November 2021

Research articles

    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Dinosaur bonebed amber from an original swamp forest soil

    Sergio Álvarez-Parra et al.
    The most prolific and oldest locality in which a rich dinosaur bonebed and fossiliferous amber have been found in association is revealed, allowing the reconstruction of an ancient terrestrial ecosystem with a detail and accuracy reached only exceptionally in palaeontology.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A molecular mechanism for the generation of ligand-dependent differential outputs by the epidermal growth factor receptor

    Yongjian Huang et al.
    Cryo-EM analysis of full-length human epidermal growth factor receptor provides a molecular explanation for how ligand-induced differential effect in the ligand-binding extracellular module tunes the transmembrane signaling mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor.
    1. Neuroscience

    Control of parallel hippocampal output pathways by amygdalar long-range inhibition

    Rawan AlSubaie et al.
    Amygdala input to ventral hippocampus is both excitatory and inhibitory, and the balance of these two projections controls the formation of place preference via differential innervation of each hippocampal output population.
    1. Cell Biology

    A novel live-cell imaging assay reveals regulation of endosome maturation

    Maria Podinovskaia et al.
    A novel, inexpensive, easy-to-use method to analyse traffic along the endosomal pathway in mammalian cells shows that there is coordination between Rab conversion and acidification, but almost none between Rab conversion and recycling.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Daily electrical activity in the master circadian clock of a diurnal mammal

    Beatriz Bano-Otalora et al.
    Circadian control of neuronal excitability in the master circadian clock of a diurnal mammal as revealed by whole-cell recording and mathematical modeling.
    1. Neuroscience

    Columnar processing of border ownership in primate visual cortex

    Tom P Franken, John H Reynolds
    The assignment of borders to foreground objects occurs in cortical columns in primate visual cortex, and first in deep layers, suggesting a central role for feedback.
    1. Neuroscience

    The Mouse Action Recognition System (MARS) software pipeline for automated analysis of social behaviors in mice

    Cristina Segalin et al.
    The Mouse Action Recognition System is a computational pipeline for automated classification of social behaviors in freely interacting mice, accompanied by a graphical interface for analysis of multimodal neuroscience datasets.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Glutamine deprivation triggers NAGK-dependent hexosamine salvage

    Sydney Campbell et al.
    Hexosamine salvage through the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine kinase is stimulated in nutrient-limited conditions and supports pancreatic tumor growth.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Ovipositor and mouthparts in a fossil insect support a novel ecological role for early orthopterans in 300 million years old forests

    Lu Chen et al.
    Hundreds of fossil remains shed new light on the evolution of grasshoppers, gryllids, and katydids and their ecological role 300 million years ago.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    TCR meta-clonotypes for biomarker discovery with tcrdist3 enabled identification of public, HLA-restricted clusters of SARS-CoV-2 TCRs

    Koshlan Mayer-Blackwell et al.
    Distance-based TCR analysis enables grouping of biochemically similar clonotypes into meta-clonotypes that have increased publicity, and therefore statistical power, for population-level detection of antigen-specific T cells in infection and vaccination.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Supracellular organization confers directionality and mechanical potency to migrating pairs of cardiopharyngeal progenitor cells

    Yelena Y Bernadskaya et al.
    The migrating pair of cardiac progenitors in the chordate Ciona robusta is the simplest possible supracellular cell collective whose organization helps them overcome resistance from surrounding embryonic tissues during cell migration.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Altered temporal sequence of transcriptional regulators in the generation of human cerebellar granule cells

    Hourinaz Behesti et al.
    Human pluripotent stem cell modeling of the ATOH1 lineage identifies a temporal shift in the expression of key transcriptional regulators in the developing human cerebellum, this molecular divergence may drive the protracted development of the human cerebellum compared to rodents.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    RNase III-mediated processing of a trans-acting bacterial sRNA and its cis-encoded antagonist

    Sarah Lauren Svensson, Cynthia Mira Sharma
    Functional characterization of a pair of cis-encoded antisense RNAs reveals a role for RNase III and antisense regulation in the biogenesis and regulatory activity of a bacterial virulence factor-regulating small RNA.
    1. Plant Biology

    Expression of a CO2-permeable aquaporin enhances mesophyll conductance in the C4 species Setaria viridis

    Maria Ermakova et al.
    The SiPIP2;7 aquaporin is a functional CO2 pore that can be used to improve CO2 diffusion at the interface between the airspace and leaf mesophyll which limits C4 photosynthesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Effects of arousal and movement on secondary somatosensory and visual thalamus

    Gordon H Petty et al.
    Secondary somatosensory and visual thalamus monitor behavioral state, rather than movement, and may exist to alter cortical activity accordingly.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Quantitative analysis of tumour spheroid structure

    Alexander P Browning et al.
    A novel quantitative framework to analyse the inner structure of tumour spheroids in terms of the mechanisms that underly growth.
    1. Cell Biology

    Membrane estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) participates in flow-mediated dilation in a ligand-independent manner

    Julie Favre et al.
    A new pathway is described involving the estrogen receptor alpha in the acute response of small arteries to flow independent of the ligand (estrogen) and of the nuclear signaling.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Type 1 polyisoprenoid diphosphate phosphatase modulates geranylgeranyl-mediated control of HMG CoA reductase and UBIAD1

    Rania Elsabrouty et al.
    Type 1 polyisoprenoid diphosphate phosphatase (PDP1) contributes to interconversion of isoprenols and isoprenylpyrophosphates, balancing the sterol and nonsterol branches of the mevalonate pathway by regulating ERAD of HMG CoA reductase and ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Remote immune processes revealed by immune-derived circulating cell-free DNA

    Ilana Fox-Fisher et al.
    Cell-free DNA methylation markers allow monitoring of immune and inflammatory cell turnover.
    1. Neuroscience

    Attention network modulation via tRNS correlates with attention gain

    Federica Contò et al.
    Parietal noninvasive brain stimulation during perceptual training causes a dramatic increase in learning that correlates with network-wide changes in functional connectivity, demonstrating the stimulation-induced physiological mechanisms leading to cognitive benefits.
    1. Neuroscience

