May 2021

Image credit: Hanna Salmonowicz, ©Monney Medical Media

Research articles

    1. Medicine

    Development and validation of a nomogram to better predict hypertension based on a 10-year retrospective cohort study in China

    Xinna Deng et al.
    A developed and validated nomogram better predicts the risk of hypertension based on a 10-year retrospective cohort study in China.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A sustained type I IFN-neutrophil-IL-18 axis drives pathology during mucosal viral infection

    Tania Lebratti et al.
    Type I IFN is a key determinant of pathogenic neutrophil activity and drives tissue pathology through modulation of IL-18 levels during genital HSV infection.
    1. Neuroscience

    An excitatory lateral hypothalamic circuit orchestrating pain behaviors in mice

    Justin N Siemian et al.
    A small population of lateral hypothalamic neurons detects pain and can be activated to suppress pain-related behavioral adaptations and the unpleasantness associated with pain in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spontaneous neural synchrony links intrinsic spinal sensory and motor networks during unconsciousness

    Jacob Graves McPherson, Maria F Bandres
    Persistent, non-random sensorimotor connectivity reveals the capacity of intrinsic spinal networks to purposefully replay and modify learned patterns of neural transmission during unconsciousness.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    RSC primes the quiescent genome for hypertranscription upon cell-cycle re-entry

    Christine E Cucinotta et al.
    Multiple mechanisms, by which a highly conserved chromatin-remodeling factor RSC facilitates initiation and maintenance of large-scale, rapid gene expression upon exit from quiescent state, have been discovered.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    A high rate of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a large-scale survey on Arabs

    Eyad A Qunaibi et al.
    Providing important data regarding the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and barriers toward vaccination in Arabic-speaking people to guide addressing the problem and achievement of widespread vaccination and collective immunity.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    Tendon and motor phenotypes in the Crtap-/- mouse model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta

    Matthew William Grol et al.
    Ultrastructural, biochemical, and behavioral assessments reveal that the Crtap-/- mouse model of severe, recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta presents with defects in tendon structure and strength that correlate with severe motor deficits.
    1. Cell Biology

    Genome-wide CRISPRi screening identifies OCIAD1 as a prohibitin client and regulatory determinant of mitochondrial Complex III assembly in human cells

    Maxence Le Vasseur et al.
    OCIAD1 associates with prohibitin assemblies and regulates the proteolytic processing and stability of the catalytical Complex III subunit cytochrome c1.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Biological controls for standardization and interpretation of adaptive immune receptor repertoire profiling

    Johannes Trück et al.
    The needs and challenges of AIRR-seq controls are presented.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Phenotypic plasticity underlies local invasion and distant metastasis in colon cancer

    Andrea Sacchetti et al.
    Colon cancer cells disseminate and colonize distant organ sites along the invasion-metastasis cascade by transiently activating intermediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition states through distinct transcriptional trajectories.
    1. Neuroscience

    No relationship between frontal alpha asymmetry and depressive disorders in a multiverse analysis of five studies

    Aleksandra Kołodziej et al.
    A multiverse approach consisting of 270 analyses on five independent studies fails to replicate the most common electrophysiological indicator of depression, which is asymmetry of alpha power in frontal regions.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Neuroscience

    TRPM channels mediate learned pathogen avoidance following intestinal distention

    Adam Filipowicz et al.
    Behavioral assays using Caenorhabditis elegans show that a learned pathogen avoidance following intestinal distention requires specific chemosensory neurons and TRPM channels in the intestine and excretory cell.
    1. Neuroscience

    Optogenetic strategies for high-efficiency all-optical interrogation using blue-light-sensitive opsins

    Angelo Forli et al.
    A new soma-targeted variant of the large-conductance blue-light-sensitive opsin CoChR combined with advanced optical stimulation methods allows high-efficiency all-optical neuronal imaging and stimulation in mouse brain in vivo.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Detecting adaptive introgression in human evolution using convolutional neural networks

    Graham Gower et al.
    Convolutional neural networks are an effective tool for detecting archaic adaptive introgression from genomic data.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Cell Biology

    Mechanical heterogeneity along single cell-cell junctions is driven by lateral clustering of cadherins during vertebrate axis elongation

    Robert J Huebner et al.
    Very local molecular patterns impart precise changes in the local mechanics of individual cell-cell junctions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cellular, circuit and transcriptional framework for modulation of itch in the central amygdala

    Vijay K Samineni et al.
    Circuit and transcriptional analysis shows that genetically defined central amygdala neurons and their projections to the ventral periaqueductal gray mediate behavioral and affective responses to pruritus.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Perinatal development of innate immune topology

    Philipp Henneke et al.
    At the transition from intrauterine to postnatal life, drastic environmental alterations are mirrored by changes in cellular immunity, which are in part immune cell intrinsic and have lasting health impact.
    1. Cell Biology

