May 2022

Cover articles

    1. Developmental Biology

    How Wnt11 shapes muscle morphogenesis in medaka

    Ann Kathrin Heilig, Ryohei Nakamura ... Toru Kawanishi
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Male frogs enhance mating calls with limb movements

    Longhui Zhao, Jichao Wang ... Jianguo Cui
    1. Ecology

    Climate warming and the carbon content of soil

    Tom WN Walker, Konstantin Gavazov ... Jake M Alexander

Highlights controls:

Research articles

    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Determinants of trafficking, conduction, and disease within a K+ channel revealed through multiparametric deep mutational scanning

    Willow Coyote-Maestas, David Nedrud ... Daniel Schmidt
    By measuring the impacts of thousands of mutations on potassium channel trafficking and function, we illuminate the molecular basis of folding, structure–function relationships, and how these are altered in disease.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    A genome-wide functional genomics approach uncovers genetic determinants of immune phenotypes in type 1 diabetes

    Xiaojing Chu, Anna WM Janssen ... Yang Li
    Deep immunophenotyping characterizes the genetic factors influencing immune functionality in patients with type 1 diabetes.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Proposing a neural framework for the evolution of elaborate courtship displays

    Ryan W Schwark, Matthew J Fuxjager, Marc F Schmidt
    The midbrain periaqueductal grey is a conserved mediator of elaborate courtship behavior in a range of vertebrate taxa, likely shaping how this behavior diversifies across the tree of life.
    1. Neuroscience

    Syntaxin-1A modulates vesicle fusion in mammalian neurons via juxtamembrane domain dependent palmitoylation of its transmembrane domain

    Gülçin Vardar, Andrea Salazar-Lázaro ... Christian Rosenmund
    A new insight into the role of syntaxin1's juxtamembrane region in controlling palmitoylation and spontaneous neurotransmitter release.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    High-intensity interval training remodels the proteome and acetylome of human skeletal muscle

    Morten Hostrup, Anders Krogh Lemminger ... Atul Shahaji Deshmukh
    Global proteomic and acetylomic analyses reveal how skeletal muscle adapts to high-intensity interval training including adaptations to processes regulating metabolism and contraction.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Target binding triggers hierarchical phosphorylation of human Argonaute-2 to promote target release

    Brianna Bibel, Elad Elkayam ... Leemor Joshua-Tor
    The central RNA interference protein, human Argonaute-2, releases its target following phosphorylation on a critical loop in the protein, freeing microRNA-bound Argonaute-2 to seek out and repress additional targets.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Amoeboid-like migration ensures correct horizontal cell layer formation in the developing vertebrate retina

    Rana Amini, Archit Bhatnagar ... Caren Norden
    Horizontal cell undergoes amoeboid-like migration in the developing vertebrate retina, a not previously reported migration mode in the central nervous system, that allows them to move within a densely packed tissue without predetermined paths.
    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Humanization of wildlife gut microbiota in urban environments

    Brian A Dillard, Albert K Chung ... Andrew H Moeller
    Urban wildlife harbor gut bacteria found in humans but missing from rural wildlife, consistent with bacterial transmission from humans to wildlife in cities.
    1. Neuroscience

    Timely coupling of sleep spindles and slow waves linked to early amyloid-β burden and predicts memory decline

    Daphne Chylinski, Maxime Van Egroo ... Gilles Vandewalle
    Altered coupling of different brain waves during sleep is associated with worse brain features related to Alzheimer’s disease processes and cognitive performance, suggesting that sleep brain waves coupling may contribute to poorer brain and cognitive trajectories in ageing.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Nanoscale resolution of microbial fiber degradation in action

    Meltem Tatli, Sarah Moraïs ... Itzhak Mizrahi
    Phenotypic heterogeneity at the single-cell level of cellulosomal machinery biosynthesis suggests a division-of-labor strategy as revealed by the nanoscale mechanistic and ecological investigation of in situ structure and distribution of cellulosomes on bacteria while interacting with the cellulosic substrate.
    1. Neuroscience

    A generalized cortical activity pattern at internally generated mental context boundaries during unguided narrative recall

    Hongmi Lee, Janice Chen
    Prominent transitions between different mental contexts produce a stereotyped brain state shared across internally and externally generated transitions but distinct from minor within-context transitions, potentially reflecting a major flushing and updating of mental models.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Transcriptional regulation of cyclophilin D by BMP/Smad signaling and its role in osteogenic differentiation

    Rubens Sautchuk, Brianna H Kalicharan ... Roman A Eliseev
    Promoter studies identified BMP/Smad signaling as a transcriptional regulator of Ppif gene encoding cyclophilin D, a component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and gain- and loss-of-function experiments determined how such regulation affects osteogenic differentiation.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The geometry of robustness in spiking neural networks

    Nuno Calaim, Florian A Dehmelt ... Christian K Machens
    Spiking neural networks become robust to various perturbations of their parameters if their voltages are confined to a lower-dimensional subspace, and both dynamics and robustness can be visualised in this voltage subspace.
    1. Neuroscience

    Invariant representation of physical stability in the human brain

    RT Pramod, Michael A Cohen ... Nancy Kanwisher
    Scenario-invariant representation of physical stability is found in the frontoparietal regions but not the ventral visual pathway (and ImageNet-trained convolutional neural networks), consistent with the hypothesis that computations underlying physical stability may entail forward simulations of what will happen next.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Inhibition of the sodium-dependent HCO3- transporter SLC4A4, produces a cystic fibrosis-like airway disease phenotype

    Vinciane Saint-Criq, Anita Guequén ... Carlos A Flores
    The reduction of bicarbonate secretion into the airways reproduces cystic fibrosis-like features, independently of chloride secretion.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The spatiotemporal patterns of major human admixture events during the European Holocene

    Manjusha Chintalapati, Nick Patterson, Priya Moorjani
    Development of a genomic dating method that leverages ancestry covariance patterns in a single diploid individual reveals the timing of major admixture events during the European Holocene.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Constitutive loss of DNMT3A causes morbid obesity through misregulation of adipogenesis

    Ayala Tovy, Jaime M Reyes ... Margaret A Goodell
    Normal adipogenesis requires de novo DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) for proper differentiation and suppression of an age-associated pathogenic inflammatory program.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibitory control of frontal metastability sets the temporal signature of cognition

    Vincent Fontanier, Matthieu Sarazin ... Emmanuel Procyk
    Single unit recordings in monkeys and biophysical modelling demonstrate that local inhibitory-controlled metastable neural states specify the temporal organization of cognitive functions in frontal areas.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    DNA-damage induced cell death in yap1;wwtr1 mutant epidermal basal cells

    Jason KH Lai, Pearlyn JY Toh ... Timothy E Saunders
    Substrate rigidity modulates genomic stress in the epidermal basal cells of the developing zebrafish embryo and Yap1 and Wwtr1 are required for its survival.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Electrocorticography is superior to subthalamic local field potentials for movement decoding in Parkinson’s disease

