After developing a force-gliding assay with nanometer and piconewton precision, it is concluded that multiple kinesins driving a single cargo induces tension, resulting in smooth cargo transport, even with roadblocks.
A membrane-associated, supramolecular protein complex with dynamically changing components, the central supramolecular activation cluster, regulates the generation of the T cell effector cytokine IL-2 depending on its composition.
A potassium channel, as a nonconducting function, organizes compartmentalized neuronal calcium signaling microdomains via structural and functional coupling of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels.
Conditional gene knockout in combination with fluorescent labeling of different alleles can be achieved with high efficiency in zebrafish through NHEJ-mediated targeted insertion using a CRISPR/Cas system.
Genetic analysis of a CLN4 Drosophila model suggests that the disease-causing alleles act as dominant gain of function mutations that cause CSPα oligomerization and impair secretory and prelysosomal trafficking.
In mammals, the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 acquired a proline-rich sequence that negatively regulates the spontaneous release of glutamate by reducing the exchange of synaptic vesicles along the axon.
A mathematical model of blood-stage infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria capturing the sexual stage of the parasite life-cycle is validated against human data, providing new insight into human-to-mosquito transmission.
Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys reveal that cerebellar complex spikes encode future reward size when reward information is first made available, but not during reward delivery or smooth pursuit eye movement.
Other than its function in mechanotransduction, TMC1 is indispensable for action potential firing of auditory hair cells by mediating a leak conductance that alters tonotopically along the cochlea coil.
Large-volume light microscopy combined with higher-resolution electron tomography revealed the spatial distribution of virus-producing cells and highlighted mechanisms of HIV-1 dissemination in bone marrow from a small animal model.
Structural and functional analyses show that transverse tubule association with stacks of sarcoplasmic reticulum enhances Orai1-dependent Ca2+ entry to replenish Ca2+ stores, maintain Ca2+ release, and maximize force during exercise.
The HCoV-229E coronavirus S-protein accommodates extensive mutational change and possesses hydrophilic subunit interfaces in the S2 region, features that provide new insights into immune evasion, cross-species transmission and membrane fusion.
Cellularization in Sphaeroforma arctica generates a self-organized structure that morphologically resembles an epithelium, and is associated with tightly regulated expression of cell adhesion pathways.
The combination of single-cell transcriptomics and whole-brain mapping of bulk and single-cell projections reveals the relationship between the molecular architecture, cell body distribution, and axonal arborization of serotonin neurons.
Structure-based virtual screening reveals multiple novel TRPV5 inhibitors that bind and exert their effect from previously unidentified binding sites as characterized by cryo-electron microscopy and electrophysiology.
Genome-wide association studies on a diallel yeast panel revealed the relevance of low-frequency variants on the phenotypic diversity and consequently on the missing heritability at a population-scale.
The electroconvulsive therapy induced electric field magnitude and laterality is related to volumetric increases in cortical and subcortical structures, but the association with clinical outcomes remains elusive.
The readiness potential—a long-established neural precursor of voluntary action claimed to precede the onset of the conscious decision to move—is absent, or at least significantly reduced, for deliberate decisions.
Local human movement into mosquito habitats around forest edges intensifies interactions between pathogens, insects and people, increasing exposure risks to the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysian Borneo.
Tool behaviour of long-tailed macaques leaves archaeological signatures that differ between populations despite similar ecological conditions, highlighting the potential for diversity in material culture.
Notch ligands from the Delta and Jagged families have distinct roles in epithelial progenitor cell fate of extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways and differentially restrict expansion of the neuroendocrine microenvironment.
While photoreceptor and bipolar cells exhibit very similar cis-regulatory grammars, subtle differences in homeodomain motif enrichment represent a key distinction driving the divergence in their transcriptomes.
Softer sound appears closer to midline than louder sound, conflicting with a labelled-line representation of auditory space and supporting the idea that humans use rate coding when calculating sound directionality.
Brain imaging and behavioral analysis reveal two opposing states of hunger, represented by anti-correlated lateral and caudal hypothalamic dynamics that are important for the homeostatic control of feeding in zebrafish.
MmuPV1, a papillomavirus that infects laboratory mice (Mus musculus), is discovered to be sexually transmitted, providing a new animal virus model to study sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPVs).
Dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal neural activity differ during early learning of action sequences but do not change with performance improvement across sessions, and become similar after extended training.
Using different sets of input sequences to evolutionary reconstruction algorithms results in the exploration of many possible models, the intergration over which produces significantly more accurate models.
Grid cells lose their hexagonality during hippocampal inactivation, but maintain temporal and spatial synchrony between pairs of cells, implying that hippocampus does not determine phase relations between grid cells.
A new measure for cross-frequency coupling assesses phase-amplitude coupling and amplitude-amplitude coupling, and accounts for confounding factors such as low-frequency amplitude fluctuations, using a flexible statistical modeling approach.
