October 2019

Cover articles

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Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Functional clustering of dendritic activity during decision-making

    Aaron Kerlin et al.
    In motor cortex pyramidal neurons, diverse task-related signals are distributed throughout the dendritic arbor and compartmentalized by dendritic distance and branching.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Transient protein accumulation at the center of the T cell antigen-presenting cell interface drives efficient IL-2 secretion

    Danielle J Clark et al.
    A membrane-associated, supramolecular protein complex with dynamically changing components, the central supramolecular activation cluster, regulates the generation of the T cell effector cytokine IL-2 depending on its composition.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Kv2.1 mediates spatial and functional coupling of L-type calcium channels and ryanodine receptors in mammalian neurons

    Nicholas C Vierra et al.
    A potassium channel, as a nonconducting function, organizes compartmentalized neuronal calcium signaling microdomains via structural and functional coupling of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    SCGN deficiency results in colitis susceptibility

    Luis F Sifuentes-Dominguez et al.
    A novel mutation in SCGN is associated with risk for inflammatory bowel disease and implicates the intestinal neuroendocrine compartment in the pathogenesis of this disorder.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    One-step efficient generation of dual-function conditional knockout and geno-tagging alleles in zebrafish

    Wenyuan Li et al.
    Conditional gene knockout in combination with fluorescent labeling of different alleles can be achieved with high efficiency in zebrafish through NHEJ-mediated targeted insertion using a CRISPR/Cas system.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    PPM1H phosphatase counteracts LRRK2 signaling by selectively dephosphorylating Rab proteins

    Kerryn Berndsen et al.
    PPM1H protein phosphatase dephosphorylates Rab proteins modulating LRRK2 signalling.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Modeling the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in humans during malaria infection

    Pengxing Cao et al.
    A mathematical model of blood-stage infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria capturing the sexual stage of the parasite life-cycle is validated against human data, providing new insight into human-to-mosquito transmission.
    1. Neuroscience

    Peptidoglycan-dependent NF-κB activation in a small subset of brain octopaminergic neurons controls female oviposition

    Ambra Masuzzo et al.
    The universal bacteria cell wall component peptidoglycan impacts the egg-laying behavior of infected Drosophila females by directly modulating the activity of few brain octopaminergic neurons.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cerebellar climbing fibers encode expected reward size

    Noga Larry et al.
    Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys reveal that cerebellar complex spikes encode future reward size when reward information is first made available, but not during reward delivery or smooth pursuit eye movement.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional connectivity in human auditory networks and the origins of variation in the transmission of musical systems

    Massimo Lumaca et al.
    Resting-state functional connectivity between core regions of fronto-temporal auditory networks can distinguish music transmitters from innovators.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The lysosomal transporter MFSD1 is essential for liver homeostasis and critically depends on its accessory subunit GLMP

    David Massa López et al.
    The so far uncharacterized lysosomal transporter protein MFSD1 is essential for liver homeostasis and needs the highly glycosylated GLMP protein as an accessory subunit for stability.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Amidst multiple binding orientations on fork DNA, Saccharolobus MCM helicase proceeds N-first for unwinding

    Himasha M Perera, Michael A Trakselis
    The archaeal MCM helicase can load in multiple orientations on DNA but translocation proceeds with a leading N-terminal domain, which affects double hexamer activation at origins of replication.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Transverse tubule remodeling enhances Orai1-dependent Ca2+ entry in skeletal muscle

    Antonio Michelucci et al.
    Structural and functional analyses show that transverse tubule association with stacks of sarcoplasmic reticulum enhances Orai1-dependent Ca2+ entry to replenish Ca2+ stores, maintain Ca2+ release, and maximize force during exercise.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Mechanisms of virus dissemination in bone marrow of HIV-1–infected humanized BLT mice

    Mark S Ladinsky et al.
    Large-volume light microscopy combined with higher-resolution electron tomography revealed the spatial distribution of virus-producing cells and highlighted mechanisms of HIV-1 dissemination in bone marrow from a small animal model.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Cholesterol accessibility at the ciliary membrane controls hedgehog signaling