    Timon Merk, Victoria Peterson ... Wolf-Julian Neumann
    Advanced machine learning based brain signal decoding of grip-force as a proxy for movement vigor shows Parkinson's disease related performance reduction, suggestive of a loss of cortical vigor encoding in the absence of dopamine.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor cortex activity across movement speeds is predicted by network-level strategies for generating muscle activity

    Shreya Saxena, Abigail A Russo ... Mark M Churchland
    While performing learned movements at different speeds, motor cortex population activity can be understood based on the need to generate muscle activity via smooth, well-behaved dynamics.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Oct4 differentially regulates chromatin opening and enhancer transcription in pluripotent stem cells

    Le Xiong, Erik A Tolen ... Hans R Schöler
    Time-resolved multiomics analysis during Oct4 depletion and recovery reveals concentration-dependent activities of Oct4 in controlling enhancer transcription and chromatin accessibility in mouse embryonic stem cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Higher-order olfactory neurons in the lateral horn support odor valence and odor identity coding in Drosophila

    Sudeshna Das Chakraborty, Hetan Chang ... Silke Sachse
    Two-photon functional imaging linked to olfactory preference in Drosophila provides the first understanding of how odors are integrated, transformed, and represented in the lateral horn by an ensemble of higher-order glutamatergic lateral horn neurons.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase moonlights as a ribosome-binding modulator of Gcn2 activity during oxidative stress

    Robert A Crawford, Mark P Ashe ... Graham D Pavitt
    Using mass spectrometry to study protein composition of translating ribosomes under unstressed or stress conditions, aspartate aminotransferase 2 (Aat2) is identified as a metabolic enzyme with a moonlighting function in the yeast integrated stress-response pathway.
    1. Ecology
    2. Neuroscience

    Unique neural coding of crucial versus irrelevant plant odors in a hawkmoth

    Sonja Bisch-Knaden, Michelle A Rafter ... Bill S Hansson
    The sense of smell of female hawkmoths has evolved to find the intense odor of floral nectar sources as well as inconspicuous scents of oviposition sites within a complex olfactory landscape.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Altered excitatory and inhibitory neuronal subpopulation parameters are distinctly associated with tau and amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease

    Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Parul Verma ... Srikantan S Nagarajan
    Excitatory and inhibitory neuronal abnormalities show distinct associations to tau and amyloid accumulations in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
    1. Cell Biology

    Spatial transcriptomics reveals metabolic changes underly age-dependent declines in digit regeneration

    Robert J Tower, Emily Busse ... Mimi C Sammarco
    Metabolic supplementation attenuates age-dependent declines in regeneration.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortical adaptation to sound reverberation

    Aleksandar Z Ivanov, Andrew J King ... Nicol S Harper
    The auditory system adapts to the changing acoustics of reverberant environments by temporally shifting the inhibitory tuning of cortical neurons to reduce the effects of reverberation.
    1. Plant Biology

    Perception of a conserved family of plant signalling peptides by the receptor kinase HSL3

    Jack Rhodes, Andra-Octavia Roman ... Cyril Zipfel
    Identification of a new family of stress-induced plant signalling peptides and their cognate receptor.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Binary outcomes of enhancer activity underlie stable random monoallelic expression

    Djem U Kissiov, Alexander Ethell ... David H Raulet
    Evidence that enhancer strength determines the extent of random monoallelic gene expression, and that even lineage defining genes thought to be expressed by all cells in a lineage display some degree of random monoallelic expression.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Ecology

    The LOTUS initiative for open knowledge management in natural products research

    Adriano Rutz, Maria Sorokina ... Pierre-Marie Allard
    The LOTUS initiative builds, through the Wikidata knowledge graph, a virtuous cycle of data sharing practices for natural products research.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Structural differences in adolescent brains can predict alcohol misuse

    Roshan Prakash Rane, Evert Ferdinand de Man ... IMAGEN consortium
    Structural differences in adolescent brains associated with binge drinking might be preceding the onset of such behavior, suggesting a reevaluation of studies of the effects of alcohol on the adolescent brain.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Toward the cellular-scale simulation of motor-driven cytoskeletal assemblies

    Wen Yan, Saad Ansari ... Michael Shelley
    aLENS implements new parallel methods to resolve cytoskeletal assembly dynamics with high stability, physical consistency, and scalability.
    1. Cell Biology

    Nanchangmycin regulates FYN, PTK2, and MAPK1/3 to control the fibrotic activity of human hepatic stellate cells

    Wenyang Li, Jennifer Y Chen ... Alan C Mullen
    A high-throughput small molecule screen defined compounds that inactivate primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and led to the identification of nanchangmycin, which regulates intracellular Ca2+ levels and the activity of multiple kinases to control HSC fibrotic activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Partial response electromyography as a marker of action stopping

    Liisa Raud, Christina Thunberg, René J Huster
    Partial response electromyography is a useful and reliable measure of action stopping in a stop signal task, supported by psychometric and meta-analytic evidence.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spontaneous neuronal oscillations in the human insula are hierarchically organized traveling waves

    Anup Das, John Myers ... Sameer A Sheth
    Human intracranial electroencephalographic recordings reveal the electrophysiological properties and hierarchical organization of spontaneous neuronal oscillations in the human insula and show that these oscillations are traveling waves, thus providing new insights into intrainsular and interinsular communication.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Deciphering a hexameric protein complex with Angstrom optical resolution

    Hisham Mazal, Franz-Ferdinand Wieser, Vahid Sandoghdar
    Cryogenic super-resolution microscopy resolves the three-dimensional arrangement of individual fluorescent markers attached to protein complexes with Angstrom precision through their blinking behavior, polarization selection and a classification scheme.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Identification of HIV-reservoir cells with reduced susceptibility to antibody-dependent immune response

    Antonio Astorga-Gamaza, Judith Grau-Expósito ... Maria J Buzon
    The expression of CD32 in HIV-reservoir cells prevents the binding of specific anti-HIV antibodies conferring resistance to NK cell-mediated death, and gives the cell the potential to proliferate in the presence of immune complexes.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Cryo-sensitive aggregation triggers NLRP3 inflammasome assembly in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome

    Tadayoshi Karasawa, Takanori Komada ... Masafumi Takahashi
    Mutated NLRP3 forms cryo-sensitive aggregates that induce inflammasome assembly distinct from the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome.
    1. Neuroscience

    Conditional and unconditional components of aversively motivated freezing, flight and darting in mice

    Jeremy M Trott, Ann N Hoffman ... Michael S Fanselow
    When conducting fear conditioning in mice, cue-elicited activity bursts are primarily a result of nonassociative processes, and freezing behavior remains the best index for associative learning.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Hybridization alters the shape of the genotypic fitness landscape, increasing access to novel fitness peaks during adaptive radiation

    Austin H Patton, Emilie J Richards ... Christopher H Martin
    Hybridization not only generates genetic diversity, but this diversity can alter the shape of the fitness landscape, changing which genotypic combinations are favored by natural selection and which accessible genotypic paths lead to novel fitness peaks.
    1. Cell Biology

    MAF1, a repressor of RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription, regulates bone mass