    Starvation-induced regulation of carbohydrate transport at the blood–brain barrier is TGF-β-signaling dependent

    Helen Hertenstein et al.
    Detailed analysis of transporter expression and glucose uptake rates shows that carbohydrate import at the blood–brain barrier is adapted via TGF-βsignaling-dependent transcriptional regulation of carbohydrate transporters to protect the brain form effects of nutrient shortage.
    1. Neuroscience

    Midbrain dopaminergic inputs gate amygdala intercalated cell clusters by distinct and cooperative mechanisms in male mice

    Ayla Aksoy-Aksel et al.
    Dopaminergic input shapes activity of specialized amygdala inhibitory cell clusters by ionotropic and metabotropic mechanisms that may enable their selection during distinct fear-related behavioral states.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Erythrocyte CD55 mediates the internalization of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    Bikash Shakya et al.
    The strain-transcendent receptor CD55 plays a distinct functional role relative to other known receptors for Plasmodium falciparum invasion of human erythrocytes, indicating it may present a vulnerable target for intervention.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Design principles of the ESCRT-III Vps24-Vps2 module

    Sudeep Banjade et al.
    Laterally associating specific ESCRT-III subunits can replace one another with simple modifications, providing insights into the design principles of ESCRT-III heteropolymerization.
    1. Neuroscience

    Introduction to the EQIPD quality system

    Anton Bespalov et al.
    A system has been developed that supports generation of reliable basic biomedical research data while being open-access and lean with no negative impact on freedom of scientific exploration.
    1. Neuroscience

    Corticothalamic gating of population auditory thalamocortical transmission in mouse

    Baher A Ibrahim et al.
    Sensory stimulation produces stochastic population responses in the cortex that are governed by layer 6 cortico-reticular projections that modulate thalamic synchrony.
    1. Cell Biology

    A phosphorylation of RIPK3 kinase initiates an intracellular apoptotic pathway that promotes prostaglandin-induced corpus luteum regression

    Dianrong Li et al.
    A phosphorylation of receptor interacting RIPK3 switches its pro-necroptosis function to apoptosis that promotes luteal regression which induced by Prostaglandin F2alpha.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Wnt- and glutamate-receptors orchestrate stem cell dynamics and asymmetric cell division

    Sergi Junyent et al.
    Receptors for two distinct pathways are linked to choreograph the dynamic interaction of Wnt on the stem cell membrane, which leads to the control of asymmetric cell division.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Amphiphysin I cleavage by asparagine endopeptidase leads to tau hyperphosphorylation and synaptic dysfunction

    Xingyu Zhang et al.
    Amphiphysin I is identified as a new substrate of AEP, and the resultant fragment induces synaptic dysfunction and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation via activating CDK5 kinase.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Asymmetric localization of the cell division machinery during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    Kanika Khanna et al.
    During sporulation, FtsAZ filaments mediating cell division in Bacillus subtilis are positioned asymmetrically around the septum only on the mother cell side, making the septum thinner than during vegetative growth.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Symmetry breaking meets multisite modification

    Vaidhiswaran Ramesh, J Krishnan
    1. Neuroscience

    Cross-species analysis defines the conservation of anatomically segregated VMH neuron populations

    Alison H Affinati et al.
    This atlas and analysis of conserved ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) neuron populations provides an unbiased starting point for the analysis of VMH circuitry and function.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Kv1.1 channels regulate early postnatal neurogenesis in mouse hippocampus via the TrkB signaling pathway

    Shu-Min Chou et al.
    Kv1.1 potassium channels regulate postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampus via increasing the membrane excitability that activates the TrkB signaling pathway in a cell-autonomous manner.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Thirst interneurons that promote water seeking and limit feeding behavior in Drosophila

    Dan Landayan et al.
    Thirsty seeking interneurons in Drosophila differentially regulate water intake and feeding behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    Perturbation of amygdala-cortical projections reduces ensemble coherence of palatability coding in gustatory cortex

    Jian-You Lin et al.
    Blocking input from basolateral amygdala to gustatory cortex (GC) severely reduces the coherence of GC ensemble activity, which negatively affects epochal dynamics involved in driving palatability-driven consumption.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Cell-scale biophysical determinants of cell competition in epithelia

    Daniel Gradeci et al.
    Mechanical competition is controlled by biophysical parameters that regulate cellular homeostatic density, while biochemical competition is regulated by parameters that influence the organisation of cells in a tissue.
    1. Cell Biology

    Conformational specificity of opioid receptors is determined by subcellular location irrespective of agonist

    Stephanie E Crilly et al.
    A GPCR activated by the same agonist engages different conformational biosensors at different subcellular locations, suggesting that location-based conformations drive spatial encoding of signaling.
    1. Neuroscience