    Metabolomic profiling reveals a differential role for hippocampal glutathione reductase in infantile memory formation

    Benjamin Bessières et al.
    Hippocampal metabolomic analyses following episodic learning at different ages revealed a critical role for neuronal glutathione reductase activity in long-term infantile memory formation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Single-nucleus transcriptomic analysis of human dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Minh Q Nguyen et al.
    Single-nucleus transcriptomics exposes unique features of human somatosensory neurons and clues that may help resolve repeated problems in translating new experimental approaches for treating pain.
    1. Cell Biology

    ANTH domains within CALM, HIP1R, and Sla2 recognize ubiquitin internalization signals

    Natalya Pashkova et al.
    The family of ANTH domain proteins serve as adaptors to endocytose ubiquitinated proteins from the cell surface.
    1. Neuroscience

    A functional topography within the cholinergic basal forebrain for encoding sensory cues and behavioral reinforcement outcomes

    Blaise Robert et al.
    Activity levels in anterior and posterior cholinergic basal forebrain neurons are associated with distinct aspects of global brain state, sensory salience, reward expectation, and aversive reinforcement learning.
    1. Neuroscience

    A naturalistic environment to study visual cognition in unrestrained monkeys

    Georgin Jacob et al.
    A novel naturalistic environment with a touchscreen enables high-quality eye tracking for studying visual cognition in monkeys, and allows naive monkeys to learn complex tasks through a combination of social observation of trained monkeys and trial-and-error learning.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Multisensory-motor integration in olfactory navigation of silkmoth, Bombyx mori, using virtual reality system

    Mayu Yamada et al.
    Silkmoth utilizes multimodal information to modulate behavior according to the degree of turbulence in the environment, enabling it to efficiently an odor source search.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Single-cell RNA sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus larva reveals the blueprint of major cell types and nervous system of a non-chordate deuterostome

    Periklis Paganos et al.
    Reconstruction of cell-type families in the purple sea urchin larva reveals unprecedented transcriptional diversity, stunning neuronal complexity and a missing link to pancreas evolution, suggesting this approach can be also used to uncover hidden cell type homologies.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Neutrophil-mediated oxidative stress and albumin structural damage predict COVID-19-associated mortality

    Mohamed A Badawy et al.
    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy quantitatively correlates structural damages of serum albumin with COVID-19 severity and mortality thus suggesting albumin replacement therapy as a strategy to rescue patients at risk of mortality.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    EGFR transactivates RON to drive oncogenic crosstalk

    Carolina Franco Nitta et al.
    Unidirectional crosstalk occurs between signaling competent EGFR dimers activating RON within heteromeric complexes at the plasma membrane.
    1. Cell Biology

    Golgi membrane protein Erd1 Is essential for recycling a subset of Golgi glycosyltransferases

    Richa Sardana et al.
    Transmembrane protein Erd1 and the cytosolic receptor Vps74 cooperate to mediate early Golgi glycosyltransferase recycling in budding yeast.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    The alpha/B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant exhibits significantly higher affinity for ACE-2 and requires lower inoculation doses to cause disease in K18-hACE2 mice

    Rafael Bayarri-Olmos et al.
    Functional characterization of the alpha/B1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant revealed an eightfold affinity increase of the N501Y RBD to human ACE-2 and that even a low inoculation dose of the alpha variant induces severe disease and fast progression in transgenic hACE2 mice.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Reversible phosphorylation of cyclin T1 promotes assembly and stability of P-TEFb

    Fang Huang et al.
    Cyclin T1 phosphorylation determines levels of P-TEFb via stabilizing interactions between cyclin T1 and CDK9.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Social contact patterns and implications for infectious disease transmission – a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact surveys

    Andria Mousa et al.
    Differences in patterns of social contact between settings have consequences for the spread and transmission of respiratory pathogens and the effectiveness of different measures aimed at their control.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome bcc in complex with Q203 and TB47, two anti-TB drug candidates

    Shan Zhou et al.
    The three-dimensional structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome bcc in complex with the antituberculosis agents, Q203 and TB47, explain how these inhibitors suppress activity of the complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct dendritic Ca2+ spike forms produce opposing input-output transformations in rat CA3 pyramidal cells

    Ádám Magó et al.
    Dendritic patch-clamp recordings combined with two-photon imaging and glutamate uncaging reveal two types of regenerative calcium spikes in the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons from rat hippocampus.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Ten months of temporal variation in the clinical journey of hospitalised patients with COVID-19: An observational cohort

    ISARIC Clinical Characterisation Group et al.
    Patient outcomes, and the time spent by patients during hospital admission, showed considerable variation over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    High-resolution structures of the actomyosin-V complex in three nucleotide states provide insights into the force generation mechanism

    Sabrina Pospich et al.
    The cryo-EM structures of actomyosin-V, including a novel strongly bound post-rigor transition state, reveal a pronounced structural heterogeneity of myosin-V and the specific selection of the closed D-loop conformation of F-actin.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    DAAM mediates the assembly of long-lived, treadmilling stress fibers in collectively migrating epithelial cells in Drosophila

    Kristin M Sherrard et al.
    Stress fibers with multiple adhesions along their lengths and treadmilling dynamics may help migrating epithelial cells maintain a linear trajectory and thereby reinforce their collective motility.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Medicine

    Data mining methodology for response to hypertension symptomology—application to COVID-19-related pharmacovigilance

    Xuan Xu et al.
    Quantitative models and data-driven approaches developed for the COVID-19 pandemic and predicting SARS-Cov-2 comorbidities for high-risk populations including hypertension show that the future of large-scale biomedical science will be significantly underscored by data-driven decision-making and AI knowledge-based development and validation.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    New fossils of Australopithecus sediba reveal a nearly complete lower back