    Ellen Phillips, Naseer Ahmad ... Deborah L Johnson
    Identification of a novel role for the transcriptional repressor, MAF1, and RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription, in osteoblast differentiation, mineralization, and bone biology.
    1. Neuroscience

    Perception of an object’s global shape is best described by a model of skeletal structure in human infants

    Vladislav Ayzenberg, Stella Lourenco
    Six- to twelve-month old infants, who have little linguistic or object experience, classify objects by relying on a invariant representation of global shape known as the shape skeleton.
    1. Neuroscience

    Drosophila gustatory projections are segregated by taste modality and connectivity

    Stefanie Engert, Gabriella R Sterne ... Kristin Scott
    Anatomical and synaptic reconstructions of gustatory axons from the adult Drosophila labellum reveal different classes of gustatory neurons recognizing different taste modalities.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A cellular and molecular analysis of SoxB-driven neurogenesis in a cnidarian

    Eleni Chrysostomou, Hakima Flici ... Uri Frank
    SoxB genes are sequentially expressed in cnidarian neurogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Social-affective features drive human representations of observed actions

    Diana C Dima, Tyler M Tomita ... Leyla Isik
    Social-affective features predict the perceived similarity of real-world actions better than, and independently of, visual and action-related features, and are extracted at the final stage of a temporal gradient in the brain.
    1. Ecology

    Regional opportunities for tundra conservation in the next 1000 years

    Stefan Kruse, Ulrike Herzschuh
    The treeline follows climate warming with a severe time lag, but migration rates are increasing so that only under ambitious mitigation efforts will 30% of original tundra areas remain in the north in the long run.
    1. Neuroscience

    Slow fluctuations in ongoing brain activity decrease in amplitude with ageing yet their impact on task-related evoked responses is dissociable from behavior

    Maria Ribeiro, Miguel Castelo-Branco
    The explanation of why older people show increased behavioral variability despite having decreased neural signal variability lies in the link between the dynamics of the ongoing neural signal and the trial-by-trial variability of neural evoked responses.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus accelerates brain aging and cognitive decline: Complementary findings from UK Biobank and meta-analyses

    Botond Antal, Liam P McMahon ... Lilianne R Mujica-Parodi
    Patients with Type 2 diabetes show patterns of neurodegeneration consistent with accelerated brain aging, including impaired cognition and loss of brain volume, which are more severe in those with increased disease duration.
    1. Neuroscience

    Magnetic stimulation allows focal activation of the mouse cochlea

    Jae-Ik Lee, Richard Seist ... Shelley Fried
    Coil-based CIs have the potential to enhance the quality of restored hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Differential ion dehydration energetics explains selectivity in the non-canonical lysosomal K+ channel TMEM175

    SeCheol Oh, Fabrizio Marinelli ... Richard K Hite
    The energetic costs of ion dehydration in the pore of human TMEM175 determine its ion selectivity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Association of egg consumption, metabolic markers, and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A nested case-control study

    Lang Pan, Lu Chen ... Liming Li
    The associations of egg consumption with metabolic markers and of these markers with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk showed opposite directions, which may partially explain the protective effect of moderate egg consumption on CVD in the Chinese population.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    The DNA sensors AIM2 and IFI16 are SLE autoantigens that bind neutrophil extracellular traps

    Brendan Antiochos, Daniela Trejo-Zambrano ... Antony Rosen
    A novel extracellular role for cytoplasmic DNA sensors in shielding NET DNA from DNase-mediated degradation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatial signatures of anesthesia-induced burst-suppression differ between primates and rodents

    Nikoloz Sirmpilatze, Judith Mylius ... Susann Boretius
    Functional imaging (fMRI) across four mammalian species maps the brain areas engaging in burst-suppression activity during anesthesia, and uncovers differences between primates and rodents.
    1. Medicine

    Migraine monoclonal antibodies against CGRP change brain activity depending on ligand or receptor target – an fMRI study

    Hauke Basedau, Lisa-Marie Sturm ... Arne May
    Despite relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier for calcitonin gene-related peptide antibodies used in migraine treatment, these antibodies induce certain and highly specific brain effects particularly in the hypothalamus which may be part of the mechanism of their efficacy.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4,6 sulfation regulates sympathetic nerve regeneration after myocardial infarction

    Matthew R Blake, Diana C Parrish ... Beth A Habecker
    4,6-Sulfation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans prevents sympathetic nerve regeneration into the infarct after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, and reducing this sulfation promotes nerve regeneration and decreases arrhythmia susceptibility.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Dcp2 C-terminal cis-binding elements control selective targeting of the decapping enzyme by forming distinct decapping complexes

    Feng He, Chan Wu, Allan Jacobson
    Dcp2 C-terminal domain cis-regulatory elements collaborating with specific activators control decapping enzyme targeting and activation by orchestrating sequential assembly of distinct decapping complexes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Modified viral-genetic mapping reveals local and global connectivity relationships of ventral tegmental area dopamine cells

    Kevin Beier
    A modified viral strategy reveals that ventral tegmental area dopamine cells receive substantial inputs from local sources, including distributed GABAergic and serotonergic inputs from the midbrain as well as extensive inputs from other midbrain dopamine cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Contractile force assessment methods for in vitro skeletal muscle tissues

    Camila Vesga-Castro, Javier Aldazabal ... Jacobo Paredes
    A standardized comparison of contractile force among in vitro muscle tissues across different platforms requires proper normalization with the contractile area and complementary morphological, maturation, and functional analysis to reduce variability and boost a new generation of engineered constructs.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Dnmt3a knockout in excitatory neurons impairs postnatal synapse maturation and increases the repressive histone modification H3K27me3

    Junhao Li, Antonio Pinto-Duarte ... M Margarita Behrens
    Loss of Dnmt3a in excitatory neurons disrupts synaptic morphology and behavior, and triggers the expansion of H3K27me3 binding, suggestive of increased polycomb repression.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Osteogenic growth peptide is a potent anti-inflammatory and bone preserving hormone via cannabinoid receptor type 2

    Bitya Raphael-Mizrahi, Malka Attar-Namdar ... Yankel Gabet
    Osteogenic growth peptide displays agonistic activity at CB2.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Individualized discovery of rare cancer drivers in global network context

    Iurii Petrov, Andrey Alexeyenko
    Method NEAdriver employs knowledge from global networks to predict novel cancer driver genes in an individualized manner, which is done by accounting for mutations’ co-occurrence in each tumor genome and rigorous statistical evaluation.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Lead-OR: A multimodal platform for deep brain stimulation surgery

    Simón Oxenford, Jan Roediger ... Andreas Horn
    Lead-OR visualizes results derived from microelectrode recordings in anatomical space, together with information derived from patient-specific MRI data, as well as high-resolution atlas resources during deep brain stimulation surgery.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    WhyD tailors surface polymers to prevent premature bacteriolysis and direct cell elongation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Josué Flores-Kim, Genevieve S Dobihal ... David Z Rudner
    Selective removal of Wall Teichoic Acids from the envelope of Streptococcus pneumoniae prevents bacteriolysis and directs zonal cell wall synthesis.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Visceral organ morphogenesis via calcium-patterned muscle constrictions