    Standardized and reproducible measurement of decision-making in mice

    The International Brain Laboratory et al.
    A standard for complex mouse behavior that can be successfully reproduced across laboratories, along with open-access data and tools to implement provide a resource for reproducibility through collaborative open-science approaches.
    1. Neuroscience

    Somatostatin-expressing parafacial neurons are CO2/H+ sensitive and regulate baseline breathing

    Colin M Cleary et al.
    Cellular and chemogenetic approaches identify a novel mode of chemotransduction involving regulation of basal breathing by CO2/H+-dependent disinhibition.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Abortive intussusceptive angiogenesis causes multi-cavernous vascular malformations

    Wenqing Li et al.
    Genetic studies reveal that mosaic inactivation of ccm2 causes characteristic cerebral cavernous malformations in adult zebrafish and aberrant responses to blood flow that induce the formation of a lethal embryonic multi-cavernous venous malformation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Onset of taste bud cell renewal starts at birth and coincides with a shift in SHH function

    Erin J Golden et al.
    Taste cell renewal begins at birth and is promoted by sonic hedgehog that alters the expression of regulators of cell migration and adhesion that may allow entry of new cells into buds.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Voltage-clamp fluorometry analysis of structural rearrangements of ATP-gated channel P2X2 upon hyperpolarization

    Rizki Tsari Andriani, Yoshihiro Kubo
    A fluorometric analysis under voltage clamp shows the presence of a converged electric field in P2X2 channel with no canonical voltage-sensor and identifies the structural determinants for the voltage-dependent gating.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Glycan-based shaping of the microbiota during primate evolution

    Sumnima Singh et al.
    Ggta1 deletion in mice shapes and reduces the microbiota pathogenicity and probably contributed to the natural selection of GGTA1 loss-of-function mutations in the ancestral primates that gave rise to humans.
    1. Neuroscience

    Metal microdrive and head cap system for silicon probe recovery in freely moving rodent

    Mihály Vöröslakos et al.
    A reusable system of 3D printed stainless steel microdrive and plastic head cap allows stable recording of electrophysiological data in mice and rats and easy recovery of silicon probes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Single-cell transcriptome analysis defines heterogeneity of the murine pancreatic ductal tree

    Audrey M Hendley et al.
    Single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses and functional studies define heterogeneity within the pancreatic ductal tree and unique properties of subpopulations of duct cells including an epithelial-mesenchymal transcriptomic axis and roles in chronic pancreatic inflammation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Integrated transcriptomic and neuroimaging brain model decodes biological mechanisms in aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Quadri Adewale et al.
    Identification of causal genes and their effects on other biological determinants untangles the complexities of aging and Alzheimer's and can facilitate drug discovery for sustaining healthy aging and treating Alzheimer's.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Multi-step vs. single-step resistance evolution under different drugs, pharmacokinetics, and treatment regimens

    Claudia Igler et al.
    The number and effects of mutations leading to full drug resistance crucially determine treatment failure probability and should be used to inform antimicrobial treatment strategies with regard to avoidance of resistance emergence.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Random sub-diffusion and capture of genes by the nuclear pore reduces dynamics and coordinates inter-chromosomal movement

    Michael Chas Sumner et al.
    Measuring and simulating chromatin dynamics reveals that repositioning of genes to the nuclear pore is neither active nor vectorial, but reduces sub-diffusion and coordinates movement between loci on different chromosomes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Polymerization of misfolded Z alpha-1 antitrypsin protein lowers CX3CR1 expression in human PBMCs

    Srinu Tumpara et al.
    Finding that circulating Z alpha-1 antitrypsin polymers, a feature of ZZ AAT deficiency, lower the expression of CX3CR1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells encourages more detailed analyses on different circulating misfolded proteins and their role on immune cell surveillance/function.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Calibration of cell-intrinsic interleukin-2 response thresholds guides design of a regulatory T cell biased agonist

    Caleb R Glassman et al.
    A panel of interleukin-2 partial agonists designed to exploit distinct immune cell response thresholds enabled selective activation of regulatory T cells in vivo.
    1. Neuroscience

    Local circuit allowing hypothalamic control of hippocampal area CA2 activity and consequences for CA1

    Vincent Robert et al.
    Input conveying social novelty information from the hypothalamus controls hippocampal activity by recruiting a novel inhibitory circuit in hippocampal area CA2.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    R7 photoreceptor axon targeting depends on the relative levels of lost and found expression in R7 and its synaptic partners

    Jessica Douthit et al.
    R7 photoreceptors require the endosomal protein Lost and Found to form stable connections only when this protein is also present in neurons that are synaptic partners of R7.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    PIE-1 SUMOylation promotes germline fates and piRNA-dependent silencing in C. elegans