    Scott A Williams et al.
    Newly recovered lumbar vertebrae belonging to Malapa Hominin 2, an adult female of the fossil hominin species Australopithecus sediba, demonstrate that this individual was adapted to upright posture and bipedal locomotion but also had adaptations for climbing in trees.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    The IRE1/XBP1 signaling axis promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through a cell non-autonomous mechanism

    Anirban Roy et al.
    The IRE1/XBP1 signaling in myofibers is essential for robust skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cross-reactive antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination

    Marloes Grobben et al.
    SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit antibodies that cross-react with other human coronavirus spike proteins, indicating the spike S2 subdomain as a potential target strategy to develop a pan-coronavirus vaccine.
    1. Neuroscience

    Increasing human motor skill acquisition by driving theta–gamma coupling

    Haya Akkad et al.
    Driving theta–gamma activity in the human cortex with non-invasive brain stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition in healthy adults, revealing a potential neuroplastic mechanism that might be harnessed for therapeutic intervention.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Giant ankyrin-B mediates transduction of axon guidance and collateral branch pruning factor sema 3A

    Blake A Creighton et al.
    Giant ankyrin-B enables the transduction of Sema 3A repelling cues and is important for normal axonal connectivity.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    BRAFV600E induces reversible mitotic arrest in human melanocytes via microRNA-mediated suppression of AURKB

    Andrew S McNeal et al.
    Oncogenic BRAF causes genome duplication and reversible growth arrest in human melanocytes that is conditional on microRNA expression and differentiation state.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Strong confinement of active microalgae leads to inversion of vortex flow and enhanced mixing

    Debasmita Mondal et al.
    Coupling between cell motility and strong confinement alters the force generators that cause flow fields to change their handedness and lead to enhanced mixing.
    1. Neuroscience

    A 3D adult zebrafish brain atlas (AZBA) for the digital age

    Justin W Kenney et al.
    A new tool for three-dimensional exploration of adult zebrafish neuroanatomy.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Mutation saturation for fitness effects at human CpG sites

    Ipsita Agarwal, Molly Przeworski
    Methylated CpG sites are saturated for T mutations in a sample of 390K human exomes, providing a test case for inferences about fitness effects in human genes, and insight into the interpretation of mutations as pathogenic using reference datasets.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    A coarse-grained NADH redox model enables inference of subcellular metabolic fluxes from fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Xingbo Yang et al.
    Mitochondrial metabolic fluxes display a subcellular spatial gradient within a single mouse oocyte, and the fluxes are not controlled by nutrient supply or energy demand of the cell, but by the intrinsic rates of mitochondrial respiration.
    1. Cell Biology

    Capping protein regulates endosomal trafficking by controlling F-actin density around endocytic vesicles and recruiting RAB5 effectors

    Dawei Wang et al.
    CapZ controls actin filament density around immature early endosomes via its C-terminal domain to facilitate the homotypic fusion of the endocytic vesicles, and it functions as a scaffold protein via its N-terminal domain to recruit RAB5 effectors to early endosomes.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Enrichment of SARM1 alleles encoding variants with constitutively hyperactive NADase in patients with ALS and other motor nerve disorders

    Jonathan Gilley et al.
    Rare SARM1 alleles encoding SARM1 variants that have constitutively high NADase activity and sensitise cultured neurons to mild stress are risk alleles for ALS and other, related motor disorders.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Quantitative spatial and temporal assessment of regulatory element activity in zebrafish

    Shipra Bhatia et al.
    A new method for quantitative assessment of altered regulatory potential of human enhancers bearing disease-associated mutations using live imaging in zebrafish embryos.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor memories of object dynamics are categorically organized

    Evan Cesanek et al.
    The motor-relevant properties of the myriad objects with which we interact on a daily basis are encoded in memory using categorical representations, or 'object families'.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Sex differences in learning from exploration

    Cathy S Chen et al.
    A new computational analysis of decision making in mice shows sex biases in value-updating while exploring unknown options, with male mice tending to explore longer than females due to updating values more slowly.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Hydrogen sulfide blocks HIV rebound by maintaining mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox homeostasis

    Virender Kumar Pal et al.
    A gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide stimulates mitochondrial bioenergetics, maintains glutathione redox poise, and suppresses ROS to subvert viral rebound in latently infected CD4+ T cells from HIV subjects.
    1. Neuroscience

    Whole-brain connectivity atlas of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the mouse dorsal and median raphe nuclei

    Zhengchao Xu et al.
    Whole-brain quantitative input-output circuits of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the mouse dorsal and median raphe nuclei were mapped using viral tracing and high-resolution optical imaging.
    1. Neuroscience

    A neural circuit for flexible control of persistent behavioral states

    Ni Ji et al.
    Circuit-wide calcium imaging during C. elegans foraging elucidates the functional architecture of a neural circuit controlling the choice between two alternative behavioral states.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Pan-genome analysis identifies intersecting roles for Pseudomonas specialized metabolites in potato pathogen inhibition

    Alba Pacheco-Moreno et al.
    Genomics and genetics were used to identify specialized metabolites employed by Pseudomonas bacteria to suppress the growth of potato pathogens, which revealed a key role for cyclic lipopeptides.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct higher-order representations of natural sounds in human and ferret auditory cortex

    Agnès Landemard et al.
    Auditory representations of natural sounds are similar in primary auditory cortex of ferrets and humans, but diverge sharply in non-primary areas for speech and music sounds.
    1. Neuroscience

    Convergent, functionally independent signaling by mu and delta opioid receptors in hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons

    Xinyi Jenny He et al.
    Mu and delta opioid receptors signal independently in hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons to regulate somato-dendritic excitability and synaptic transmission, with the delta opioid receptor dominating the response to enkephalin.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Arginine-vasopressin mediates counter-regulatory glucagon release and is diminished in type 1 diabetes

    Angela Kim et al.
    A novel process by which counter-regulatory glucagon release is regulated in both mouse and human.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Unconventional conservation reveals structure-function relationships in the synaptonemal complex

