August 2020

Research articles

    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Neural signatures of α2-Adrenergic agonist-induced unconsciousness and awakening by antagonist

    Jesus Javier Ballesteros et al.
    Instant performance recovery is possible following general anesthesia-induced unconsciousness using antagonist, and the brain dynamics return abruptly to the awake state without intermediate recovery states.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dissociable control of unconditioned responses and associative fear learning by parabrachial CGRP neurons

    Anna J Bowen et al.
    Parabrachial neurons expressing CGRP relay affective components of ascending pain information via distinct thalamic and amygdalar pathways, which together contribute to complementary aspects of adaptive threat responses.
    1. Cell Biology

    Orderly assembly underpinning built-in asymmetry in the yeast centrosome duplication cycle requires cyclin-dependent kinase

    Marco Geymonat et al.
    The polarized orientation of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast arises from spindle pole structural and functional asymmetry subject to cell cycle control.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Enteric glia as a source of neural progenitors in adult zebrafish

    Sarah McCallum et al.
    Characterization of a novel population of enteric nervous system glial cells in zebrafish reveals their proliferative and neurogenic properties under homeostatic conditions in adults, properties difficult to model in mammals.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    A cross-kingdom conserved ER-phagy receptor maintains endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis during stress

    Madlen Stephani et al.
    C53 bridges selective autophagy with ribosome-associated quality control at the endoplasmic reticulum.
    1. Neuroscience

    An essential role for MEF2C in the cortical response to loss of sleep in mice

    Theresa E Bjorness et al.
    The transcription factor, MEF2C, mediates a change in approximately one half of the expressed frontal cortical transcriptome controlling cellular metabolism and synaptic strength in response to acute loss of sleep.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortical RORβ is required for layer 4 transcriptional identity and barrel integrity

    Erin A Clark et al.
    RORβ is a key layer 4 transcription factor orchestrating a critical juncture in barrel development where terminal differentiation and activity inputs are integrated to drive cellular organization in the cortex.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Elongation inhibitors do not prevent the release of puromycylated nascent polypeptide chains from ribosomes

    Benjamin D Hobson et al.
    Although puromycin staining is often used to examine subcellular translation, puromycin-labeled proteins are rapidly released from ribosomes even in the presence of elongation inhibitors, which may confound translation site localization.
    1. Cell Biology

    A missense in HSF2BP causing primary ovarian insufficiency affects meiotic recombination by its novel interactor C19ORF57/BRME1

    Natalia Felipe-Medina et al.
    Genetic and biochemical analysis reveal a variant in HSF2BP causing POI and C19ORF57/BRME1 as an interactor and stabilizer of HSF2BP by forming a complex with BRCA2, RAD51, RPA and PALB2.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    PARP1 inhibitors trigger innate immunity via PARP1 trapping-induced DNA damage response

    Chiho Kim et al.
    Identification of PARP1 trapping as the major contributor of PARP1 inhibitor-induced innate immune response.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Clusters of polymorphic transmembrane genes control resistance to schistosomes in snail vectors

    Jacob A Tennessen et al.
    A region of the Biomphalaria genome, containing highly divergent haplotypes with different combinations of transmembrane genes, strongly impacts whether these snails can transmit parasitic schistosomes.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The nucleosome DNA entry-exit site is important for transcription termination and prevention of pervasive transcription

    A Elizabeth Hildreth et al.
    Disruption of the nucleosome DNA entry-exit site causes readthrough transcription of terminators, decreased nucleosome occupancy, and pervasive noncoding transcription, demonstrating this nucleosomal region protects the genome against inappropriate transcription.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Arginine methylation of SHANK2 by PRMT7 promotes human breast cancer metastasis through activating endosomal FAK signalling

    Yingqi Liu et al.
    PRMT7-mediated SHANK2 methylation regulates breast cancer metastasis by activating endosomal FAK signals, and may provide potential clues for tumour metastasis treatment strategies.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Puromycin reactivity does not accurately localize translation at the subcellular level