    Heesun Kim et al.
    PIE-1 engages SUMO to preserve the embryonic germline fate and also to promote the assembly of a MEP-1/Mi-2/HDA-1 chromatin remodeling complex required for inherited Argonaute-mediated gene silencing in the adult hermaphrodite germline.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Integrated sensing of host stresses by inhibition of a cytoplasmic two-component system controls M. tuberculosis acute lung infection

    John A Buglino et al.
    M. tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes the disease tuberculosis, uses a signaling system that senses multiple products of the host's immune system to modify gene expression to colonize the lung.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    PHAROH lncRNA regulates Myc translation in hepatocellular carcinoma via sequestering TIAR

    Allen T Yu et al.
    PHAROH lncRNA is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and functions by sequestering the translational suppressor TIAR via a 71 nucleotide hairpin to regulate c-MYC translation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Novel cell types and developmental lineages revealed by single-cell RNA-seq analysis of the mouse crista ampullaris

    Brent A Wilkerson et al.
    The elucidation of the cellular composition of the crista and the genes expressed in each cell type is a critical step toward understanding inner ear development, function, and vestibulopathies.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Competitive coordination of the dual roles of the Hedgehog co-receptor in homophilic adhesion and signal reception

    Shu Yang et al.
    The apparently incompatible functions of the Hedgehog co-receptor Ihog in homophilic adhesion and ligand binding cooperate in Hh transport and reception.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Live-imaging of endothelial Erk activity reveals dynamic and sequential signalling events during regenerative angiogenesis

    Kazuhide S Okuda et al.
    Live-imaging of a transgenic reporter of vascular Erk signalling in zebrafish reveals sequential signalling mechanisms during the initiation of regeneration in wounded blood vessels.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    HSPCs display within-family homogeneity in differentiation and proliferation despite population heterogeneity

    Tamar Tak et al.
    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are heterogeneous on a population level, while cells derived from a common ancestor have similar division and differentiation patterns, indicating priming towards a certain differentiation/division fate.
    1. Neuroscience

    The organizational principles of de-differentiated topographic maps in somatosensory cortex

    Peng Liu et al.
    SI topographic finger maps of older adults show signs of cortical aging but do not show classical hallmarks of cortical de-differentiation.
    1. Developmental Biology

    HDAC1 SUMOylation promotes Argonaute-directed transcriptional silencing in C. elegans

    Heesun Kim et al.
    HDAC SUMOylation promotes the association of other chromatin remodeling factors with the nuclear Argonaute WAGO-9, which is required for de novo heterochromatin silencing.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Psychomotor impairments and therapeutic implications revealed by a mutation associated with infantile Parkinsonism-Dystonia

    Jenny I Aguilar et al.
    A dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (DTDS)-linked mutation, R445C, underlies dopamine dysfunction and, more broadly, the clinical phenotypes shared by DTDS and Parkinson’s disease.
    1. Medicine

    The hepcidin regulator erythroferrone is a new member of the erythropoiesis-iron-bone circuitry

    Melanie Castro-Mollo et al.
    The hepcidin regulator erythroferrone functions by sequestering BMPs and is an important modulator of bone remodeling, providing new mechanistic insight into how premature osteoporosis persists in optimally transfused β-thalassemic patients.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Signaling levels mold the RAS mutation tropism of urethane

    Siqi Li, Christopher M Counter
    Genetic analyses reveal that the tropism towards specific Kras driver mutations during urethane carcinogenesis appears to arise from the selection of an oncogenic mutation in normal cells that imparts a narrow window of signaling conducive for tumorigenesis.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The crystal structure of bromide-bound GtACR1 reveals a pre-activated state in the transmembrane anion tunnel

    Hai Li et al.
    Substrate-induced structural changes in GtACR1 provide new insight into the chemical mechanism of natural light-gated anion conductance and facilitate its optimization for photoinhibition of neuron firing in optogenetics.
    1. Neuroscience

    Clustered functional domains for curves and corners in cortical area V4

    Rundong Jiang et al.
    Curves and corners are separately encoded by neurons clustered into functional domains in macaque V4.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct protocerebral neuropils associated with attractive and aversive female-produced odorants in the male moth brain

    Jonas Hansen Kymre et al.
    Electrophysiological and morphological identification of individual pheromone projection neurons in male moth reveals a coding system for optimizing mate search strategy, including computation of three female-produced signals in distinct protocerebral regions.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A TORC1-histone axis regulates chromatin organisation and non-canonical induction of autophagy to ameliorate ageing

    Yu-Xuan Lu et al.
    Modulation of histone levels in gut enterocytes by rapamycin treatment alters chromatin organisation and induces intestinal autophagy through transcriptional regulation to prevent age-related decline in the intestine and extend lifespan.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    A subcellular map of the human kinome

