNA sequence impacts core transcriptional processes of initiation, pause, and termination.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synaptic location is a determinant of the detrimental effects of α-synuclein pathology to glutamatergic transmission in the basolateral amygdala

    Liqiang Chen et al.
    A combination of physiological, histological, and optical approaches reveals synapse-specific function of α-synuclein in mouse brain under both normal and pathological states.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Inner membrane complex proteomics reveals a palmitoylation regulation critical for intraerythrocytic development of malaria parasite

    Pengge Qian et al.
    A systemic proteome of the pellicle organelle inner membrane complex (IMC) provides new insight for the intraerythrocytic proliferation of malaria parasite and identifies the palmitoyl-acyl-transferase DHHC2 as a key enzyme regulating the localization of IMC proteins through palmitoylation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Conformational fingerprinting of allosteric modulators in metabotropic glutamate receptor 2

    Brandon Wey-Hung Liauw et al.
    A combination of single-molecule and in vivo FRET showed how drugs affect conformation of mGluR2 at different domains.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Response to immune checkpoint blockade improved in pre-clinical model of breast cancer after bariatric surgery

    Laura M Sipe et al.
    Bariatric surgery reversed obesity-exacerbated tumor burden and increased efficacy of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy.


    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Genetic Effects: Accounting for diet and age

    Hélène Tonnelé, Amelie Baud