    Maia Kinnebrew et al.
    The patched hedgehog receptor inhibits the transmembrane transducer smoothened by reducing the accessibility of cholesterol locally at the membrane of the primary cilium.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dendritic NMDA receptors in parvalbumin neurons enable strong and stable neuronal assemblies

    Jonathan H Cornford et al.
    NMDA receptors on PV+ interneurons mediate supralinear integration at feedback synapses from local pyramidal neurons, enabling competing networks to ‘lock’ onto salient inputs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Endothelin signalling mediates experience-dependent myelination in the CNS

    Matthew Swire et al.
    Endothelin signalling, regulated by changes in neuronal activity associated with experience, influences the number of myelin sheaths formed by individual oligodendrocytes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Robust olfactory responses in the absence of odorant binding proteins

    Shuke Xiao et al.
    Although odorant binding proteins are widely believed to be required for transport of odorants to receptors, six types of sensilla of Drosophila respond robustly in their absence to many odor stimuli.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Comment on 'Single nucleus sequencing reveals evidence of inter-nucleus recombination in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi'

    Benjamin Auxier, Anna Bazzicalupo
    We are writing to comment on the article by Chen et al. (2018) about inter-nucleus recombination in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The GATOR complex regulates an essential response to meiotic double-stranded breaks in Drosophila

    Youheng Wei et al.
    The GATOR complex regulates TORC1 activity during meiosis.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Phage integration alters the respiratory strategy of its host

    Jeffrey N Carey et al.
    A temperate bacteriophage reprograms the oxygen response of a bacterial signaling system by replacing a host-encoded promoter with a phage-encoded promoter.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Evolutionary and functional insights into the mechanism underlying body-size-related adaptation of mammalian hemoglobin

    Olga Rapp, Ofer Yifrach
    Hemoglobin affinity and cooperativity reveal mechanistic insights in how the relation between physiology and evolutionary variations shape a protein's molecular property.
    1. Neuroscience

    Single-cell transcriptomes and whole-brain projections of serotonin neurons in the mouse dorsal and median raphe nuclei

    Jing Ren et al.
    The combination of single-cell transcriptomics and whole-brain mapping of bulk and single-cell projections reveals the relationship between the molecular architecture, cell body distribution, and axonal arborization of serotonin neurons.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure-based characterization of novel TRPV5 inhibitors

    Taylor ET Hughes et al.
    Structure-based virtual screening reveals multiple novel TRPV5 inhibitors that bind and exert their effect from previously unidentified binding sites as characterized by cryo-electron microscopy and electrophysiology.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The Tudor SND1 protein is an m6A RNA reader essential for replication of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

    Belinda Baquero-Perez et al.
    SND1 has m6A-reading ability and is essential for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated lytic replication.
    1. Cell Biology

    Native adiponectin in serum binds to mammalian cells expressing T-cadherin, but not AdipoRs or calreticulin

    Shunbun Kita et al.
    Binding study of native adiponectin existing in serum supported the importance of T-cadherin but not AdipoRs nor calreticulin.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Discovery proteomics in aging human skeletal muscle finds change in spliceosome, immunity, proteostasis and mitochondria

    Ceereena Ubaida-Mohien et al.
    The changes in the skeletal muscle proteome with age indicate the roots of the decline in muscle function with age.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural precursors of decisions that matter—an ERP study of deliberate and arbitrary choice

    Uri Maoz et al.
    The readiness potential—a long-established neural precursor of voluntary action claimed to precede the onset of the conscious decision to move—is absent, or at least significantly reduced, for deliberate decisions.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Single cell analysis reveals immune cell–adipocyte crosstalk regulating the transcription of thermogenic adipocytes

    Prashant Rajbhandari et al.
    Crosstalk between IL10-producing immune cells and adipocytes within adipose tissue is an important determinant of thermogenesis and systemic energy balance.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Herpes simplex viral nucleoprotein creates a competitive transcriptional environment facilitating robust viral transcription and host shut off

    Sarah E Dremel, Neal A DeLuca
    Herpes simplex ICP4 preferentially binds to and delineates the viral genome, ultimately resulting in robust viral transcription at the expense of the host.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    An evolutionary recent IFN/IL-6/CEBP axis is linked to monocyte expansion and tuberculosis severity in humans