    Haitao Zhang et al.
    An immunofluorescent analysis of 465 protein kinases revealed a substantial role of liquid-liquid phase separation in kinase localization and identified new kinase localizations to mitochondria and other organelles.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Inbreeding in a dioecious plant has sex- and population origin-specific effects on its interactions with pollinators

    Karin Schrieber et al.
    Inbreeding compromises floral traits and reduces pollinator visitation rates disproportionally in female relative to male individuals in a dioecious plant and may thus interfere with the equilibrium of a complex co-evolutionary plant-insect relationship.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Spatiotemporal control of cell cycle acceleration during axolotl spinal cord regeneration

    Emanuel Cura Costa et al.
    Computational modeling and a cell cycle-reporting axolotl reveal how spinal cord regeneration can be achieved by a signal that propagates 828 μm from the injury site during the first 85 hours post-amputation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Propensity for somatic expansion increases over the course of life in Huntington disease

    Radhia Kacher et al.
    Somatic instability of the CAG repeat increases progressively with age and disease progression in Huntington disease mutation carriers, starting with low levels in fetal brain tissues.
    1. Neuroscience

    Permeabilization-free en bloc immunohistochemistry for correlative microscopy

    Kara A Fulton, Kevin L Briggman
    Immunohistochemical labeling of antigens deep within mouse brain tissue sections was achieved without the need for lipid permeabilization, thereby preserving tissue ultrastructure and enabling correlative light and electron microscopy studies.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Single-PanIN-seq unveils that ARID1A deficiency promotes pancreatic tumorigenesis by attenuating KRAS-induced senescence

    Shou Liu et al.
    ARID1A deficiency in SWI/SNF complex promotes pancreatic tumor development by upregulating ALDH protein levels to effectively reduce cellular reactive oxygen species levels, leading to the significant attenuation of oncogenic KRAS-induced senescence.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopamine differentially modulates the size of projection neuron ensembles in the intact and dopamine-depleted striatum

    Marta Maltese et al.
    In addition to modulating firing rates, the neurotransmitter dopamine exerts a strong influence on the overall number of neurons in striatum that are recruited during behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    Bundle-specific associations between white matter microstructure and Aβ and tau pathology in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    Alexa Pichet Binette et al.
    White matter microstructure alterations in key bundles affected in Alzheimer's disease are related to amyloid and tau pathology in the preclinical phase of sporadic and autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease.
    1. Ecology

    The effect of host community functional traits on plant disease risk varies along an elevational gradient

    Fletcher W Halliday et al.
    Environmental gradients can modify a fundamental relationship between host community structure and disease, with implications for predicting disease risk in a changing world.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Sex differences in biological aging with a focus on human studies

    Sara Hägg, Juulia Jylhävä
    Biological aging processes and age-related diseases demonstrate sexual dimorphism where complex interactions between underlying aging mechanisms and sex chromosomes and hormones are seen in humans and animals.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    A non-genetic, cell cycle-dependent mechanism of platinum resistance in lung adenocarcinoma

    Alvaro Gonzalez Rajal et al.
    Platinum chemotherapy resistance is a complex process involving multiple signalling pathways and a novel, non-genetic, cell cycle-dependent mechanism that promotes tumour regrowth and highlights potential complications for combination therapies in human lung adenocarcinoma.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    NHR-49/PPAR-α and HLH-30/TFEB cooperate for C. elegans host defense via a flavin-containing monooxygenase

    Khursheed A Wani et al.
    Genetic and molecular characterization showed that evolutionarily conserved flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO-2) plays an important role in host defense in Caenorhabditis elegans, and its induction is dependent on conserved transcription factors, TFEB and PPAR-α.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Homoplasy in the evolution of modern human-like joint proportions in Australopithecus afarensis

    Anjali M Prabhat et al.
    The human-like joint proportions of Australopithecus afarensis evolved independently, making 'Lucy' and her kind the earliest known evolutionary experiment in obligate bipedalism.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis for allosteric control of the SERCA-Phospholamban membrane complex by Ca2+ and phosphorylation

    Daniel K Weber et al.
    A spectroscopic analysis of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-phospholamban membrane complex reveals the importance of the relative transmembrane orientation for inhibition or activation of the ATPase.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The role of sigma 1 receptor in organization of endoplasmic reticulum signaling microdomains

    Vladimir Zhemkov et al.
    Signaling function of sigma 1 receptor is related to its ability to organize cholesterol-enriched microdomains in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.
    1. Neuroscience

    Adapting non-invasive human recordings along multiple task-axes shows unfolding of spontaneous and over-trained choice