    Syed Usman Enam et al.
    Methods that use puromycin to localize active translation do not actually detect the site of translation.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM analysis of PIP2 regulation in mammalian GIRK channels

    Yiming Niu et al.
    The structural role of PIP2 in opening the G-protein-gated K+ channel is revealed.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Investigating pleiotropic effects of statins on ischemic heart disease in the UK Biobank using Mendelian randomisation

    CM Schooling et al.
    Identifying why statins differ from other major lipid modifiers has revealed a new modifiable target of intervention for cardiovascular disease relevant to both drug development and optimal statin use.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A novel acidification mechanism for greatly enhanced oxygen supply to the fish retina

    Christian Damsgaard et al.
    A novel mode of oxygen delivery facilitated the adaptive evolution of vision in teleost fishes.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Social interactions drive efficient foraging and income equality in groups of fish

    Roy Harpaz, Elad Schneidman
    Analysis and modeling of group behavior of adult zebrafish shows that a specialized social interaction mechanism increases foraging efficiency and equality within groups, under a variety of environmental conditions.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Polyploidy in the adult Drosophila brain

    Shyama Nandakumar et al.
    Terminally differentiated neurons and glia can re-enter the cell cycle to become polyploid in the adult fly brain, to protect cells from DNA damage-associated death.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Nongenetic inheritance and multigenerational plasticity in the nematode C. elegans

    L Ryan Baugh, Troy Day
    Evidence is mounting that environmentally-induced adaptive changes in phenotype can be transmitted across generations, but mechanistic gaps and theoretical concerns must be addressed to impact mainstream views of evolutionary adaptation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Atomic structure of a mitochondrial complex I intermediate from vascular plants

    Maria Maldonado et al.
    The first atomic resolution structure of a mitochondrial respiratory complex from plants provides insight into the assembly and evolution of respiration in autotrophic eukaryotes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Transformation of a temporal speech cue to a spatial neural code in human auditory cortex

    Neal P Fox et al.
    The human brain has a spatial code for representing temporal phonetic distinctions in speech.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sensory experience during early sensitive periods shapes cross-modal temporal biases

    Stephanie Badde et al.
    Individuals with reversed congenital cataracts perceived visual events as occurring earlier than auditory and tactile events revealing that cross-modal temporal biases depend on sensory experience during an early sensitive period.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Ageing compromises mouse thymus function and remodels epithelial cell differentiation

    Jeanette Baran-Gale et al.
    Thymus ageing is characterised by both compositional and transcriptional shifts amongst epithelial cells that perturb their differentiation, contribute to organ atrophy and ultimately impair immune function.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Poultry farmer response to disease outbreaks in smallholder farming systems in southern Vietnam

    Alexis Delabouglise et al.
    Longitudinal monitoring of poultry farms in southern Vietnam reveals that when outbreaks occur with symptoms similar to highly pathogenic avian influenza, farmers respond by sending their chickens to market early.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals distinct patterns of cell state heterogeneity in mouse models of breast cancer

    Syn Kok Yeo et al.
    The unraveling of distinct mammary tumor hierarchies in various mouse models of breast cancer emphasizes the need to account for specific cell states with potentially varying therapeutic vulnerabilities in tumors.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A transient role of the ciliary gene Inpp5e in controlling direct versus indirect neurogenesis in cortical development

    Kerstin Hasenpusch-Theil et al.
    Primary-cilia-mediated processing of the Gli3 transcription factor enables the formation of subtypes of projection neurons in appropriate numbers during the development of the cerebral cortex.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Underground isoleucine biosynthesis pathways in E. coli

    Charles AR Cotton et al.
    Upon deletion of threonine deaminases, biosynthesis of isoleucine is rescued by two promiscuous reactions, one emerges under aerobic conditions and the other is naturally active under anaerobic conditions.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    Identification of specific Tie2 cleavage sites and therapeutic modulation in experimental sepsis