    Murilo Delgobo et al.
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis exploits an IFN/IL6/CEBP axis linked to monocyte expansion in humans.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Extraocular, rod-like photoreceptors in a flatworm express xenopsin photopigment

    Kate A Rawlinson et al.
    A new opsin receptor is light-sensitive and expressed in a unique type of photoreceptor in a flatworm that encloses over 400 sensory cilia within its cell membrane.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural tracking of speech mental imagery during rhythmic inner counting

    Lingxi Lu et al.
    A disassociated neural network underlies the dynamic construction of speech mental imagery independent of auditory perception.
    1. Developmental Biology

    ZP4 confers structural properties to the zona pellucida essential for embryo development

    Ismael Lamas-Toranzo et al.
    Zona pellucida requires ZP4 protein to efficiently protect the developing embryo during in vivo pre-implantation development.
    1. Ecology

    Experimental investigation of ant traffic under crowded conditions

    Laure-Anne Poissonnier et al.
    Behavioral experiments reveal that ants, contrary to humans, avoid the formation of traffic jams at extreme density.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Local human movement patterns and land use impact exposure to zoonotic malaria in Malaysian Borneo

    Kimberly M Fornace et al.
    Local human movement into mosquito habitats around forest edges intensifies interactions between pathogens, insects and people, increasing exposure risks to the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysian Borneo.
    1. Ecology

    Group-specific archaeological signatures of stone tool use in wild macaques

    Lydia V Luncz et al.
    Tool behaviour of long-tailed macaques leaves archaeological signatures that differ between populations despite similar ecological conditions, highlighting the potential for diversity in material culture.
    1. Neuroscience

    Fixation-pattern similarity analysis reveals adaptive changes in face-viewing strategies following aversive learning

    Lea Kampermann et al.
    A novel approach based on eye-movement patterns reveals adaptive changes during viewing of faces and fear generalization.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Inducing conformational preference of the membrane protein transporter EmrE through conservative mutations

    Maureen Leninger et al.
    Conservative mutations within a secondary active transport protein influenced the conformational equilibrium probed using NMR spectroscopy which correlated to the functional output in vivo.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genetically diverse uropathogenic Escherichia coli adopt a common transcriptional program in patients with UTIs

    Anna Sintsova et al.
    Conserved transcriptomic profile of uropathogenic E. coli in patients identifies an infection-specific metabolic state.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cis-regulatory basis of sister cell type divergence in the vertebrate retina

    Daniel P Murphy et al.
    While photoreceptor and bipolar cells exhibit very similar cis-regulatory grammars, subtle differences in homeodomain motif enrichment represent a key distinction driving the divergence in their transcriptomes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Population rate-coding predicts correctly that human sound localization depends on sound intensity

    Antje Ihlefeld et al.
    Softer sound appears closer to midline than louder sound, conflicting with a labelled-line representation of auditory space and supporting the idea that humans use rate coding when calculating sound directionality.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    An ancestral apical brain region contributes to the central complex under the control of foxQ2 in the beetle Tribolium

    Bicheng He et al.
    An ancestral apical brain center contributed to the evolution of the insect central complex requiring foxQ2, which is essential for the development of midline structures of the insect brain.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Plasticity of cell migration resulting from mechanochemical coupling

    Yuansheng Cao et al.
    Computational and experimental studies show that different migration modes of eukaryotic cells are the result of the interplay between signaling waves and cell mechanics.
    1. Neuroscience

    A bidirectional network for appetite control in larval zebrafish

    Caroline Lei Wee et al.
    Brain imaging and behavioral analysis reveal two opposing states of hunger, represented by anti-correlated lateral and caudal hypothalamic dynamics that are important for the homeostatic control of feeding in zebrafish.
    1. Neuroscience

    Monosynaptic tracing maps brain-wide afferent oligodendrocyte precursor cell connectivity

    Christopher W Mount et al.
    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells receive brain-wide, circuit-specific intracortical, coritcocortical and thalamocortical synaptic inputs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Independent representations of ipsilateral and contralateral limbs in primary motor cortex

    Ethan A Heming et al.
    Neural recordings demonstrate how information about the contralateral limb can be isolated from the ipsilateral limb in motor cortex.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Sexual transmission of murine papillomavirus (MmuPV1) in Mus musculus