    Lisa E Kursel et al.
    The protein components of an essential and conserved meiotic interface, the synaptonemal complex, have highly conserved coil-coiled domains and protein length, despite highly diverged sequence.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dysfunctions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus induce hypersomnia in mice

    Chang-Rui Chen et al.
    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is essential for physiologic arousal and the pathogenesis underlying hypersomnolence disorder.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Stronger net selection on males across animals

    Lennart Winkler et al.
    Comparative study provides evidence that males are under stronger total selection compared to females.
    1. Neuroscience

    Modulation of pulsatile GnRH dynamics across the ovarian cycle via changes in the network excitability and basal activity of the arcuate kisspeptin network

    Margaritis Voliotis et al.
    Pulse generation is an emergent property of the arcuate kisspeptin network that is regulated throughout the ovarian cycle via coordinated changes in neuronal communication and basal activation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Urgency forces stimulus-driven action by overcoming cognitive control

    Christian H Poth
    Under time-pressure, human action is temporarily dominated by stimuli in the environment, and this results in behavior conflicting with current goals.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Human B cell lineages associated with germinal centers following influenza vaccination are measurably evolving

    Kenneth B Hoehn et al.
    Influenza vaccination in humans stimulates novel B cell evolution that is detectable in germinal centers, but not the peripheral blood.
    1. Cell Biology

    Control of protein synthesis and memory by GluN3A-NMDA receptors through inhibition of GIT1/mTORC1 assembly

    María J Conde-Dusman et al.
    Non-conventional NMDA receptors containing GluN3A subunits place constraints on the capacity of the brain to encode lasting memories through regulation of synaptic GIT1/mTOR signaling complexes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    mTOR-dependent translation drives tumor infiltrating CD8+ effector and CD4+ Treg cells expansion

    Benedetta De Ponte Conti et al.
    In the tumor microenvironment, only specific subsets of cytotoxic and immunosuppressive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are endowed with active translation.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Medicine

    Topological network analysis of patient similarity for precision management of acute blood pressure in spinal cord injury

    Abel Torres-Espín et al.
    The application of topological network analysis on multicenter high-frequency intra-operative physiology data discovers a precise range of blood pressure during surgery predicting poor recovery in spinal cord injury patients.
    1. Neuroscience

    Standardizing workflows in imaging transcriptomics with the abagen toolbox

    Ross D Markello et al.
    The abagen toolbox provides researchers with tools to systematically process and analyze imaging transcriptomics data, improving standardization of workflows and enabling more comprehensive evaluation of research findings.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Medicine

    Framework for rapid comparison of extracellular vesicle isolation methods

    Dmitry Ter-Ovanesyan et al.
    Measuring surface proteins on extracellular vesicles enables quantitative comparison of different isolation methods and optimization of size exclusion chromatography.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    A recombinant protein containing influenza viral conserved epitopes and superantigen induces broad-spectrum protection

    Yansheng Li et al.
    By fusing influenza viral conserved epitopes and a superantigen fragment, we constructed a recombinant protein that might be a candidate universal broad-spectrum vaccine for the prevention and treatment of multiple influenza viruses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Maturation of persistent and hyperpolarization-activated inward currents shapes the differential activation of motoneuron subtypes during postnatal development

    Simon A Sharples, Gareth B Miles
    Electrophysiological recordings from mouse spinal motoneurons reveal key roles for ion channels in establishing the differential activation of motoneuron subtypes during postnatal development.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Efficacy of FFP3 respirators for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers

    Mark Ferris et al.
    Healthcare workers working on COVID-19 wards experience a 31-fold increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared to colleagues on non-COVID-19 wards whilst wearing fluid-resistant surgical masks, and FFP3 respirators provide up to 100% protection against infection.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) cooperates with estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the regulation of estrogen action in breast cancer cells

    Natalia Vydra et al.
    Heat shock factor 1 is involved in estrogen-induced chromatin remodeling in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.
    1. Plant Biology

    Functional diversification gave rise to allelic specialization in a rice NLR immune receptor pair

    Juan Carlos De la Concepcion et al.
    Biochemical and in planta studies reveal how a rice immune receptor pair has coevolved to deliver immune responses, an important step towards understanding and engineering bespoke resistance to crop pathogens that threaten food security.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Microtubules regulate pancreatic β-cell heterogeneity via spatiotemporal control of insulin secretion hot spots

    Kathryn P Trogden et al.
    Analysis of insulin secretion patterns in pancreatic islets shows that microtubules control β-cell heterogeneity by regulating initiation and timing of secretion hot spot activity in parallel with Ca2+ signaling.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Wings and halteres act as coupled dual oscillators in flies

    Tanvi Deora et al.
    Flight system of flies is driven by wings and mechanosensory halteres that operate as independently driven but coupled oscillators, thereby imparting robustness against wing or thorax damage.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A transcriptome atlas of the mouse iris at single-cell resolution defines cell types and the genomic response to pupil dilation

    Jie Wang et al.
    Using single nucleus RNA sequencing, a complete catalogue of cell types was determined for the mouse iris, and this information was used as a starting point to define the effects of pupil dilation on gene expression and on nuclear morphology.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Intraocular dendritic cells characterize HLA-B27-associated acute anterior uveitis

    Maren Kasper et al.
    Single-cell transcriptomics of intraocular infiltrate in human HLA-B27-associated active anterior uveitis shows a unique composition and phenotype of leukocytes preferentially affecting dendritic cells.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The Lyme disease agent co-opts adiponectin receptor-mediated signaling in its arthropod vector

    Xiaotian Tang et al.
    A new tick metabolic pathway that is connected to the survival of the Lyme disease spirochete was identified, which may lead to new ways to interfere with the spirochete life cycle.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Differential adhesion regulates neurite placement via a retrograde zippering mechanism

    Titas Sengupta et al.
    Biophysical differential adhesion principles drive non-canonical, zippering mechanisms in vivo, regulating precise neurite placement, and synaptic specificity within Caenorhabditis elegans brain bundles.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    A highly conserved host lipase deacylates oxidized phospholipids and ameliorates acute lung injury in mice