    Noah P Mitchell, Dillon J Cislo ... Sebastian J Streichan
    Whole-organ live imaging and computational analysis reveal a calcium-mediated mechanical program linking gene expression to organ shape.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mapping brain-wide excitatory projectome of primate prefrontal cortex at submicron resolution and comparison with diffusion tractography

    Mingchao Yan, Wenwen Yu ... Zheng Wang
    A comprehensive excitatory projectome of the ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex in macaques was generated by using viral tracing integrated with serial two-photon tomography and diffusion tractography, thus providing new evidence of rejecting the monosynaptic connection of inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in monkeys.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A crowd of BashTheBug volunteers reproducibly and accurately measure the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 antitubercular drugs from photographs of 96-well broth microdilution plates

    Philip W Fowler, Carla Wright ... The CRyPTIC Consortium
    A crowd of inexperienced volunteers can reproducibily and accurately measured how effective a panel of antibiotics are in treating a M. tuberculosis sample.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Brucella activates the host RIDD pathway to subvert BLOS1-directed immune defense

    Kelsey Michelle Wells, Kai He ... Paul de Figueiredo
    Brucella facilitates its intracellular parasitism by hijacking the host-regulated IRE1α-dependent decay (RIDD)-BLOS1 innate immune defense system through the disassembly of the BLOC-1-related complex that results in the perinuclear trafficking of Brucella-containing vacuoles and enhanced susceptibility to infection.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Canonical Wnt signaling and the regulation of divergent mesenchymal Fgf8 expression in axolotl limb development and regeneration

    Giacomo L Glotzer, Pietro Tardivo, Elly M Tanaka
    Although many Apical Ectodermal Ridge signaling components are found in the axolotl limb epidermis, responsiveness to canonical Wnt signaling has shifted to the limb mesenchyme where it regulates mesenchymal Fgf8 expression.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    SARS-CoV-2 host-shutoff impacts innate NK cell functions, but antibody-dependent NK activity is strongly activated through non-spike antibodies

    Ceri Alan Fielding, Pragati Sabberwal ... Richard J Stanton
    SARS-CoV-2 host-shutoff inhibits innate NK surveillance by suppressing activating ligands, however ADCC provides a potent NK stimulus that is mediated by antibodies targeting Nucleocapsid, ORF3a, and Membrane, with those targeting Spike being significantly weaker.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Single-cell transcriptome reveals insights into the development and function of the zebrafish ovary

    Yulong Liu, Michelle E Kossack ... Bruce W Draper
    Single-cell transcriptomics of the zebrafish ovary identifies both major and minor cell types and provides a valuable resource for researchers interested in reproductive biology, stem cell biology, and aquatic toxicology.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Redox regulation of PTPN22 affects the severity of T-cell-dependent autoimmune inflammation

    Jaime James, Yifei Chen ... Rikard Holmdahl
    PTPN22 function is regulated by reactive oxygen species, and redox regulation of PTPN22 impacts T-cell-dependent autoimmune inflammation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Selection for infectivity profiles in slow and fast epidemics, and the rise of SARS-CoV-2 variants

    François Blanquart, Nathanaël Hozé ... Simon Cauchemez
    Selection acting on SARS-CoV-2 variants altering the infectivity profile depends on levels of transmission in the community, and this dependence is used to infer Alpha and Delta variants infectivity profiles.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    T cells discriminate between groups C1 and C2 HLA-C

    Malcolm J W Sim, Zachary Stotz ... Peter D Sun
    An amino acid dimorphism in HLA-C with an established impact on natural killer cell receptors plays an unexpected and significant role in T cell receptor recognition of HLA-C with relevance for tumor immunity.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Notch-dependent and -independent transcription are modulated by tissue movements at gastrulation

    Julia Falo-Sanjuan, Sarah Bray
    Live-imaging of Notch-dependent transcription in vivo reveals that cell movements during gastrulation influence transcription levels, and do so downstream of Notch cleavage, illustrating the importance of crosstalk between mechanics and transcription in the context of embryonic development.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Seipin transmembrane segments critically function in triglyceride nucleation and lipid droplet budding from the membrane

    Siyoung Kim, Jeeyun Chung ... Gregory A Voth
    The functions of seipin in triacylglycerol nucleation and lipid droplet maturation are studied with all-atom and coarse-grained simulations along with cell experiments, providing a novel model for lipid droplet formation.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    A Permian fish reveals widespread distribution of neopterygian-like jaw suspension

    Thodoris Argyriou, Sam Giles, Matt Friedman
    μCT-aided study illuminates the cranial endoskeleton and interrelationships of the Permian actinopterygian †Brachydegma, which is now excluded from crown neopterygians despite exhibiting a double jaw joint.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Multi-tract multi-symptom relationships in pediatric concussion

    Guido I Guberman, Sonja Stojanovski ... Maxime Descoteaux
    In paediatric concussions, there are a multiplicity of ways that brain damage gives rise to symptoms, most of which are missed by conventional statistical approaches and study designs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Non-rapid eye movement sleep and wake neurophysiology in schizophrenia

    Nataliia Kozhemiako, Jun Wang ... Jen Q Pan
    Multiple non-redundant features of non-rapid eye movement sleep are altered in schizophrenia and largely independent of waking electrophysiological abnormalities, supporting the promise of neuropsychiatric disease biomarkers based on a precise dissection of the sleep.
    1. Neuroscience

    Aberrant causal inference and presence of a compensatory mechanism in autism spectrum disorder

    Jean-Paul Noel, Sabyasachi Shivkumar ... Dora E Angelaki
    Individuals within the autism spectrum disorder implicitly outweigh integration (rather than segregating) when performing causal inference and have developed an explicit compensatory mechanism as reflected in choice biases.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Typhoid toxin sorting and exocytic transport from Salmonella Typhi-infected cells

    Shu-Jung Chang, Yu-Ting Hsu ... Jorge E Galan
    A multidisciplinary approach provides a description of the exocytic pathway that exports Salmonella Typhi's typhoid toxin from infected cells.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Integrative analysis of scRNA-seq and scATAC-seq revealed transit-amplifying thymic epithelial cells expressing autoimmune regulator

    Takahisa Miyao, Maki Miyauchi ... Taishin Akiyama
    The combination of single-cell analysis and cell fate mapping studies evidenced the presence of AIRE-expressing transit-amplifying thymic epithelial cells, which differentiate into mature medullary thymic epithelial cells expressing tissue-specific antigens.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Active site geometry stabilization of a presenilin homolog by the lipid bilayer promotes intramembrane proteolysis

    Lukas P Feilen, Shu-Yu Chen ... Harald Steiner
    Biochemical studies in combination with computational modeling and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the lipid bilayer promotes intramembrane proteolysis by stabilizing the enzyme-substrate complex and the protease active site.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Residual force enhancement is affected more by quadriceps muscle length than stretch amplitude