    Megan E Spurgeon, Paul F Lambert
    MmuPV1, a papillomavirus that infects laboratory mice (Mus musculus), is discovered to be sexually transmitted, providing a new animal virus model to study sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPVs).
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct recruitment of dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum erodes with extended training

    Youna Vandaele et al.
    Dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal neural activity differ during early learning of action sequences but do not change with performance improvement across sessions, and become similar after extended training.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Control of RNA viruses in mosquito cells through the acquisition of vDNA and endogenous viral elements

    Michel Tassetto et al.
    Virus infection in mosquitoes initiates a highly discriminatory process in which fragments of viral RNA are reverse transcribed to create DNA copies that serve as templates of small antiviral RNAs.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Identification of an allosteric binding site on the human glycine transporter, GlyT2, for bioactive lipid analgesics

    Shannon N Mostyn et al.
    Identification of how bioactive lipids bind and inhibit glycine transporters has the potential to be exploited in the development of a new class of analgesics for chronic pain.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    ASPEN, a methodology for reconstructing protein evolution with improved accuracy using ensemble models

    Roman Sloutsky, Kristen M Naegle
    Using different sets of input sequences to evolutionary reconstruction algorithms results in the exploration of many possible models, the intergration over which produces significantly more accurate models.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Obesity-linked suppression of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 7 (MBOAT7) drives non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Robert N Helsley et al.
    Loss of function of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 7 (MBOAT7), but not transmembrane channel-like 4 (TMC4), promotes hepatic steatosis.
    1. Neuroscience

    During hippocampal inactivation, grid cells maintain synchrony, even when the grid pattern is lost

    Noam Almog et al.
    Grid cells lose their hexagonality during hippocampal inactivation, but maintain temporal and spatial synchrony between pairs of cells, implying that hippocampus does not determine phase relations between grid cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    A statistical framework to assess cross-frequency coupling while accounting for confounding analysis effects

    Jessica K Nadalin et al.
    A new measure for cross-frequency coupling assesses phase-amplitude coupling and amplitude-amplitude coupling, and accounts for confounding factors such as low-frequency amplitude fluctuations, using a flexible statistical modeling approach.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Bacterial survival in microscopic surface wetness

    Maor Grinberg et al.
    A new intricate reciprocity between microbiology and physics results in collective protection from desiccation through differential formation of stable microdroplets around bacterial aggregates on surfaces drying under moderate humidity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural diversity of oligomeric β-propellers with different numbers of identical blades

    Evgenia Afanasieva et al.
    A protein fragment forms different folded structures when amplified to different copy numbers within a single polypeptide chain.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The Mars1 kinase confers photoprotection through signaling in the chloroplast unfolded protein response

    Karina Perlaza et al.
    A genetic screen in a unicellular photosynthetic organism uncovers the first essential signaling component in the chloroplast unfolded protein response that relays information from the chloroplast to the nuclear compartment.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Dissection of central clock function in Drosophila through cell-specific CRISPR-mediated clock gene disruption

    Rebecca Delventhal et al.
    Through novel, cell-specific CRISPR tools to disrupt molecular clock genes, it was revealed that circadian rhythms are coordinated through a network, rather than by the clock of 'master regulatory' neurons.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Electron transport chain biogenesis activated by a JNK-insulin-Myc relay primes mitochondrial inheritance in Drosophila

    Zong-Heng Wang et al.
    An insulin-Myc feed-forward loop triggered by transient JNK boosts transcription of genes essential for mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis during early oogenesis to support massive mtDNA replication and inheritance in Drosophila.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Epigenetic memory independent of symmetric histone inheritance

    Daniel S Saxton, Jasper Rine
    Reduced fidelity of histone inheritance has minimal effects on inheritance of epigenetic states of heterochromatin in Saccharomyces..
    1. Neuroscience

    Metabolic stress is a primary pathogenic event in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing pan-neuronal human amyloid beta

    Emelyne Teo et al.
    Metabolic defects following expression of Aβ1-42 in nematode neurons are partially caused by inactivation of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and can be rescued by Metformin.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rare missense variants in the human cytosolic antibody receptor preserve antiviral function