    Temitayo O Idowu et al.
    Matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-14 cleaves Tie2 at three distinct sites within the fibronectin type-III (FN3) domain and its pharmacological blockade inhibits Tie2 pathological shedding to exert barrier protective effects.
    1. Neuroscience

    Responding to preconditioned cues is devaluation sensitive and requires orbitofrontal cortex during cue-cue learning

    Evan E Hart et al.
    The orbitofrontal cortex is necessary for learning about value-neutral sensory associations to impact subsequent model-based behavior.
    1. Developmental Biology

    An improved zebrafish transcriptome annotation for sensitive and comprehensive detection of cell type-specific genes

    Nathan D Lawson et al.
    Computational efforts yield a zebrafish transcriptome annotation that provides more sensitive and comprehensive gene detection over existing annotations when used for bulk or single-cell RNA-seq.
    1. Neuroscience

    Post-tetanic potentiation lowers the energy barrier for synaptic vesicle fusion independently of Synaptotagmin-1

    Vincent Huson et al.
    Modulation of the energy barrier for membrane fusion is a common mechanism by which sensors in the synapse produce supralinear calcium dependence of vesicle release and short-term synaptic potentiation.
    1. Cell Biology

    The peroxisome counteracts oxidative stresses by suppressing catalase import via Pex14 phosphorylation

    Kanji Okumoto et al.
    H2O2-induced phosphorylation at Ser232 of Pex14 spatiotemporally regulates peroxisomal import of catalase, functioning in counteracting action against oxidative stress by the increase of cytosolic catalase.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The contribution of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections to transmission on the Diamond Princess cruise ship

    Jon C Emery et al.
    Nearly 75% of SARS-CoV-2 infections on the Diamond Princess were asymptomatic, half were never detected, and asymptomatic infections may have contributed substantially to transmission.
    1. Neuroscience

    Long-term potentiation is independent of the C-tail of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit

    Javier Díaz-Alonso et al.
    Despite being the key element of the classic model for excitatory synaptic plasticity, the cytoplasmic AMPA receptor C-tail is not required for hippocampal LTP.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Shared and modality-specific brain regions that mediate auditory and visual word comprehension

    Anne Keitel et al.
    The comprehension of acoustic and visual speech depends on modality-specific pathways in the brain, which explains why auditory speech abilities and lip reading are not associated in typical adults.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Differential occupational risks to healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 observed during a prospective observational study

    David W Eyre et al.
    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers included caring for Covid-19 patients, Black or Asian ethnicity, and Covid-19-positive household contacts, whereas a bundle of PPE-related measures protected ICU staff.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Senotherapeutic drugs for human intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain

    Hosni Cherif et al.
    Targeting senescent cells in human intervertebral discs, using senotherapeutics, provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent or reduce disc degeneration and pain.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    β-catenin and γ-catenin are dispensable for T lymphocytes and AML leukemic stem cells

    Xin Zhao et al.
    The generation and characterization of true β-catenin null mutant mice conclusively demonstrate that β-catenin is dispensable for T lymphocytes and leukemia stem cells, providing clarifications on a long-standing controversy.
    1. Neuroscience

    The frequency gradient of human resting-state brain oscillations follows cortical hierarchies

    Keyvan Mahjoory et al.
    The strongest peak frequency of brain oscillations in a brain area decreases significantly, gradually and robustly along the posterior-anterior axis following the global hierarchy from early sensory to higher order areas.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    An ER translocon for multi-pass membrane protein biogenesis

    Philip T McGilvray et al.
    A set of ER-localized membrane proteins whose loss causes developmental diseases in humans, assemble with Sec61 into a translocon that facilitates the biogenesis of hundreds of different multi-pass membrane proteins.
    1. Neuroscience

    Learning prediction error neurons in a canonical interneuron circuit

    Loreen Hertäg, Henning Sprekeler
    The formation and refinement of prediction error circuits relies on an experience-dependent balance of excitation and inhibition in canonical microcircuits.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The NTP generating activity of pyruvate kinase II is critical for apicoplast maintenance in Plasmodium falciparum