    Patrick Bakenecker, Tobias Weingarten ... Brent Raiteri
    Increasing muscle length, rather than increasing stretch amplitude, contributes more to residual force enhancement during submaximal voluntary contractions of the human quadriceps.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of the IL-27 quaternary receptor signaling complex

    Nathanael A Caveney, Caleb R Glassman ... K Christopher Garcia
    The cryogenic-electron microscopy structure of IL-27 bound to receptors, IL-27Rα and gp130, revealing a three-site assembly mechanism and overall topology and molecular details reminiscent of IL-6 but distinct from related IL-12 and IL-23.
    1. Neuroscience

    Prefrontal-amygdalar oscillations related to social behavior in mice

    Nahoko Kuga, Reimi Abe ... Takuya Sasaki
    The dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala exhibit social behavior-relevant neuronal oscillations, representing unified pathophysiological mechanisms underlying social behavioral deficits.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Medicine

    Development and evaluation of a machine learning-based in-hospital COVID-19 disease outcome predictor (CODOP): A multicontinental retrospective study

    Riku Klén, Disha Purohit ... David Gómez-Varela
    The generalizability of CODOP in distinct world regions and its flexibility to reckon with the changing availability of hospital resources makes it a clinically useful tool potentially improving the outcome prediction and the management of COVID-19 hospitalized patients.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Mitotically heritable, RNA polymerase II-independent H3K4 dimethylation stimulates INO1 transcriptional memory

    Bethany Sump, Donna G Brickner ... Jason H Brickner
    During epigenetic transcriptional memory in budding yeast, histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation - dependent on Nup1000 and independent of RNA polymerase II - regulates binding of a critical transcription factor and, once established, is mitotically heritable for at least four cell divisions.
    1. Neuroscience

    A tonic nicotinic brake controls spike timing in striatal spiny projection neurons

    Lior Matityahu, Jeffrey M Malgady ... Joshua L Plotkin
    A novel mechanism describes how tonic activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can modulate the timing of striatal output by priming feedforward inhibition.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Comparative multi-tissue profiling reveals extensive tissue-specificity in transcriptome reprogramming during thermal adaptation

    Noushin Hadadi, Martina Spiljar ... Mirko Trajkovski
    Integrative analysis of multi-tissue transcriptomics data of mice subjected to cold, mild warm or room temperature places the thermal adaptation of individual tissues in a whole-organism perspective.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Stereospecific lasofoxifene derivatives reveal the interplay between estrogen receptor alpha stability and antagonistic activity in ESR1 mutant breast cancer cells

    David J Hosfield, Sandra Weber ... Sean W Fanning
    Effective antiestrogens engage a new structural interaction to improve therapeutic antagonism in hormone-resistant breast cancer cells expressing Y537S estrogen receptor alpha.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Palatal morphology predicts the paleobiology of early salamanders

    Jia Jia, Guangzhao Li, Ke-Qin Gao
    Salamanders originate as metamorphosed with a biphasic lifestyle as shown by the palate shape and several non-shape features associated with the vomerine teeth, with diverse ecological types displayed in living species achieved in the Early Cretaceous.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Regulation of protein complex partners as a compensatory mechanism in aneuploid tumors

    Gökçe Senger, Stefano Santaguida, Martin H Schaefer
    Coordinated regulation of co-complex members compensates for aneuploidy-induced stoichiometric imbalances in human cancer.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Machine learning sequence prioritization for cell type-specific enhancer design

    Alyssa J Lawler, Easwaran Ramamurthy ... Andreas R Pfenning
    A new cross-species machine learning-based strategy is applied to find enhancers that specifically label parvalbumin neurons in the mouse and macaque.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Transcription elongation is finely tuned by dozens of regulatory factors

    Mary Couvillion, Kevin M Harlen ... L Stirling Churchman
    NET-seq analysis of 41 S. cerevisiae transcription regulatory factors uncovers their differential and opposing effects on Pol II transcription elongation and antisense transcription, revealing that wild-type transcription is balanced by the joint impact of many regulators.
    1. Neuroscience

    Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and their native interactions with insecticidal peptide toxins

    Dagmara Korona, Benedict Dirnberger ... Kathryn S Lilley
    Blocking of the function of neurotransmitter receptors by insecticidal peptide toxins resulted in identification of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits through native ligand-binding investigations.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    DNA-PK promotes DNA end resection at DNA double strand breaks in G0 cells

    Faith C Fowler, Bo-Ruei Chen ... Jessica K Tyler
    Molecular analyses and unbiased CRISPR screens reveal that extensive end resection occurs in quiescent cells after inducing DNA double strand breaks, in a manner dependent on DNA-PK.
    1. Cell Biology

    CLUH controls astrin-1 expression to couple mitochondrial metabolism to cell cycle progression

    Désirée Schatton, Giada Di Pietro ... Elena I Rugarli
    CLUH links growth signaling pathways and mitochondrial metabolism with cell cycle progression by regulating astrin-1 synthesis and stability.
    1. Cell Biology

    Local activation of focal adhesion kinase orchestrates the positioning of presynaptic scaffold proteins and Ca2+ signalling to control glucose-dependent insulin secretion

    Dillon Jevon, Kylie Deng ... Peter Thorn
    The essential role of focal adhesion kinase in locally regulating insulin secretion and calcium responses in pancreatic beta cells is identified through the use of the pancreatic slice technique.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    GSK3 inhibition rescues growth and telomere dysfunction in dyskeratosis congenita iPSC-derived type II alveolar epithelial cells

    Rafael Jesus Fernandez, Zachary JG Gardner ... F Brad Johnson
    Telomere dysfunction in iPSC-derived type II alveolar epithelial cells causes senescence and gene expression changes including Wnt-related changes that GSK3 inhibition can rescue, providing insight into pulmonary fibrosis pathogenesis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Conserved structural elements specialize ATAD1 as a membrane protein extraction machine

    Lan Wang, Hannah Toutkoushian ... Peter Walter
    A mitochondrial membrane-bound protein ATAD1 uses conserved structural elements to remove mislocalized membrane proteins from the outer mitochondrial membrane, achieving proper cell organization.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    A persistent behavioral state enables sustained predation of humans by mosquitoes

    Trevor R Sorrells, Anjali Pandey ... Leslie B Vosshall
    Brief fictive carbon dioxide sensation induced by optogenetics in the female mosquito induces long-lasting arousal and probing, explaining the persistent predatory behavior of this dangerous disease-vectoring insect.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    CREB5 reprograms FOXA1 nuclear interactions to promote resistance to androgen receptor-targeting therapies

    Justin H Hwang, Rand Arafeh ... William C Hahn
    A comprehensive molecular interrogation of CREB5 interactions identified changes in protein and chromatin interactions of FOXA1 that promoted therapy resistance in prostate cancer cells.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    FER-mediated phosphorylation and PIK3R2 recruitment on IRS4 promotes AKT activation and tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer cells