    Jingwei Zeng et al.
    Studying the impact of natural variation on a key immune gene highlights how focusing on a single wild-type sequence overlooks that rare variants cause the most disease.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Near-infrared dual bioluminescence imaging in mouse models of cancer using infraluciferin

    Cassandra L Stowe et al.
    Two cellular populations can be tracked in the same small animal model using near-infrared bioluminescence imaging, for the first time opening up the window for multi-coloured bioluminescence.
    1. Neuroscience

    Tonotopic and non-auditory organization of the mouse dorsal inferior colliculus revealed by two-photon imaging

    Aaron Benson Wong, J Gerard G Borst
    A spatial analysis of auditory and non-auditory properties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the mouse dorsal inferior colliculus defines the border between the lateral and the dorsal cortex.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Implementation of an antibody characterization procedure and application to the major ALS/FTD disease gene C9ORF72

    Carl Laflamme et al.
    An easy-to-implement antibody validation pipeline addresses the reproducibility crisis resulting from the use of non-specific antibodies.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The yellow gene influences Drosophila male mating success through sex comb melanization

    Jonathan H Massey et al.
    Melanization of a secondary sexual structure facilitates male mating success in Drosophila.
    1. Neuroscience

    Complementary encoding of priors in monkey frontoparietal network supports a dual process of decision-making

    Lalitta Suriya-Arunroj, Alexander Gail
    Probability of upcoming actions modulates subclasses of neurons in frontoparietal motor-planning areas in a complementary fashion and frontal-lobe processing takes the leading role when primates commit to a decision.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neuron-specific knockouts indicate the importance of network communication to Drosophila rhythmicity

    Matthias Schlichting et al.
    Network silencing experiments and cell-specific CRISPR/Cas9 knockouts suggest that network communication is necessary for generating robust rhythms within the clock neuron network.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Inhibition of ErbB kinase signalling promotes resolution of neutrophilic inflammation

    Atiqur Rahman et al.
    Targeting ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases modifies neutrophil survival and inflammation across multiple species, and reveals a new use for ErbB therapeutics in resolving inflammatory disease.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure-based inhibitors of amyloid beta core suggest a common interface with tau

    Sarah L Griner et al.
    Aβ inhibitors effectively block its aggregation, while also reducing seeding of tau aggregation from Aβ, tau, and AD derived fibrils, suggesting the two share a structurally related disease relevant interface.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Transcriptome dynamics of the Myxococcus xanthus multicellular developmental program

    José Muñoz-Dorado et al.
    Investigation of global gene expression profiles during formation of the Myxococcus xanthus specialized biofilm reveals a genetic regulatory network that coordinates cell motility, differentiation, and secondary metabolite production.
    1. Neuroscience

    Novel long-range inhibitory nNOS-expressing hippocampal cells

    Zoé Christenson Wick et al.
    An intersectional genetic vector approach allows the identification and characterization of novel hippocampal inhibitory neurons with both broad local connectivity within CA1 and long-range projections to several extrahippocampal areas.
    1. Cell Biology

    β-blockers augment L-type Ca2+ channel activity by targeting spatially restricted β2AR signaling in neurons

    Ao Shen et al.
    FRET biosensor-based measurement of cAMP signaling and single-channel recording reveal that β-blockers trigger local activation of adrenergic receptors and calcium channels in primary neurons.
    1. Cell Biology

    Brain-specific Drp1 regulates postsynaptic endocytosis and dendrite formation independently of mitochondrial division

    Kie Itoh et al.
    Genetic and cell biological analyses reveal a new role of Drp1 in postsynaptic endocytosis during brain development beyond mitochondrial division GTPase.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Natural Tr1-like cells do not confer long-term tolerogenic memory

    Koshika Yadava et al.
    Natural Tr1-like cells do not form a functionally stable memory response to allergens, and this instability may limit efforts to re-establish tolerance by expanding Tr1.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    CTCF confers local nucleosome resiliency after DNA replication and during mitosis

    Nick Owens et al.
    In contrast to other transcription factors, CTCF and Esrrb rapidly regain binding after replication and remain bound to their targets during mitosis, preserving local nucleosome organization throughout the cell cycle.
    1. Cell Biology