    Benkun Zou et al.
    Acyloxyacyl hydrolase, the host lipase that detoxifies bacterial lipopolysaccharides, also deacylates oxidized phospholipids, preventing inflammasome activation in macrophages in vitro and ameliorating acute lung injury in vivo.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Tracking the movement of discrete gating charges in a voltage-gated potassium channel

    Michael F Priest et al.
    Experimental measurement of the trajectory of gating charge surrogates during voltage activation and deactivation in a voltage sensor.
    1. Cancer Biology

    ZHX2 promotes HIF1α oncogenic signaling in triple-negative breast cancer

    Wentong Fang et al.
    ZHX2 controls HIF1α oncogenic signaling and tumorigenesis in triple-negative breast cancer.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Relating multivariate shapes to genescapes using phenotype-biological process associations for craniofacial shape

    Jose D Aponte et al.
    Multivariate genotype-phenotype mapping enables quantification of pathway and process-level effects on complex phenotypes and predicts phenotypic effects of novel mutations.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Neural control of growth and size in the axolotl limb regenerate

    Kaylee M Wells et al.
    Signaling from the limb nerves regulates the rate of growth and the overall size of the regenerating limb.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The mesoscale organization of syntaxin 1A and SNAP25 is determined by SNARE–SNARE interactions

    Jasmin Mertins et al.
    SNARE–SNARE interactions that have previously only been proposed to participate in membrane fusion on the nanoscale also serve to organize SNARE domains on the mesoscale.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Immunomodulatory drug discovery from herbal medicines: Insights from organ-specific activity and xenobiotic defenses

    Jue Shi et al.
    Organ-selective drug action of traditional Chinese medicine that generates systemic immune mediators is proposed and reviewed as a novel mechanistic angle to develop new immunomodulatory drugs.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Phases of cortical actomyosin dynamics coupled to the neuroblast polarity cycle

    Chet Huan Oon, Kenneth E Prehoda
    Oon and Prehoda discover cortical actomyosin dynamics that polarize asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Control of neurotransmitter release by two distinct membrane-binding faces of the Munc13-1 C1C2B region

    Marcial Camacho et al.
    Two different binding modes of the Munc13-1 C­1C2B region govern synaptic vesicle priming and neurotransmitter release probability.
    1. Neuroscience

    Glial Nrf2 signaling mediates the neuroprotection exerted by Gastrodia elata Blume in Lrrk2-G2019S Parkinson’s disease

    Yu-En Lin et al.
    The traditional herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, in the water-extracted form as food supplement, improves locomotion and protects dopaminergic neurons in Lrrk2-G2019S Parkinson’s disease models through Nrf2 activation in glia.
    1. Neuroscience

    The entorhinal cortex modulates trace fear memory formation and neuroplasticity in the mouse lateral amygdala via cholecystokinin

    Hemin Feng et al.
    Cholecystokinin-positive neural projection from entorhinal cortex to lateral amygdala modulates the long-term potentiation of auditory-evoked potential in lateral amygdala and underlies the formation of trace fear memory.
    1. Neuroscience

    Live imaging reveals the cellular events downstream of SARM1 activation

    Kwang Woo Ko et al.
    Axon degeneration occurs via an ordered sequence of events downstream of SARM1 that proceeds from ATP loss, to defects in mitochondrial movement and depolarization, followed by calcium influx, phosphatidylserine externalization, loss of membrane permeability, and ending with catastrophic axonal self-destruction.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A causal role for the right frontal eye fields in value comparison

    Ian Krajbich et al.
    Inhibition of activity in the right frontal eye fields reduces the amplifying effect of gaze in value-based choice.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Elevated FBXO45 promotes liver tumorigenesis through enhancing IGF2BP1 ubiquitination and subsequent PLK1 upregulation

    Xiao-Tong Lin et al.
    Using IGF2BP1-PLK1 axis as an example, targeting oncogenic signaling represents a direction treatment for HCC patients with high FBXO45 expression.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ripples reflect a spectrum of synchronous spiking activity in human anterior temporal lobe

    Ai Phuong S Tong et al.
    A continuum of ripple oscillations in human anterior temporal lobe reflects the dynamic synchrony of populations of neurons during memory retrieval.
    1. Neuroscience

    Lactate is an energy substrate for rodent cortical neurons and enhances their firing activity

    Anastassios Karagiannis et al.
    Lactate is preferred to glucose as an energy substrate and exacerbates spiking activity in most neuron types of juvenile somatosensory cortex by closing ATP-sensitive potassium channels.
    1. Neuroscience

    A conserved neuropeptide system links head and body motor circuits to enable adaptive behavior

    Shankar Ramachandran et al.
    Investigation of neuromodulatory control of ethologically conserved area-restricted food search behavior shows that NLP-12 stimulation of the head motor circuit promotes food searching through the previously uncharacterized CKR-1 GPCR.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    The molecular appearance of native TRPM7 channel complexes identified by high-resolution proteomics

    Astrid Kollewe et al.
    High-resolution proteomics in conjunction with biochemical and electrophysiological experiments revealed that the channel-kinase TRPM7 in rodent brain forms macromolecular complexes containing the metal transporters CNNM1-4 and a small G-protein ARL15.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Selective sorting of microRNAs into exosomes by phase-separated YBX1 condensates

    Xiao-Man Liu et al.
    Condensation of cytosolic protein YBX1 into processing bodies reveals mechanisms for efficient and selective sorting of proteins and their cognate microRNAs into exosomes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Ca2+/CaM binding to CaMKI promotes IMA-3 importin binding and nuclear translocation in sensory neurons to control behavioral adaptation

    Domenica Ippolito et al.
    Ca2+-dependent nuclear entry of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-1 in sensory neurons, taking place with a relatively slow kinetics, contributes to couple long-lasting sensory stimulations with signaling in the nucleus over a timescale relevant for sensory history-dependent plasticity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Opioid antagonism modulates wanting-related frontostriatal connectivity