    Yanchun Zhang, Xuexue Xiong ... Gaofeng Fan
    Beyond its well-accepted function in metastasis, non-receptor tyrosine kinase FER also controls ovarian tumor cell proliferation through FER-IRS4-AKT signaling axis, making itself as a promising druggable target for the disease.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase physically binds to the SWI/SNF complex and modulates BRG1 occupancy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Jiyoon Beon, Sungwook Han ... Daeyoup Lee
    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase physically binds to the core subunits of SWI/SNF complex and plays an important role in regulating BRG1 occupancy and BRG-mediated chromatin accessibility in mouse embryonic stem cells.
    1. Ecology

    Lowland plant arrival in alpine ecosystems facilitates a decrease in soil carbon content under experimental climate warming

    Tom WN Walker, Konstantin Gavazov ... Jake M Alexander
    Uphill migrations of lowland plants into warming alpine ecosystems may yield a positive climate feedback by accelerating soil microbial respiration and decreasing soil carbon content.
    1. Cell Biology

    Reducing lipid bilayer stress by monounsaturated fatty acids protects renal proximal tubules in diabetes

    Albert Pérez-Martí, Suresh Ramakrishnan ... Matias Simons
    Monounsaturated fatty acids protect against DKD by enhancing membrane fluidity and decreasing ER lipid bilayer stress in renal proximal tubules.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Radiocarbon and genomic evidence for the survival of Equus Sussemionus until the late Holocene

    Dawei Cai, Siqi Zhu ... Yu Jiang
    The first nuclear genomes of the Equus (Sussemionus) ovodovi enable us to reconstruct the speciation and extinction trajectory of this lineage.
    1. Neuroscience

    Conservation and divergence of myelin proteome and oligodendrocyte transcriptome profiles between humans and mice

    Vasiliki-Ilya Gargareta, Josefine Reuschenbach ... Hauke B Werner
    Comparing humans and mice, the protein composition of central nervous system myelin and the transcriptional profiles of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes are largely similar with respect to abundant structural myelin constituents but show divergent expression of a range of other distinct genes.
    1. Cell Biology

    C/EBPδ-induced epigenetic changes control the dynamic gene transcription of S100a8 and S100a9

    Saskia-Larissa Jauch-Speer, Marisol Herrera-Rivero ... Olesja Fehler
    A genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screening approach identified C/EBPδ as transcriptional regulator of the alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 during differentiation of monocytes and inflammatory processes in vivo.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Paracrine signalling between intestinal epithelial and tumour cells induces a regenerative programme

    Guillaume Jacquemin, Annabelle Wurmser ... Silvia Fre
    Studies of organoid morphogenesis, combined with proteomics and molecular profiling, identify the THBS1-YAP axis as a signalling mechanism that mediates paracrine communication between tumour cells and their wildtype epithelial neighbours.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    An epithelial signalling centre in sharks supports homology of tooth morphogenesis in vertebrates

    Alexandre P Thiery, Ariane SI Standing ... Gareth J Fraser
    The development of diverse tooth shapes among vertebrates, from sharks to mammals, is a highly conserved process, utilising a similar dental signalling centre for more than 400 million years.
    1. Neuroscience

    Hyperreactivity to uncertainty is a key feature of subjective cognitive impairment

    Bahaaeddin Attaallah, Pierre Petitet ... Masud Husain
    Analysis of performance on a novel behavioural paradigm investigating active information gathering reveals that subjective cognitive impairment is associated with hyperreactivity to uncertainty and links this mechanism to the affective burden in the condition and heightened insular-hippocampal connectivity.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Inflammatory response in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells triggered by activating SHP2 mutations evokes blood defects

    Maja Solman, Sasja Blokzijl-Franke ... Jeroen den Hertog
    The transcriptomes of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells of human juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia patients and a zebrafish model for Noonan syndrome reveal a common inflammatory response, which may have a causal role in associated myeloproliferative neoplasm.
    1. Neuroscience

    Role of anterior insula cortex in context-induced relapse of nicotine-seeking

    Hussein Ghareh, Isis Alonso-Lozares ... Nathan J Marchant
    The anterior insula cortex is a critical neural substrate of context-induced relapse of nicotine-seeking.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Early life infection and proinflammatory, atherogenic metabolomic and lipidomic profiles in infancy: a population-based cohort study

    Toby Mansell, Richard Saffery ... Barwon Infant Study Investigator Group
    More parent-reported infections in the first year of life were associated with metabolic differences linked with cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood, with observational evidence for inflammation partly mediating this relationship.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Rescue of behavioral and electrophysiological phenotypes in a Pitt-Hopkins syndrome mouse model by genetic restoration of Tcf4 expression

    Hyojin Kim, Eric B Gao ... Benjamin D Philpot
    Normalizing Tcf4 expression during early postnatal development improves behavioral outcomes in Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) model mice, suggesting that genetic therapies are feasible in individuals with PTHS.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Thermosynechococcus switches the direction of phototaxis by a c-di-GMP-dependent process with high spatial resolution

    Daisuke Nakane, Gen Enomoto ... Takayuki Nishizaka
    Colour-controlled c-di-GMP signalling mediates directional switch of phototaxis via within-a-pole regulation of type IV pili in rod-shaped cyanobacteria Thermosynechococcus vulcanus.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    History-dependent physiological adaptation to lethal genetic modification under antibiotic exposure

    Yuta Koganezawa, Miki Umetani ... Yuichi Wakamoto
    Single-cell time-lapse imaging and optogenetical gene recombination system uncovered that bacteria cells can overcome a deleterious genetic change of antibiotic resistance gene deletion depending on their environmental histories.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Structural, mechanistic, and physiological insights into phospholipase A-mediated membrane phospholipid degradation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Florian Bleffert, Joachim Granzin ... Filip Kovacic
    Membrane homeostasis in bacteria relies on the controlled degradation of endogenous phospholipids by intracellular phospholipases A, however their structures and catalytic mechanism are still poorly understood.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Microevolution of Trypanosoma cruzi reveals hybridization and clonal mechanisms driving rapid genome diversification

    Gabriel Machado Matos, Michael D Lewis ... Björn Andersson
    Unique mechanisms of genetic exchange in the important protozoan pathogen Trypanosome cruzi were characterized in detail using genome analyses of hybrid clones at different time points, showing initial tetraploids followed by genome erosion.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Repressing PTBP1 fails to convert reactive astrocytes to dopaminergic neurons in a 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    Weizhao Chen, Qiongping Zheng ... Mingtao Li
    Repressing astroglial PTBP1 by shRNA or antisense oligonucleotide fails to convert astrocyte to neuron including dopaminergic neuron in a 6-OHDA mouse model of PD.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Single-cell profiling reveals periventricular CD56bright NK cell accumulation in multiple sclerosis

    Sabela Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Lynn van Olst ... Helga E de Vries
    Together, our multi-tissue single-cell data shows that CD56bright NK cells accumulate in the periventricular brain regions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, bringing NK cells back to the spotlight of MS pathology.
    1. Neuroscience

    One-shot generalization in humans revealed through a drawing task

    Henning Tiedemann, Yaniv Morgenstern ... Roland W Fleming
    Humans are able to generate a complete category of varied objects from just one exemplar shape, identifying and utilizing its most distinctive parts to create a coherent group, even for other observers.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Single-cell monitoring of dry mass and dry mass density reveals exocytosis of cellular dry contents in mitosis