    Selective clearance of the inner nuclear membrane protein emerin by vesicular transport during ER stress

    Abigail Buchwalter et al.
    Emerin, a protein that plays key roles in nuclear organization, can be dynamically degraded in response to environmental stimuli such as ER stress.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A single regulator NrtR controls bacterial NAD+ homeostasis via its acetylation

    Rongsui Gao et al.
    Functional definition of NrtR and the discovery of its acetylation represents a first paradigm for linking protein acetylation to bacterial central NAD+ metabolism.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Mitochondrial fusion is required for spermatogonial differentiation and meiosis

    Grigor Varuzhanyan et al.
    Mitochondrial fusion enables a metabolic transition during spermatogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Motor cortex signals for each arm are mixed across hemispheres and neurons yet partitioned within the population response

    Katherine Cora Ames, Mark M Churchland
    Neurons in motor cortex contain information about each arm, but these signals are separated into different dimensions, allowing separate control of each arm.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Discrete viral E2 lysine residues and scavenger receptor MARCO are required for clearance of circulating alphaviruses

    Kathryn S Carpentier et al.
    The scavenger receptor MARCO and liver phagocytes are required for clearance of circulating alphavirus particles and thereby limit viremia and viral dissemination.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Cocaine-induced endocannabinoid signaling mediated by sigma-1 receptors and extracellular vesicle secretion

    Yoki Nakamura et al.
    Non-synaptic extracellular vesicles may be involved in the release of endogenous cannabinoids in the central nervous system thereby representing a novel mechanism to mediate their effects on synaptic transmission.
    1. Neuroscience

    Electrocorticographic dissociation of alpha and beta rhythmic activity in the human sensorimotor system

    Arjen Stolk et al.
    Direct cortical recordings in humans link the spectral structure of local field potentials to inhibition/disinhibition mechanisms coordinating sensorimotor neuronal populations during movement imagery.
    1. Neuroscience

    Modular organization of cerebellar climbing fiber inputs during goal-directed behavior

    Shinichiro Tsutsumi et al.
    Motor and non-motor functions are represented in spatially segregated and temporally organized climbing fiber signals to distinct cerebellar zones during goal-directed behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    A neural mechanism for contextualizing fragmented inputs during naturalistic vision

    Daniel Kaiser et al.
    In scene-selective occipital cortex and within 200 ms of processing, visual inputs are sorted according to their typical spatial position within a scene.
    1. Neuroscience

    Pretectal neurons control hunting behaviour

    Paride Antinucci et al.
    A discrete population of genetically accessible pretectal neurons controls visually guided hunting behaviour in larval zebrafish.
    1. Neuroscience

    Olfactory connectivity mediates sleep-dependent food choices in humans

    Surabhi Bhutani et al.
    Sleep deprivation enhances energy-dense food choices and encoding of olfactory information in the human brain.
    1. Neuroscience

    A primal role for the vestibular sense in the development of coordinated locomotion

    David E Ehrlich, David Schoppik
    Zebrafish use their sense of gravity and their cerebellum to coordinate the fin and body movements that, as they develop, allow them to better maintain balance as they climb.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stereotyped transcriptomic transformation of somatosensory neurons in response to injury

    Minh Q Nguyen et al.
    Peripheral injury induces a programmed but reversible transformation of gene expression in somatosensory neurons providing a mechanism to regulate sensory input during wound healing.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Epistasis and entrenchment of drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype B

    Avik Biswas et al.
    Drug resistance in HIV is the result of mutations, which affect fitness depending on epistatic interactions with the entire sequence background that varies within and between patient populations.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Embryo polarity in moth flies and mosquitoes relies on distinct old genes with localized transcript isoforms

    Yoseop Yoon et al.
    Isoform-specific transcript localization underlies the evolutionary diversity of anterior axis determinants in embryos of dipteran insects.
    1. Neuroscience

    Structured inhibitory activity dynamics in new virtual environments

    Moises Arriaga, Edward B Han
    Inhibitory interneuron activity is dynamically modulated in new environments while individual interneurons show consistent levels of activity modulation across multiple environments, suggesting functional specialization of inhibitory subnetworks.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Stimulation of Piezo1 by mechanical signals promotes bone anabolism