    Alexander Soutschek et al.
    Reducing activation of opioidergic receptors strengthens the communication between control and reward circuits in the brain during hedonic judgements.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    The mitochondrial iron transporter ABCB7 is required for B cell development, proliferation, and class switch recombination in mice

    Michael Jonathan Lehrke et al.
    In the absence of ABCB7, B cell development is halted at the pro-B cell stage and stimulated splenic B cells have impaired proliferation and reduced class switch recombination.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A small, computationally flexible network produces the phenotypic diversity of song recognition in crickets

    Jan Clemens et al.
    A computational model of the neuronal network that recognizes mating signals reveals network properties that support and constrain behavioral diversity in a species group.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Branched ubiquitin chain binding and deubiquitination by UCH37 facilitate proteasome clearance of stress-induced inclusions

    Aixin Song et al.
    Through interactions with both ubiquitin units that emanate from a branch point in polyubiquitin, UCH37 recognizes and hydrolyzes branched chains to promote proteasome-mediated degradation upon proteolytic stresses.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Wnt signaling mediates acquisition of blood–brain barrier properties in naïve endothelium derived from human pluripotent stem cells

    Benjamin D Gastfriend et al.
    Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cells partially induces the specialized blood–brain barrier phenotype while the same treatment in matured endothelial cells is less efficacious.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis canonical virulence factors interfere with a late component of the TLR2 response

    Amelia E Hinman et al.
    The pathogenic success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies in part on its ability to blunt a component of the TLR2-dependent immune response.
    1. Cell Biology

    The right time for senescence

    Diogo Paramos-de-Carvalho et al.
    A time-gated model is proposed to reconcile the transient vs. persistent biological activities of cellular senescence, in which 'time' seems to be the main orchestrator of the beneficial vs. detrimental effects of the senescent programme.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Modeling the ACVR1R206H mutation in human skeletal muscle stem cells

    Emilie Barruet et al.
    Novel human iPS cell derived and primary skeletal muscle stem cells show that abnormal ACVR1 activation increases osteogenic/ECM gene expression and impairs myofiber repair, while revealing muscle-specific regenerative properties.
    1. Neuroscience

    Circuits for integrating learned and innate valences in the insect brain

    Claire Eschbach et al.
    Electron-microscopy reconstruction and experimental investigation in Drosophila reveal how adaptive action emerges from the multi-level interactions between the output of the olfactory memory center and the innate olfactory pathway.
    1. Neuroscience

    Individual variations in ‘brain age’ relate to early-life factors more than to longitudinal brain change

    Didac Vidal-Pineiro et al.
    Longitudinal neuroimaging models reveal that cross-sectional indices of brain age do not significantly relate to ongoing brain change, that is, brain aging, but to lifelong, stable variations in brain structure emerging in early life.
    1. Medicine

    Early prediction of clinical response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy in human solid tumors through mathematical modeling

    Joseph D Butner et al.
    A mechanistic mathematical model informed by standard‐of‐care imaging and pathology predicts tumor responses to immunotherapy a priori on a per-patient basis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The influence of biological and lifestyle factors on circulating cell-free DNA in blood plasma

    Nicole Laurencia Yuwono et al.
    Circulating cell-free DNA studies should control for participants' physical activity to avoid its confounding effect on total cell-free DNA level.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles regulate tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells via the inhibitory immunoreceptor CD300a

    Yuta Nakazawa et al.
    Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells are regulated by the immunoreceptor CD300a, which suppresses signals from tumor-derived extracellular vesicles.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural insight into the dual function of LbpB in mediating Neisserial pathogenesis

    Ravi Yadav et al.
    Structural and biophysical studies detail how Neisseria LbpB interacts with human lactoferrin for iron piracy and provides insight for how LbpB interacts with the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    A computational screen for alternative genetic codes in over 250,000 genomes

    Yekaterina Shulgina, Sean R Eddy
    Five previously unknown alternative genetic codes are found in a screen of bacterial and archaeal genomes by a new computational method called Codetta, lending new insights into the process of their evolution.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A nanocompartment system contributes to defense against oxidative stress in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Katie A Lien et al.
    A peroxidase-containing nanocompartment in the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis protects against oxidative stress and antibiotic treatment in the host.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Spatial alanine metabolism determines local growth dynamics of Escherichia coli colonies

    Francisco Díaz-Pascual et al.
    An investigation of spatiotemporal metabolic differentiation during colony biofilm growth of E. coli revealed that alanine is cross-fed between spatially segregated subpopulations within the colony, to support cellular growth in an otherwise nutrient-deprived region of the colony.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Evolution of natural lifespan variation and molecular strategies of extended lifespan in yeast

    Alaattin Kaya et al.
    Analysis of molecular signatures of lifespan variation across wild yeast isolates revealed how Nature employs environment to modify genotype, gene expression, and metabolome to arrive at different lifespan, while preserving fitness in various ecological niches.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Proposed therapy, developed in a Pcdh15-deficient mouse, for progressive loss of vision in human Usher syndrome

    Saumil Sethna et al.
    A preclinical study using exogenous retinoids in a novel Usher syndrome 1F mouse model reveals a possible therapy to treat mutant PCDH15-mediated visual dysfunction.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A genome-phenome association study in native microbiomes identifies a mechanism for cytosine modification in DNA and RNA

    Weiwei Yang et al.
    A novel DNA/RNA modifying enzyme catalyzing a previously unknown 5-carbamoyloxymethylcytosine modification has been discovered using a novel framework called Metagenomics Genome-Phenome Association.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Sumoylation of the human histone H4 tail inhibits p300-mediated transcription by RNA polymerase II in cellular extracts

    Calvin Jon A Leonen et al.
    Chemically sumoylated histone H4 shows negative biochemical crosstalk with gene-activating histone acetylation and methylation marks, and directly inhibits RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Early evolution of beetles regulated by the end-Permian deforestation