    Teemu P Miettinen, Kevin S Ly ... Scott R Manalis
    A high-resolution approach for monitoring dry mass and the density of that dry mass on a single-cell level is developed and used to reveal that mammalian cells can lose components in mitosis due to lysosomal exocytosis.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Conformist social learning leads to self-organised prevention against adverse bias in risky decision making

    Wataru Toyokawa, Wolfgang Gaissmaier
    Mathematical modelling and large-scale online experiments revealed that learning from others can induce 'smarter' decisions even when most individuals are biased towards adverse risk aversion.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    SDR enzymes oxidize specific lipidic alkynylcarbinols into cytotoxic protein-reactive species

    Pascal Demange, Etienne Joly ... Sébastien Britton
    Deciphering the mechanism of action of a large family of natural and synthetic cytotoxic lipids bioactivated by enantiospecific oxidation into protein-reactive species inspires the development of enzyme-specific prodrugs.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Von Willebrand factor A1 domain stability and affinity for GPIbα are differentially regulated by its O-glycosylated N- and C-linker

    Klaus Bonazza, Roxana E Iacob ... Timothy A Springer
    Both the polypeptide and attached O-glycans N-terminal to the A1 domain in von Willebrand factor lower its affinity for its ligand GPIbα on platelets, its stability, and structural dynamics and decrease population of a high-affinity, intermediate state in unfolding.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A LAMP sequencing approach for high-throughput co-detection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus in human saliva

    Robert Warneford-Thomson, Parisha P Shah ... Roberto Bonasio
    COV-ID is a highly scalable technology that utilizes a two-step barcoding strategy to detect viral RNAs in saliva samples combining RT-LAMP, PCR, and next generation sequencing.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human visual gamma for color stimuli

    Benjamin J Stauch, Alina Peter ... Pascal Fries
    Colored surfaces induce gamma oscillations in human early visual cortex that are equally strong for red and green colors when L-M cone contrast is controlled for.
    1. Neuroscience

    Proximal CA1 20–40 Hz power dynamics reflect trial-specific information processing supporting nonspatial sequence memory

    Sandra Gattas, Gabriel A Elias ... Norbert J Fortin
    The hippocampal CA1 20–40 Hz rhythm is associated with nonspatial sequence memory processing and may contribute to the role of the hippocampus in processing temporal relationships among events.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Complex fitness landscape shapes variation in a hyperpolymorphic species

    Anastasia V Stolyarova, Tatiana V Neretina ... Georgii A Bazykin
    Some deleterious mutations co-occurring within a genome can compensate each other, and this affects patterns of polymorphism, particularly in highly polymorphic species.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A novel lineage-tracing mouse model for studying early MmuPV1 infections

    Vural Yilmaz, Panayiota Louca ... Katerina Strati
    A novel mouse model which permits tracking of papillomavirus infected cells in mouse stratified epithelia during early infection by means of genetic reporter activation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    MDGAs are fast-diffusing molecules that delay excitatory synapse development by altering neuroligin behavior

    Andrea Toledo, Mathieu Letellier ... Olivier Thoumine
    MDGAs are highly diffusive molecules that alter both neuroligin-1 and AMPA receptor dynamics and function, thereby significantly delaying the differentiation of excitatory post-synapses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Flexible utilization of spatial- and motor-based codes for the storage of visuo-spatial information

    Margaret M Henderson, Rosanne L Rademaker, John T Serences
    When human participants are able to plan responses in a visuo-spatial working memory task, sensory-like representations of remembered spatial position in early visual and parietal cortex adaptively trade off with motor-like representations of upcoming actions in sensorimotor cortex.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Parasite defensive limb movements enhance acoustic signal attraction in male little torrent frogs

    Longhui Zhao, Jichao Wang ... Jianguo Cui
    Multimodal signals may evolve from unimodal one via co-option of primary signal components and associated cues that serve as by-products.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Wnt11 acts on dermomyotome cells to guide epaxial myotome morphogenesis

    Ann Kathrin Heilig, Ryohei Nakamura ... Toru Kawanishi
    A medaka mutant revealed that Wnt11 promotes formation of uniquely large protrusions from non-myogenic dorsal dermomyotome cells, which guide the epaxial myotome dorsally to achieve the coverage of the neural tube.
    1. Medicine
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Synchronization in renal microcirculation unveiled with high-resolution blood flow imaging

    Dmitry Postnov, Donald J Marsh ... Olga Sosnovtseva
    High-resolution blood flow imaging confirms the presence of large, long-living synchronous clusters in renal microcirculation and reveals how vasoactive drugs affect synchronization properties.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Distinct responses to rare codons in select Drosophila tissues

    Scott R Allen, Rebeccah K Stewart ... Donald T Fox
    A tissue-wide fluoresence-based screen reveals that not all tissues in an organism (Drosophila) reinforce a hierarchy of codon usage to the same extent, a finding which impacts tissue-specific protein expression and function.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Using positional information to provide context for biological image analysis with MorphoGraphX 2.0

    Sören Strauss, Adam Runions ... Richard S Smith
    MorphoGraphX is a user-friendly image processing software primarily aimed at segmenting 3D biological images into cells, quantifying cellular gene expression and growth, and understanding these data in the spatial context of developing organs.
    1. Cell Biology

    Crotamiton derivative JM03 extends lifespan and improves oxidative and hypertonic stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans via inhibiting OSM-9

    Keting Bao, Wenwen Liu ... Jian Li
    In a chemical genetics study, JM03 derived from crotamiton, an inhibitor of trainsient receptor potential vanilloid-4 channels, was identified to extend lifespan and improve oxidative and hypertonic stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans via inhibiting OSM-9.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Heterogeneity of the GFP fitness landscape and data-driven protein design

    Louisa Gonzalez Somermeyer, Aubin Fleiss ... Fyodor A Kondrashov
    Orthologous proteins display different mutational robustness that can be leveraged to improve prediction of functional sequences.
    1. Neuroscience

    Early detection of cerebrovascular pathology and protective antiviral immunity by MRI

    Li Liu, Steve Dodd ... Alan P Koretsky
    A MRI study of virally infected CNS demonstrates the utility of MRI in detecting the earliest pathological events and studying pathogen-specific T cells at the level of single cell as well as the therapeutic potential of antiviral T cells.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Functional and structural segregation of overlapping helices in HIV-1

    Maliheh Safari, Bhargavi Jayaraman ... Alan D Frankel
    The HIV proteins Env and Rev encode helices that overlap in the viral genome but alternate in functional importance so that the non-functional surface of one helix encodes the functional surface of the other.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    TUBA1A tubulinopathy mutants disrupt neuron morphogenesis and override XMAP215/Stu2 regulation of microtubule dynamics

    Katelyn J Hoff, Jayne E Aiken ... Jeffrey K Moore
    The mechanistic origins of distinct brain malformations associated with different substitutions at α-tubulin residue 409 are examined, revealing disruption of neuronal migration and microtubule regulation by XMAP215 that scales from protein to tissue.
    1. Neuroscience