    Xuehua Li et al.
    Mechanical stimuli activate Piezo1 in osteoblast lineage cells and thereby promote bone formation in part via Wnt1.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Ctf4 organizes sister replisomes and Pol α into a replication factory

    Zuanning Yuan et al.
    Eukaryotic replisomes are strongly connected together to replicate both sister DNAs produced from a bidirectional origin.
    1. Neuroscience

    Visualizing endogenous opioid receptors in living neurons using ligand-directed chemistry

    Seksiri Arttamangkul et al.
    Opioid sensitive neurons were identified using a traceless affinity labeling strategy to covalently label endogenous mu-opioid receptors with fluorescent compounds in living brain slices from wild type animals.
    1. Plant Biology

    Dynamic ubiquitination determines transcriptional activity of the plant immune coactivator NPR1

    Michael J Skelly et al.
    Expression of plant immune genes is controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases that modify the master coactivator NPR1, thereby regulating its intrinsic transcriptional activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    DeepFly3D, a deep learning-based approach for 3D limb and appendage tracking in tethered, adult Drosophila

    Semih Günel et al.
    DeepFly3D, a deep learning-based software, measures limb and appendage movements in tethered, behaving Drosophila and enables precise behavioral measurements during neural recordings, stimulation, and other biological experiments.
    1. Neuroscience

    C. elegans neurons have functional dendritic spines

    Andrea Cuentas-Condori et al.
    Caenorhabditis elegans has bona fide dendritic spines, suggesting that the advantages of small model organisms, such as genetic manipulations and live-cell imaging, can be exploited to study dendritic spines.
    1. Neuroscience

    In vivo functional diversity of midbrain dopamine neurons within identified axonal projections

    Navid Farassat et al.
    Midbrain dopamine neurons function according to their axonal projections in the intact brain.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Endothelial PKA activity regulates angiogenesis by limiting autophagy through phosphorylation of ATG16L1

    Xiaocheng Zhao et al.
    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A controls the switch from actively sprouting new blood vessel formation to vessel quiescence by reducing endothelial autophagy through phosphorylation-mediated destabilisation of ATG16L1.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structures of the human glutamine transporter SLC1A5 (ASCT2) in the outward-facing conformation

    Xiaodi Yu et al.
    Cryo-EM structures of unliganded SLC1A5 and its complex with glutamine in outward-facing state provide insights into the substrate specificity and transport mechanism and will be helpful for developing selective inhibitors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Presenilin/γ-secretase-dependent EphA3 processing mediates axon elongation through non-muscle myosin IIA

    Míriam Javier-Torrent et al.
    EphA signaling plays dual opposite roles on axon dynamics in neurons, so it inhibits and promotes axon growth through ligand binding and receptor processing, respectively.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Differential requirements for cyclase-associated protein (CAP) in actin-dependent processes of Toxoplasma gondii

    Alex Hunt et al.
    Partially overlapping functions of a limited subset of actin binding proteins allow the parasite Toxoplasma gondii to achieve actin regulation required for complex cellular processes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Matrix metalloproteinase 1 modulates invasive behavior of tracheal branches during entry into Drosophila flight muscles

    Julia Sauerwald et al.
    Tracheal-derived matrix metalloproteinase 1 activity sustains tracheal branch invasion into myotubes by modulating ECM properties and dynamic behavior of sprouting tip cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Balancing model-based and memory-free action selection under competitive pressure

    Atsushi Kikumoto, Ulrich Mayr
    People compete by trying to outsmart their opponents as long as they win, but show random behavior, and neural signs of suppressing knowledge about opponents’ strategies, when they lose.
    1. Developmental Biology

    N-cadherin-regulated FGFR ubiquitination and degradation control mammalian neocortical projection neuron migration

    Elif Kon et al.
    FGFRs regulate multipolar cortical neuron orientation and the morphological change into bipolar cells in vivo under the control of N-Cadherin and the extracellular matrix protein Reelin.
    1. Cell Biology

    Regulated spindle orientation buffers tissue growth in the epidermis

    Angel Morrow et al.
    The epidermis uses regulated spindle orientation to maintain robust homeostasis in response to perturbations in proliferation or differentiation.
    1. Ecology