A new intricate reciprocity between microbiology and physics results in collective protection from desiccation through differential formation of stable microdroplets around bacterial aggregates on surfaces drying under moderate humidity.
A genetic screen in a unicellular photosynthetic organism uncovers the first essential signaling component in the chloroplast unfolded protein response that relays information from the chloroplast to the nuclear compartment.
Through novel, cell-specific CRISPR tools to disrupt molecular clock genes, it was revealed that circadian rhythms are coordinated through a network, rather than by the clock of 'master regulatory' neurons.
An insulin-Myc feed-forward loop triggered by transient JNK boosts transcription of genes essential for mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis during early oogenesis to support massive mtDNA replication and inheritance in Drosophila.
Probability of upcoming actions modulates subclasses of neurons in frontoparietal motor-planning areas in a complementary fashion and frontal-lobe processing takes the leading role when primates commit to a decision.
Aβ inhibitors effectively block its aggregation, while also reducing seeding of tau aggregation from Aβ, tau, and AD derived fibrils, suggesting the two share a structurally related disease relevant interface.
Activated Drosophila macrophages undergo transient metabolic remodeling towards Hypoxia inducible factor 1 α-driven aerobic glycolysis, a program that induces systemic metabolic changes and is crucial for resistance to infection.
Investigation of global gene expression profiles during formation of the Myxococcus xanthus specialized biofilm reveals a genetic regulatory network that coordinates cell motility, differentiation, and secondary metabolite production.
An intersectional genetic vector approach allows the identification and characterization of novel hippocampal inhibitory neurons with both broad local connectivity within CA1 and long-range projections to several extrahippocampal areas.
In contrast to other transcription factors, CTCF and Esrrb rapidly regain binding after replication and remain bound to their targets during mitosis, preserving local nucleosome organization throughout the cell cycle.
Non-synaptic extracellular vesicles may be involved in the release of endogenous cannabinoids in the central nervous system thereby representing a novel mechanism to mediate their effects on synaptic transmission.
Direct cortical recordings in humans link the spectral structure of local field potentials to inhibition/disinhibition mechanisms coordinating sensorimotor neuronal populations during movement imagery.
Reconstruction of transmission pathways of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using multiple genomes per host reveals great variation in the size of the transmission bottleneck and limited evidence for body site/phylogeny association.
Inhibitory interneuron activity is dynamically modulated in new environments while individual interneurons show consistent levels of activity modulation across multiple environments, suggesting functional specialization of inhibitory subnetworks.
Opioid sensitive neurons were identified using a traceless affinity labeling strategy to covalently label endogenous mu-opioid receptors with fluorescent compounds in living brain slices from wild type animals.
Expression of plant immune genes is controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases that modify the master coactivator NPR1, thereby regulating its intrinsic transcriptional activity.
DeepFly3D, a deep learning-based software, measures limb and appendage movements in tethered, behaving Drosophila and enables precise behavioral measurements during neural recordings, stimulation, and other biological experiments.
Caenorhabditis elegans has bona fide dendritic spines, suggesting that the advantages of small model organisms, such as genetic manipulations and live-cell imaging, can be exploited to study dendritic spines.
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A controls the switch from actively sprouting new blood vessel formation to vessel quiescence by reducing endothelial autophagy through phosphorylation-mediated destabilisation of ATG16L1.
Sterol kinetics and cell-based assays reveal a heretofore unknown step in cholesterol trafficking through the endolysosomal compartment, involving a direct functional interaction between NPC2 and lysosbisphosphatidic acid.
Cryo-EM structures of unliganded SLC1A5 and its complex with glutamine in outward-facing state provide insights into the substrate specificity and transport mechanism and will be helpful for developing selective inhibitors.
The spatial interactions between humans, large carnivores and herbivores cascade down in a complex but predictable way to lower trophic levels affecting regeneration of tree species in a temperate forest.
Heme accumulation is toxic, but deficiency of the heme transporter HRG1/SLC48A1 causes heme sequestration and crystallization into hemozoin within enlarged lysosomes of macrophages, thereby conferring heme tolerance to mammals.
Environmental transmission is atypical of symbionts that have undergone genome degradation, yet genetically reduced deep-sea anglerfish symbionts likely persist in the deep sea biome in search of a new host.
Impairment of the autocrine S1PR1-Gi signaling on HEVs results in high-endothelial cell apoptosis, reduced CCL21-secretion from HEVs, and cessation of HEV-DC interactions and lymphocyte immigration across the high-endothelial barrier.
The histone modification H3K9me2 marks peripheral heterochromatin and ensures positional information is safeguarded through cell division such that individual lamina-associated domains are re-established at the nuclear periphery in daughter nuclei.
Sperm and egg development are temperature sensitive, enabling males and females to significantly improve their reproductive success by matching gamete function to varying thermal environments for fertilisation and offspring development.
Multiple iso-energetic-specific interactions involving the intrinsically-disordered region of sHSP HSPB1 define a quasi-ordered state, providing insights into inherited disease-associated mutations within the region that are thought to be disordered.