    Russell P Swift et al.
    The pyruvate kinase contained in the apicoplast organelle of malaria parasites makes the nucleotide triphosphates required for several processes including transcription of the organellar genome.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The cryo-EM structure of the human uromodulin filament core reveals a unique assembly mechanism

    Jessica J Stanisich et al.
    Cryo-EM reveals that an unexpected domain separation in the zona pellucida module of uromodulin is required for its assembly to filamentous homopolymers that promote pathogen clearance in urinary tract infections.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    3D virtual pathohistology of lung tissue from Covid-19 patients based on phase contrast X-ray tomography

    Marina Eckermann et al.
    Phase contrast X-ray tomography based on a combination of parallel and cone beam geometry extends conventional histology by a third dimension and enables full quantication of tissue remodeling in COVID-19.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis of mitochondrial translation

    Shintaro Aibara et al.
    Structural analysis of translating human mitoribosome illustrates elemental steps of translation in mitochondria.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    On the importance of statistics in molecular simulations for thermodynamics, kinetics and simulation box size

    Vytautas Gapsys, Bert L de Groot
    The use of adequate statistics is demonstrated to be an essential prerequisite to derive conclusions on thermodynamics and kinetics from molecular simulations.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Size-dependent patterns of cell proliferation and migration in freely-expanding epithelia

    Matthew A Heinrich et al.
    Epithelia exhibit size-dependent growth dynamics caused by a decoupling between boundary and bulk cellular dynamics that enable robust expansion and drive cell cycling, collective migration, and tissue-spanning vortices.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Regulation of dynamic pigment cell states at single-cell resolution

    Margherita Perillo et al.
    Multimodal technologies and the experimental tractability of sea urchin embryos reveal diverse regulatory mechanisms and unique genes for distinct pigment cell states.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    What is the true discharge rate and pattern of the striatal projection neurons in Parkinson’s disease and Dystonia?

    Dan Valsky et al.
    Aberrant striatal signaling does not induce drastic changes in the spontaneous discharge rate and pattern of the striatal projection neurons in Parkinson’s disease and Dystonia.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Metabolic but not transcriptional regulation by PKM2 is important for natural killer cell responses

    Jessica F Walls et al.
    Pharmacological activation of the metabolic activities of PKM2 in murine NK cells disrupts cellular redox balance and inhibits optimal NK cell effector functions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Amphetamine reduces reward encoding and stabilizes neural dynamics in rat anterior cingulate cortex

    Saeedeh Hashemnia et al.
    Amphetamine reduces reward signaling by neurons in rat prefrontal cortex, but increases the stability of population dynamics, which account for animals’ increased task engagement, despite reduced reward motivation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Vibrio deploys type 2 secreted lipase to esterify cholesterol with host fatty acids and mediate cell egress

    Suneeta Chimalapati et al.
    Considering the course of a pathogen's evolution, there appears to be interplay between secretion systems, providing unique, synergistic mechanisms to support a successful lifestyle for possibly pathogenesis, symbiosis and/or parasitosis.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Intrinsic control of neuronal diversity and synaptic specificity in a proprioceptive circuit

    Maggie M Shin et al.
    Genetic and anatomical analyses of Hox gene function uncover a limb-independent program of sensory neuron fate specification and connectivity.
    1. Developmental Biology

    TBX3 acts as tissue-specific component of the Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional complex

    Dario Zimmerli et al.
    The developmental transcription factor TBX3 co-operates with β-catenin co-factors to operate tissue-specific transcriptional outputs, during forelimb development and colorectal cancer progression.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Inherent regulatory asymmetry emanating from network architecture in a prevalent autoregulatory motif

    Md Zulfikar Ali et al.
    Network architecture and physiological features of the cell dictate asymmetric gene regulation between a negative autoregulatory TF gene and its target gene.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ca2+-dependent release of synaptotagmin-1 from the SNARE complex on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-containing membranes