    Xianye Zhao et al.
    Permian xylophagous beetles suffered a severe extinction during the end-Permian mass extinction largely due to the collapse of forest ecosystems.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection using quantitative peptide enrichment LC-MS analysis

    Andreas Hober et al.
    Immuno-affinity enrichment combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry can be used to detect viral proteins to confirm the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples.
    1. Cancer Biology

    The role of TAp63γ and P53 point mutations in regulating DNA repair, mutational susceptibility and invasion of bladder cancer cells

    Hsiang-Tsui Wang et al.
    Biochemical analysis shows that muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer cells are deficient in DNA repair and hypermutable, non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer cells are proficient in DNA repair, DNA repair capacity is regulated by tumor suppressor TAp63g, and cell invasions are regulated by TAp63g and p53.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Stochastic social behavior coupled to COVID-19 dynamics leads to waves, plateaus, and an endemic state

    Alexei V Tkachenko et al.
    Time-varying heterogeneous social activity explains transient suppression of epidemic waves followed by long plateaus and eventual transition towards the endemic state of an emergent pathogen, such as COVID-19.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    A genetic screen in macrophages identifies new regulators of IFNγ-inducible MHCII that contribute to T cell activation

    Michael C Kiritsy et al.
    Med16 and GSK3b regulate interferon gamma-mediated MHCII expression in macrophages and are required for CD4+ T cell activation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Medicine

    The hepatic AMPK-TET1-SIRT1 axis regulates glucose homeostasis

    Chunbo Zhang et al.
    A series of experiments at the molecular level reveal the underlying mechanism of how a gene activates liver glucose production to regulate the blood glucose metabolism in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Behavioral control by depolarized and hyperpolarized states of an integrating neuron

    Aylesse Sordillo, Cornelia I Bargmann
    Precise genetic manipulations demonstrate that a single-neuron class dynamically controls multiple behaviors by engaging different synapses during high- and low-activity states.
    1. Neuroscience

    Aversive stimuli bias corticothalamic responses to motivationally significant cues

    Federica Lucantonio et al.
    Neurons projecting from prelimbic cortex to paraventricular thalamus bias approach decisions to ambiguous stimuli.
    1. Cell Biology

    A WDR35-dependent coat protein complex transports ciliary membrane cargo vesicles to cilia

    Tooba Quidwai et al.
    Electron tomography and biochemical approaches demonstrate a direct role for WDR35, beyond integrity of the IFT-A holocomplex, in the formation and fusion of electron-dense-coated vesicles to the ciliary sheath and pocket for delivery of cargos necessary for axoneme elongation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structures of CTP synthase filaments reveal mechanism of pH-sensitive assembly during budding yeast starvation

    Jesse M Hansen et al.
    The yeast enzyme CTP synthase assembles inactive filaments that are driven to polymerization through the drop in cytoplasmic pH accompanying starvation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Local chromatin fiber folding represses transcription and loop extrusion in quiescent cells

    Sarah G Swygert et al.
    Using a yeast model of quiescence, it was demonstrated that dramatic changes in local chromatin fiber folding can occur under physiological conditions to regulate cellular processes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Molecular features underlying differential SHP1/SHP2 binding of immune checkpoint receptors

    Xiaozheng Xu et al.
    A molecular interpretation is provided for why some inhibitory immunoreceptors prefer to recruit SHP1 but others prefer SHP2.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Sensory transduction is required for normal development and maturation of cochlear inner hair cell synapses

    John Lee et al.
    Genetic deficits in auditory sensory transduction evoke changes in development and maturation of synapses between inner hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, which can be partially recovered using inner ear gene therapy.
    1. Cell Biology

    Fluidics system for resolving concentration-dependent effects of dissolved gases on tissue metabolism

    Varun Kamat et al.
    The ability to resolve previously unrecognized affects of O2 and H2S by a novel fluidics system foretell a far-reaching impact of the technology on the study of effects of dissolved gases on tissue function.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Conformational dynamics of auto-inhibition in the ER calcium sensor STIM1

    Stijn van Dorp et al.
    Single-molecule FRET measurements and protein crosslinking reveal the compact structure of quiescent STIM1 and the conformational rearrangements that enable it to activate store-operated calcium entry.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    STING mediates immune responses in the closest living relatives of animals

    Arielle Woznica et al.
    Developing Monosiga brevicollis as a model to study choanoflagellate immune responses reveals that the innate immune protein STING mediates responses to cyclic dinucleotides in choanoflagellates, providing insight into the evolution of STING signaling on the animal stem lineage.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Rotational dynamics in motor cortex are consistent with a feedback controller

    Hari Teja Kalidindi et al.
    Integrating circuit-level theories about population dynamics in motor cortex with behavioral-level theories about motor control.
    1. Neuroscience

    Developmental emergence of two-stage nonlinear synaptic integration in cerebellar interneurons

    Celia Biane et al.
    Patch-clamp electrophysiology, fluorescence imaging, and computational modeling were used to identify cellular mechanisms underlying maturation of dendritic computations in interneurons.
    1. Ecology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Extreme suction attachment performance from specialised insects living in mountain streams (Diptera: Blephariceridae)

    Victor Kang et al.
    Net-winged midge larvae use suction organs covered in spine-like cuticular protrusions to generate powerful attachment on wet and rough surfaces.
    1. Cell Biology

    Proximity labeling identifies LOTUS domain proteins that promote the formation of perinuclear germ granules in C. elegans

    Ian F Price et al.
    A proximity labeling approach defines germ granule proteome in Caenorhabditis elegans, and identifies LOTUS domain proteins as key regulators of germ granule assembly.
    1. Neuroscience

    Population receptive fields in nonhuman primates from whole-brain fMRI and large-scale neurophysiology in visual cortex

    P Christiaan Klink et al.
    Within-species comparison of population receptive fields determined with fMRI and electrophysiology in nonhuman primates reveals the neuronal basis of blood-oxygen-level-dependent-based retinotopy.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Modeling hepatitis C virus kinetics during liver transplantation reveals the role of the liver in virus clearance