    Linking spatial patterns of terrestrial herbivore community structure to trophic interactions

    Jakub Witold Bubnicki et al.
    The spatial interactions between humans, large carnivores and herbivores cascade down in a complex but predictable way to lower trophic levels affecting regeneration of tree species in a temperate forest.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Hemozoin produced by mammals confers heme tolerance

    Rini H Pek et al.
    Heme accumulation is toxic, but deficiency of the heme transporter HRG1/SLC48A1 causes heme sequestration and crystallization into hemozoin within enlarged lysosomes of macrophages, thereby conferring heme tolerance to mammals.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional brain alterations following mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss in children

    Axelle Calcus et al.
    Mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss causes changes in the neurophysiological functioning that emerge during adolescence, as suggested by both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The tardigrade damage suppressor protein binds to nucleosomes and protects DNA from hydroxyl radicals

    Carolina Chavez et al.
    Dsup, a unique protein found only in tardigrades, is a nucleosome-binding protein that protects DNA from damage by hydroxyl radicals, such as those generated by ionizing radiation or oxidants.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The regulation of oocyte maturation and ovulation in the closest sister group of vertebrates

    Shin Matsubara et al.
    Oocyte maturation and ovulation in the sister group of vertebrates, Ciona intestinalis Type A, are triggered by Ci-VP, the Ciona homolog of a typical neruopeptide, vasopressin.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Diverse deep-sea anglerfishes share a genetically reduced luminous symbiont that is acquired from the environment

    Lydia J Baker et al.
    Environmental transmission is atypical of symbionts that have undergone genome degradation, yet genetically reduced deep-sea anglerfish symbionts likely persist in the deep sea biome in search of a new host.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    High-endothelial cell-derived S1P regulates dendritic cell localization and vascular integrity in the lymph node

    Szandor Simmons et al.
    Impairment of the autocrine S1PR1-Gi signaling on HEVs results in high-endothelial cell apoptosis, reduced CCL21-secretion from HEVs, and cessation of HEV-DC interactions and lymphocyte immigration across the high-endothelial barrier.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Taste bud formation depends on taste nerves

    Di Fan et al.
    The sensory nerves that carry sensations from the taste buds to the brain induce the formation of the taste buds in the embryo.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Size control of the inner ear via hydraulic feedback

    Kishore R Mosaliganti et al.
    Size regulation of the otic vesicle, the progenitor of the inner ear, is mediated by mechanical feedback involving fluid influx, hydraulic pressure, and tissue mechanics.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Fog signaling has diverse roles in epithelial morphogenesis in insects

    Matthew Alan Benton et al.
    Fog signaling with a narrow morphogenetic role in Drosophila has a deeply conserved function in epithelial morphogenesis across insects.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Adaptation to mutational inactivation of an essential gene converges to an accessible suboptimal fitness peak

    João V Rodrigues, Eugene I Shakhnovich
    When an essential metabolic gene in E. coli is mutationally inactivated, subsequent evolution rarely reverts the mutation to wild type but rather follows unexpected paths that rewire metabolic fluxes.
    1. Ecology

    Adaptive thermal plasticity enhances sperm and egg performance in a model insect

    Ramakrishnan Vasudeva et al.
    Sperm and egg development are temperature sensitive, enabling males and females to significantly improve their reproductive success by matching gamete function to varying thermal environments for fertilisation and offspring development.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Interplay of disordered and ordered regions of a human small heat shock protein yields an ensemble of ‘quasi-ordered’ states

    Amanda F Clouser et al.
    Multiple iso-energetic-specific interactions involving the intrinsically-disordered region of sHSP HSPB1 define a quasi-ordered state, providing insights into inherited disease-associated mutations within the region that are thought to be disordered.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    H3K9me2 orchestrates inheritance of spatial positioning of peripheral heterochromatin through mitosis

    Andrey Poleshko et al.
    The histone modification H3K9me2 marks peripheral heterochromatin and ensures positional information is safeguarded through cell division such that individual lamina-associated domains are re-established at the nuclear periphery in daughter nuclei.

Magazine

  1. Mental Health in Academia

    Edited by Elsa Loissel et al.
  2. Living Science: Power analysis

    Indira M Raman