    Yu Takagi et al.
    Adaptation along multiple task-axes reveals choice traces at millisecond resolution in non-invasive recordings from human premotor cortex and provides evidence that theories of top-down control hold even after extensive experience.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A developmental framework linking neurogenesis and circuit formation in the Drosophila CNS

    Brandon Mark et al.
    Neurons are mapped for developmental features (lineage, hemilineage, temporal identity) and connectomic features (morphology, synapse localization and connectivity) to reveal correlations that can be tested experimentally.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    In vitro reconstitution reveals major differences between human and bacterial cytochrome c synthases

    Molly C Sutherland et al.
    Despite the known heme attachment motif (CXXCH) in all c-type cytochromes, attachment elements recognized by human and bacterial cytochrome c biogenesis pathways are distinct, providing clear targets for differential inhibitors.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    EXOC1 plays an integral role in spermatogonia pseudopod elongation and spermatocyte stable syncytium formation in mice

    Yuki Osawa et al.
    EXOC1 contributes to the proper differentiation balance of spermatogonial stem cells and spermatocyte syncytia formation by regulating the morphology of male germ cells.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Limited inhibition of multiple nodes in a driver network blocks metastasis

    Ali Ekrem Yesilkanal et al.
    Low-dose treatment targeting multiple pathways of a pro-metastatic signaling network reduces the metastatic output of heterogeneous tumors while minimizing compensatory network activation.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Medicine

    Integrative transcriptomic analysis of tissue-specific metabolic crosstalk after myocardial infarction

    Muhammad Arif et al.
    Elucidating widespread and tissue-specific biological process alterations after myocardial infaction in metabolically active tissues using systems biology approaches.
    1. Medicine

    Coronary plaque composition influences biomechanical stress and predicts plaque rupture in a morpho-mechanic OCT analysis

    Andrea Milzi et al.
    Assessing plaque biomechanics by optical coherence tomography highlights the importance of the disrupting effects of plaque stress, bringing stress concentrations as the prime movers of plaque rupture back into clinical practice.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Differential spatiotemporal development of Purkinje cell populations and cerebellum-dependent sensorimotor behaviors

    Gerrit Cornelis Beekhof et al.
    Different Purkinje cell subpopulations show distinct developmental profiles of physiological activity, climbing fiber inputs and axonal and dendritic morphology, matching different timelines of cerebellum-dependent behaviors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Enhanced excitability of cortical neurons in low-divalent solutions is primarily mediated by altered voltage-dependence of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Briana J Martiszus et al.
    External calcium regulates neuronal excitability via its actions on voltage-gated sodium channels but not by regulating NALCN via the calcium-sensing receptor.
    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A novel ATP dependent dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase in bacteria that releases dimethyl sulfide and acryloyl-CoA

    Chun-Yang Li et al.
    A novel dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase was identified, which catalyzes dimethyl sulfide releasing by a new mechanism and is found in several bacterial lineages, revealing its important roles in global sulfur cycling.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Recovery of consciousness and cognition after general anesthesia in humans

    George A Mashour et al.
    Cognitive reconstitution after pharmacologic unconsciousness is an extended process, executive function is more robust than expected, and the healthy human brain is resilient to the effects of deep general anesthesia.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Chromatin structure-dependent histone incorporation revealed by a genome-wide deposition assay

    Hiroaki Tachiwana et al.
    A new method using permeabilized cells and recombinant histones enables to analyze histone incorporations at the DNA sequence level.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    KSR1- and ERK-dependent translational regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Chaitra Rao et al.
    A key Ras-driven signaling pathway stimulates the preferential translation of an effector, EPSTI1, that is both necessary and sufficient for the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like phenotype in colorectal cancer cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    fMRI-based detection of alertness predicts behavioral response variability

    Sarah E Goodale et al.
    Time-varying states of alertness that shape behavioral responses may be detected from fMRI signal patterns.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Persistent effects of pair bonding in lung cancer cell growth in monogamous Peromyscus californicus

    Asieh Naderi et al.
    Monogamous rodents of the genus Peromyscus, upon disruption of pair bonds, acquire increased oncogenic activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dorsal periaqueductal gray ensembles represent approach and avoidance states

    Fernando MCV Reis et al.
    Distinct dorsal periaqueductal gray ensembles encode threat approach and avoidance behavioral states.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal antimicrobial toxicity is neutralized by an intracellular pathogen

    Hannah Tabakh et al.
    The aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is a novel component of the host antimicrobial reactive oxygen burst, and the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes encodes genes specifically for its detoxification.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Endogenous p53 expression in human and mouse is not regulated by its 3′UTR

    Sibylle Mitschka, Christine Mayr
    The endogenous 3′UTR does not regulate TP53 mRNA or protein level and the 3′UTR is repressive when used alone in reporters, but addition of the coding region has a dominant repressive effect.
    1. Neuroscience