    Louis Shekhtman et al.
    Very frequent viral kinetics in liver transplant patients reveals that the liver is not only the source of hepatitis C virus (HCV) production, but also plays a major role in extracellular HCV clearance.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Spatial modulation of individual behaviors enables an ordered structure of diverse phenotypes during bacterial group migration

    Yang Bai et al.
    Bacterial population can coordinate individuals of different phenotypes by spatial modulation of their run-and-tumble behaviors, resulting in collective group migration with an ordered structure of phenotypes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Proximal and distal spinal neurons innervating multiple synergist and antagonist motor pools

    Remi Ronzano et al.
    Populations of spinal cord neurons innervate motoneurons controlling local and distant synergist and antagonist muscles.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Dysfunctional TRPM8 signalling in the vascular response to environmental cold in ageing

    Dibesh Thapa et al.
    Cold detecting thermoreceptor TRPM8's signalling is diminished with ageing which leads to an impaired response to cold observed in ageing.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Biomarkers in a socially exchanged fluid reflect colony maturity, behavior, and distributed metabolism

    Sanja M Hakala et al.
    Socially exchanged fluids passed mouth-to-mouth in ant colonies contain protein signatures of colony maturity and individual behavioral role, indicating that this fluid may underlie a distributed metabolism that functions over the scale of the colony.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Impaired HA-specific T follicular helper cell and antibody responses to influenza vaccination are linked to inflammation in humans

    Danika L Hill et al.
    Antibody production upon vaccination requires antigen-specific T follicular helper cells whose formation can be suppressed by pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling.
    1. Neuroscience

    Social selectivity and social motivation in voles

    Annaliese K Beery et al.
    Prairie and meadow voles show striking sex and species differences in social motivation to access conspecifics of different types (familiar versus unfamiliar and same-sex versus opposite-sex).
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Reporting and misreporting of sex differences in the biological sciences

    Yesenia Garcia-Sifuentes, Donna L Maney
    A review of studies in the life sciences shows that inappropriate statistical approaches may distort conclusions on sex differences.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Experimental evidence for delayed post-conflict management behaviour in wild dwarf mongooses

    Amy Morris-Drake et al.
    After experimentally simulated within-group conflict, dwarf mongoose bystanders engage in post-conflict management behaviour with a temporal delay.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    High rates of evolution preceded shifts to sex-biased gene expression in Leucadendron, the most sexually dimorphic angiosperms

    Mathias Scharmann et al.
    In the dioecious plant genus Leucadendron, shifts to sex-biased gene expression occurred predominantly in genes with ancestrally high rates of expression evolution, and were not correlated with morphology.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Mitochondrial respiration contributes to the interferon gamma response in antigen-presenting cells

    Michael C Kiritsy et al.
    Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is necessary for interferon gamma-mediated responses in antigen-presenting cells and is required for CD4+ T cell activation.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    A coupled mechano-biochemical model for cell polarity guided anisotropic root growth

    Marco Marconi et al.
    The spatial-temporal computer model of plant root meristem combines biomechanics and biochemical scales to reveal design principles underlying cell polarity and anisotropic growth during root development.
    1. Neuroscience

    CA1 pyramidal cell diversity is rooted in the time of neurogenesis

    Davide Cavalieri et al.
    Embryonic birthdate is a crucial determinant of heterogeneity among CA1 principal neurons, which include a previously overlooked subpopulation of pioneer neurons.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Ecology

    Monitoring single-cell dynamics of entry into quiescence during an unperturbed life cycle

    Basile Jacquel et al.
    A switch-like cell fate divergence revealed by continuous single-cell tracking during entry into quiescence.
    1. Neuroscience

    Fast and accurate annotation of acoustic signals with deep neural networks

    Elsa Steinfath et al.
    DAS is a universal tool for segmenting and identifying acoustic signals in single and multi channel recordings robustly, reliably, and at low latency.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synthesis of a comprehensive population code for contextual features in the awake sensory cortex

    Evan H Lyall et al.
    Novel stimulation patterns and large-scale neural activity recording show that an input-specific supra-linear summation synthesizes a sparse, but comprehensive code of tactile and visual stimuli in the sensory cortex.
    1. Neuroscience

    A novel, ataxic mouse model of ataxia telangiectasia caused by a clinically relevant nonsense mutation

    Harvey Perez et al.
    Progressive changes in Purkinje neuron perturbations and overall cerebellar atrophy correlate for the first time with the development of an overt loss of motor function in a novel mouse model of Ataxia Telangiectasia.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Correct regionalization of a tissue primordium is essential for coordinated morphogenesis

    Yara E Sánchez-Corrales et al.
    During the morphogenesis of the tubes of the salivary glands in the fly embryo, a correct regionalization of the flat epithelial primordium by upstream transcription factors is key to drive coordinated changes in cell behavior.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Protein allocation and utilization in the versatile chemolithoautotroph Cupriavidus necator

    Michael Jahn et al.
    Proteomics and metabolic modeling revealed that the 'knallgas' bacterium Cupriavidus necator utilizes only a fraction of its proteome and keeps large enzyme reserves as an adaption to variable environments.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The Shu complex prevents mutagenesis and cytotoxicity of single-strand specific alkylation lesions

    Braulio Bonilla et al.
    The Shu complex enables lesion bypass of specific alkylation-induced DNA damage including abasic sites and 3-methyl-cytosine.
    1. Neuroscience

    Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts is a developmental disorder of the gliovascular unit

    Alice Gilbert et al.
    Analysis of a mouse model of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) shows that the astrocyte-specific membrane protein MLC1 sustains the postnatal development of perivascular astrocytic processes and that MLC is a developmental disorder of the gliovascular unit.
    1. Neuroscience

    All-trans retinoic acid induces synaptopodin-dependent metaplasticity in mouse dentate granule cells

    Maximilian Lenz et al.
    All-trans retinoic acid increases the number of excitatory synapses in the dorsal hippocampus of mice and improves the ability of neurons to express synaptopodin-dependent synaptic plasticity.