    Rashmi Voleti et al.
    Ca2+-free synaptotagmin-1 binds to neuronal SNARE complexes anchored on nanodiscs, and Ca2+ releases this interaction to induce tight, specific binding to PIP2-containing membranes.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    A systematic review of population-based studies on lipid profiles in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Rodrigo M Carrillo-Larco et al.
    In Latin America and the Caribbean the most common dyslipidaemia seems to be low HDL-cholesterol, and there has been little change in time for both mean levels and prevalence estimates.
    1. Ecology

    Antagonistic effects of intraspecific cooperation and interspecific competition on thermal performance

    Hsiang-Yu Tsai et al.
    By integrating theoretical and empirical approaches, the results show that linking abiotic factor and biotic interactions on the niche width will be critical for understanding species-specific responses to climate change.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The dynamic nature of the human origin recognition complex revealed through five cryoEM structures

    Matt J Jaremko et al.
    The origin recognition complex is a dynamic complex that assumes various conformational states that likely correspond to different steps in replication initiation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Light-induced engagement of microglia to focally remodel synapses in the adult brain

    Carla Cangalaya et al.
    The causal role of microglia in the acceleration of spine turnover and generation of presynaptic filopodia is directly demonstrated in the adult brain following acute focal synaptic photodamage.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Binding mechanism of the matrix domain of HIV-1 gag on lipid membranes

    Viviana Monje-Galvan, Gregory A Voth
    Unbiased molecular dynamics simulations reveal the insertion mechanism of the lipidated tail of the matrix domain of HIV-1 Gag into realistic membrane models and show its effect on lipid sorting.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The Sec1/Munc18 protein Vps45 holds the Qa-SNARE Tlg2 in an open conformation

    Travis J Eisemann et al.
    Whereas in a paradigmatic structure an SM protein chaperone clamps its client SNARE shut, a second structure demonstrates that an SM protein can also hold its SNARE open to promote assembly.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Antagonistic control of Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cell proliferation and differentiation by PUF proteins FBF-1 and FBF-2

    Xiaobo Wang et al.
    Complementary effects of FBF-1 and FBF-2 on germline stem cell dynamics result from their distinct cooperation with mRNA deadenylase resulting in the opposite effects on the shared target mRNAs.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis coordinates oxidative metabolism in mammalian mitochondria

    Sara M Nowinski et al.
    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis is best known for producing lipoic acid, however, longer acyl chain products regulate mitochondrial electron transport chain assembly, oxidative TCA cycle metabolism, and skeletal myoblast differentiation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear RNAi factor SET-32 deposits the transgenerational histone modification, H3K23me3

    Lianna Schwartz-Orbach et al.
    H3K23me3 is a RNAi-mediated transgenerationally heritable heterochromatin mark in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    CMG helicase disassembly is controlled by replication fork DNA, replisome components and a ubiquitin threshold

    Tom D Deegan et al.
    Ubiquitylation of the CMG helicase is inhibited throughout the initiation and elongation phases of chromosome replication by the DNA structure of a replication fork.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Discovery of a molecular glue promoting CDK12-DDB1 interaction to trigger cyclin K degradation

    Lu Lv et al.
    High-throughput phenotypic screening followed by unbiased target identification reveals a new molecular glue HQ461 that induces CDK12-DDB1 interaction to promote degradation of Cyclin K via the ubiquitin proteasome system.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Hox-dependent coordination of mouse cardiac progenitor cell patterning and differentiation

    Sonia Stefanovic et al.
    Discovering that Hoxb1 acts as a repressor of cardiac differentiation on second heart field progenitor cells helps us to understand the etiology of congenital heart defects such as atrioventricular septal defects.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Shadow enhancers can suppress input transcription factor noise through distinct regulatory logic

    Rachel Waymack et al.
    Proper development depends on establishing precise gene expression patterns in spite of the inherent noise in transcription, shadow enhancers buffer this noise by binding distinct input transcription factors.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Global alignment and assessment of TRP channel transmembrane domain structures to explore functional mechanisms