    Instantaneous movement-unrelated midbrain activity modifies ongoing eye movements

    Antimo Buonocore et al.
    Sensory activity within the superior colliculus is read out by downstream motor structures and contributes to individual saccade kinematics with single spike precision.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Non-canonical Hedgehog signaling regulates spinal cord and muscle regeneration in Xenopus laevis larvae

    Andrew M Hamilton et al.
    Unlike in early embryonic development, injured spinal cord and muscle in Xenopus laevis larvae recruit non-canonical Hedgehog signaling essential for their regeneration, while repressing Gli transcriptional activity.
    1. Developmental Biology

    The LRR-TM protein PAN-1 interacts with MYRF to promote its nuclear translocation in synaptic remodeling

    Shi-Li Xia et al.
    Identified as a binding factor of transcription factor MYRF, the LRR-TM protein PAN-1 promotes the cell-membrane localization and nuclear translocation of MYRF, which drives synaptic rewiring in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology

    Genetic variation, environment and demography intersect to shape Arabidopsis defense metabolite variation across Europe

    Ella Katz et al.
    Measurements of specialized metabolites across a population of 800 natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions revealed different pressures and evolutionary processes that shaped their variation and distribution across Europe.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    SAM homeostasis is regulated by CFIm-mediated splicing of MAT2A

    Anna M Scarborough et al.
    The 3'-end formation complex CFIm regulates S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) homeostasis by promoting the splicing of the SAM synthetase transcript, MAT2A.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ir56d-dependent fatty acid responses in Drosophila uncover taste discrimination between different classes of fatty acids

    Elizabeth B Brown et al.
    The taste system of fruit flies is activated by broad classes of fatty acids and can discriminate between different classes, revealing previously underappreciated complexity in the coding of tastants.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Disruption of entire Cables2 locus leads to embryonic lethality by diminished Rps21 gene expression and enhanced p53 pathway

    Tra Thi Huong Dinh et al.
    Mouse genetic manipulations reveal that Cables2 is involved in the progress of gastrulation by interacting with Wnt/β-catenin and the p53 pathways in diminished Rps21 expression.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    CM1-driven assembly and activation of yeast γ-tubulin small complex underlies microtubule nucleation

    Axel F Brilot et al.
    Cryo-EM structures reveal that the conserved CM1 motif drives γTuRC assembly by bridging adjacent γTuSC.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Myoglobin primary structure reveals multiple convergent transitions to semi-aquatic life in the world's smallest mammalian divers

    Kai He et al.
    Ancestral sequence reconstruction of an essential muscle protein involved in O2 storage and transport accurately tracks secondary aquatic transitions in a speciose clade of insectivorous mammals.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Combinatorial deployment of F-actin regulators to build complex 3D actin structures in vivo

    Yi Xie et al.
    Phasic microfilament behaviors of the growth and stabilization of cortical actin caps are driven by distinct combinations of actin regulatory proteins, which display features of a deep competition for G-actin.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Linking mPFC circuit maturation to the developmental regulation of emotional memory and cognitive flexibility

    Cassandra B Klune et al.
    An analysis of recent literature advances novel hypotheses and suggests new experimental approaches in order to build an integrated understanding of prefrontal neural architecture and behavioral repertoires during development.
    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Multiple lineages of Streptomyces produce antimicrobials within passalid beetle galleries across eastern North America

    Rita de Cassia Pessotti et al.
    The widespread occurrence of metabolically active streptomycetes in Odontotaenius disjunctus beetle frass may insulate their galleries against pathogenic fungal invasion through the production of diverse antimicrobial specialized metabolites.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Mapping single-cell atlases throughout Metazoa unravels cell type evolution

    Alexander J Tarashansky et al.
    Mapping single-cell atlases throughout Metazoa systematically characterizes cell type diversity and the evolution of their associated gene expression programs.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Integrating taxonomic, functional, and strain-level profiling of diverse microbial communities with bioBakery 3

    Francesco Beghini et al.
    The bioBakery 3 platform enables improved, integrated, and strain-level analysis of microbial communities from large-scale meta-omic data.
    1. Cell Biology

    Receptor-mediated mitophagy regulates EPO production and protects against renal anemia

    Guangfeng Geng et al.
    Fundc1-mediated mitophagy protects renal EPO-producing cells from myofibroblastic conversion under stresses.
    1. Cell Biology

    Multiplexed mRNA assembly into ribonucleoprotein particles plays an operon-like role in the control of yeast cell physiology

    Rohini R Nair et al.
    Prokaryotes use polycistronic messages for coordinated translation, whereas eukaryotic cells may achieve tunable protein synthesis by packaging monocistronic mRNAs into functional multiplexes via co-transcriptional interallelic coupling and non-canonical histone-H4 functions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Co-targeting myelin inhibitors and CSPGs markedly enhances regeneration of GDNF-stimulated, but not conditioning-lesioned, sensory axons into the spinal cord