    Kv3.3 subunits control presynaptic action potential waveform and neurotransmitter release at a central excitatory synapse

    Amy Richardson, Victoria Ciampani ... Ian D Forsythe
    The Kv3.3 potassium channel subunit is necessary and sufficient to permit presynaptic location and accelerated repolarisation of the presynaptic action potential, thereby conserving resources and enhancing accuracy of timing information on transmission at the calyx of Held excitatory synapse.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Endothelial SIRPα signaling controls VE-cadherin endocytosis for thymic homing of progenitor cells

    Boyang Ren, Huan Xia ... Mingzhao Zhu
    Hematopoietic progenitor cells employ CD47 to engage thymic portal endothelial signal regulatory protein alpha for their transendothelial migration and thymic homing.
    1. Neuroscience

    Anatomical and functional connectivity support the existence of a salience network node within the caudal ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    Lucas R Trambaiolli, Xiaolong Peng ... Suzanne N Haber
    The primate caudal area 47/12 is anatomically and functionally connected with the main nodes of the salience network, supporting the role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in all major attention networks.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    De novo-designed transmembrane domains tune engineered receptor functions

    Assaf Elazar, Nicholas J Chandler ... Sarel J Fleishman
    Designer transmembrane peptides precisely control chimeric antigen receptor signaling strength and are insulated from undesired interactions with endogenous receptors.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Short senolytic or senostatic interventions rescue progression of radiation-induced frailty and premature ageing in mice

    Edward Fielder, Tengfei Wan ... Satomi Miwa
    Late effects of radiation therapy in mice can be prevented by treatment with either senolytics navitoclax or quercetin plus dasatinib or the senostatic metformin.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Generation of vascularized brain organoids to study neurovascular interactions

    Xin-Yao Sun, Xiang-Chun Ju ... Zhen-Ge Luo
    A vessel and brain fusion organoid model provides a platform for the study of interactions between neuronal and non-neuronal components during brain development and functioning.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Bayesian inference of kinetic schemes for ion channels by Kalman filtering

    Jan L Münch, Fabian Paul ... Klaus Benndorf
    For analyzing time-dependent patch-clamp or patch-clamp fluorometry data of ion channels in terms of Markovian models, the superiority of Bayesian filtering with respect to traditional deterministic approaches is demonstrated enabling more reliable quantification of the parameters.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Intrinsic excitability mechanisms of neuronal ensemble formation

    Tzitzitlini Alejandre-García, Samuel Kim ... Rafael Yuste
    Optogenetic and electrical stimulation of primary visual cortex neurons reveals synaptic and cell-intrinsic mechanisms that underlie neuronal ensemble formation.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Male rat leukocyte population dynamics predict a window for intervention in aging

    Hagai Yanai, Christopher Dunn ... Isabel Beerman
    Rat blood profiles support non-linear aging with distinct trajectory shifts, and these profiles could be used to predict non-overt illness in rats or aging intervention efficacy.
    1. Neuroscience

    A discrete parasubthalamic nucleus subpopulation plays a critical role in appetite suppression

    Jessica H Kim, Grace H Kromm ... Matthew E Carter
    The hypothalamic parasubthalamic nucleus can be subdivided into two distinct populations, one of which decreases food consumption and is necessary for the full appetite-suppressing effects of anorexigenic hormones.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Role of oxidation of excitation-contraction coupling machinery in age-dependent loss of muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Haikel Dridi, Frances Forrester ... Andrew Marks
    The Ryanodine receptor type 1 calcium channels play a critical role in age-related muscle function loss.
    1. Medicine

    Utility of estimated pulse wave velocity for assessing vascular stiffness: comparison of methods

    Stefan Möstl, Fabian Hoffmann ... Jens Jordan
    Novel blood pressure devices provide an estimated pulse wave velocity, which is no substitute for measured pulse wave velocity and clinicians should be aware that it only reflects trends derived from representative population samples based on age and blood pressure.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    The oncoprotein BCL6 enables solid tumor cells to evade genotoxic stress

    Yanan Liu, Juanjuan Feng ... Xiufeng Pang
    Oncoprotein BCL6 confers tumor adaptive resistance to genotoxic stress through the IFN-BCL6-PTEN axis in solid tumors and presents a promising combinational target for chemo-sensitization.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Metabolic basis for the evolution of a common pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa variant

    Dallas L Mould, Mirjana Stevanovic ... Deborah A Hogan
    Microbial variants that arise during chronic lung infections have an increased ability to use nutrients that are abundant in lung infections.
    1. Cell Biology

    Discovery and functional assessment of a novel adipocyte population driven by intracellular Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mammals

    Zhi Liu, Tian Chen ... YiPing Chen
    A novel population of adipocytes that play essential roles in adaptive thermogenesis via cell autonomous and non-autonomous effects and regulate systemic glucose metabolism in mice.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Proteolysis of fibrillin-2 microfibrils is essential for normal skeletal development

    Timothy J Mead, Daniel R Martin ... Suneel S Apte
    Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibrillin-2 by the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS6 influences skeletal development by modulating fibrillin microfibril abundance and GDF5/BMP signaling, illustrating the crucial role of extracellular matrix proteostatic mechanisms in growth factor regulation during morphogenesis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    METTL3 promotes homologous recombination repair and modulates chemotherapeutic response in breast cancer by regulating the EGF/RAD51 axis

    Enjie Li, Mingyue Xia ... Zhigang Guo
    Biochemical approaches and cellular experiments show a novel effect of METTL3 on homologous recombination repair and chemotherapeutic response via the m6A-YTHDC1-dependent regulation of the EGF/RAD51 axis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Auditory mismatch responses are differentially sensitive to changes in muscarinic acetylcholine versus dopamine receptor function

    Lilian Aline Weber, Sara Tomiello ... Klaas Enno Stephan
    Biperiden, but not amisulpride, delays auditory mismatch responses during environmental stability, suggesting a differential sensitivity of auditory statistical learning to muscarinic versus dopaminergic receptor status which could prove useful for developing tests that predict an individual's response to antipsychotic treatment.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The Jurassic rise of squamates as supported by lepidosaur disparity and evolutionary rates

    Arnau Bolet, Thomas L Stubbs ... Michael J Benton
    Evidence for a largely unexplored radiation of squamates (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) in the Middle to Late Jurassic is revealed by analyses of morphospace expansion, disparity, and evolutionary rates.
    1. Neuroscience

    Eye movements reveal spatiotemporal dynamics of visually-informed planning in navigation

    Seren Zhu, Kaushik J Lakshminarasimhan ... Dora E Angelaki
    The spatial and temporal patterns of eye movements exhibited by humans in virtual reality reveal how they plan paths when navigating in complex, naturalistic environments.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Post-translational modification patterns on β-myosin heavy chain are altered in ischemic and nonischemic human hearts

    Maicon Landim-Vieira, Matthew C Childers ... Michelle S Parvatiyar
    Analytical techniques and computational models reveal novel post-translational modifications on β-myosin heavy chain in the human hearts and highlight their potential as therapeutic targets.