    Jinbin Zhai et al.
    Myelin-associated inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are not the primary mechanism stopping sensory axons regenerating into the spinal cord, although their removal can markedly enhance regeneration when combined with an intervention that elevates axon growth capacity sufficiently robustly.
    1. Neuroscience

    DRAXIN regulates interhemispheric fissure remodelling to influence the extent of corpus callosum formation

    Laura Morcom et al.
    Incomplete interhemispheric fissure remodelling determines corpus callosum size in humans and BTBR N2 mice that carry a deletion in Draxin.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Mesoscale phase separation of chromatin in the nucleus

    Gaurav Bajpai et al.
    Computer simulations show transitions between novel types of chromatin organization (peripheral, central, conventional) depending on chromatin interactions with itself, the lamin and nuclear hydration, measured in recent experiments.
    1. Neuroscience

    Linguistic processing of task-irrelevant speech at a cocktail party

    Paz Har-shai Yahav, Elana Zion Golumbic
    Syntactic structure-building processes can be applied to speech that is task-irrelevant and should be ignored, demonstrating that Selective Attention does not fully eliminate linguistic processing of competing speech.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Metabolic biomarker profiling for identification of susceptibility to severe pneumonia and COVID-19 in the general population

    Heli Julkunen et al.
    Metabolic biomarkers measured from single blood test can identify apparently healthy people at high susceptibility for developing severe pneumonia, and may also be useful for preventive COVID-19 screening.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Sec17/Sec18 can support membrane fusion without help from completion of SNARE zippering

    Hongki Song et al.
    Sec18(NSF) and Sec17(αSNAP) provide a parallel pathway to fusion that is independent of energy from SNARE zippering.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Medicine

    Computational modeling identifies embolic stroke of undetermined source patients with potential arrhythmic substrate

    Savannah F Bifulco et al.
    In models reconstructed from MRI scans of patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source, computational simulations reveal that fibrosis has the intrinsic capacity to sustain arrhythmia drivers when subjected to triggered activity known to exist in patients with atrial fibrillation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sniff-synchronized, gradient-guided olfactory search by freely moving mice

    Teresa M Findley et al.
    To track odors borne on turbulent airflow, mice strategically follow their nose, with sampling movements and sensory computations reminiscent of those demonstrated in nematodes and insects.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of semi-supercentenarians

    Paolo Garagnani et al.
    Genetic variants located in DNA repair genes and a reduced burden of somatic mutations protect the oldest living persons from age-related diseases, allowing an healthy aging phenotype.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Reduced purine biosynthesis in humans after their divergence from Neandertals

    Vita Stepanova et al.
    Purine biosynthesis is reduced in humans due to a single amino acid substitution in adenylosuccinate lyase that occurred subsequent to the divergence of modern humans from Neandertals.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Permeant fluorescent probes visualize the activation of SARM1 and uncover an anti-neurodegenerative drug candidate

    Wan Hua Li et al.
    The first-in-class cell-permeant fluorescent probe provides direct and visual evidence of SARM1 activation in axonal degeneration and identified the first covalent, allosteric inhibitor of SARM1 acting on the NAD-binding pocket in the ARM domain.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Qki regulates myelinogenesis through Srebp2-dependent cholesterol biosynthesis

    Xin Zhou et al.
    Qki-Srebp2–mediated cholesterol biosynthesis is indispensable for myelinogenesis during early brain development.
    1. Cell Biology

    Metabolic flexibility via mitochondrial BCAA carrier SLC25A44 is required for optimal fever

    Takeshi Yoneshiro et al.
    Genetic and cellular studies in rodents found branched-chain amino acids are critical nutrients that are transported and oxidized in the mitochondria through their carrier MBC for optimal febrile responses.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    OPA1 deletion in brown adipose tissue improves thermoregulation and systemic metabolism via FGF21

    Renata O Pereira et al.
    Lack of OPA1 in BAT impairs its thermogenic activation and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, while improving systemic metabolism and thermoregulation via ATF4-FGF21-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
    1. Neuroscience

    Autism-associated SHANK3 missense point mutations impact conformational fluctuations and protein turnover at synapses

    Michael Bucher et al.
    Autism-associated SHANK3 missense mutations result in differential protein folding, stability, and intramolecular dynamics affecting its turnover at the synapse.
    1. Neuroscience

    Fully autonomous mouse behavioral and optogenetic experiments in home-cage

    Yaoyao Hao et al.
    A fully automated workflow for high-throughput mouse behavioral and optogenetic experiments in homecage reveals involvement of brain regions in tactile decision-making.