    Katherine E Huffer et al.
    Structure-based alignment of TRP channels enables comparison of structural changes, ion permeation pathways and ligand-binding sites and reveals over-representation of structures that represent non-conducting states.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Time-dependent cytokine and chemokine changes in mouse cerebral cortex following a mild traumatic brain injury

    David Tweedie et al.
    Protein changes in cerebral cortex following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) identified herein will help in the development of monitoring and response biomarkers that may translate to clinical mTBI.
    1. Medicine

    Inference from longitudinal laboratory tests characterizes temporal evolution of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC)

    Colin Pawlowski et al.
    Longitudinal laboratory testing results tied to SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic PCR results of more than 2500 patients reveal the temporal evolution of COVID-associated coagulopathy.
    1. Plant Biology

    The manifold actions of signaling peptides on subcellular dynamics of a receptor specify stomatal cell fate

    Xingyun Qi et al.
    A binary cell fate decision to be or not to be stomata is regulated by multiple peptide ligands, each triggering a unique subcellular dynamics of their shared receptor.
    1. Cell Biology

    Splicing variation of BMP2K balances abundance of COPII assemblies and autophagic degradation in erythroid cells

    Jaroslaw Cendrowski et al.
    Erythroid-enriched BMP2K kinase, in addition to its predicted function in endocytosis, regulates distribution and abundance of COPII assemblies and autophagic degradation through opposing actions of its two splicing variants.
    1. Cell Biology

    ALKBH7 mediates necrosis via rewiring of glyoxal metabolism

    Chaitanya A Kulkarni et al.
    Multi-omics reveals that Alkb homolog 7 (ALKBH7), α mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase of unclear function, regulates glyoxal metabolism, which may explain its role in necrosis and heart attack.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Slowly folding surface extension in the prototypic avian hepatitis B virus capsid governs stability

    Cihan Makbul et al.
    Duck Hepatitis B core protein forms capsids with a slowly folding extension domain which folding competence is important for viral replication.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is required for optimal brown fat thermogenesis

    Vanja Panic et al.
    Mitochondrial pyruvate transport is required for brown fat thermogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Disynaptic cerebrocerebellar pathways originating from multiple functionally distinct cortical areas

    Julia U Henschke, Janelle MP Pakan
    Anatomical projections from sensory, motor, and association cortex to the cerebellum are precisely mapped, including cortical-precerebellar connections and terminal organization, providing insight into how the cerebellum may utilize cortical information.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Early analysis of the Australian COVID-19 epidemic

    David J Price et al.
    An analysis of Australian case data demonstrates how the combined strategy of border measures, case targeted interventions, and social distancing effectively contained the first epidemic wave of COVID-19.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Atypical meiosis can be adaptive in outcrossed Schizosaccharomyces pombe due to wtf meiotic drivers

    María Angélica Bravo Núñez et al.
    The wtf meiotic drivers change the fitness landscape of meiosis in outcrossed Schizosaccharomyces pombe demonstrating that genetic parasites can favor the evolution of variants that disrupt meiotic fidelity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Plasticity and evolutionary convergence in the locomotor skeleton of Greater Antillean Anolis lizards

    Nathalie Feiner et al.
    A comparative and experimental research refutes the controversial hypothesis that plasticity played a major role in the convergent evolution of Anolis ecomorphs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Male-predominant galanin mediates androgen-dependent aggressive chases in medaka

    Junpei Yamashita et al.
    In medaka fish, galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area occur nearly exclusively in males and mediate androgen-dependent male–male aggressive chases.
    1. Neuroscience

    Alterations of specific cortical GABAergic circuits underlie abnormal network activity in a mouse model of Down syndrome

    Javier Zorrilla de San Martin et al.
    Distinct intrinsic excitability and synaptic dysfunctions in specific cortical inhibitory circuits lead to abnormal network activity in a mouse model of Down syndrome.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Building the vertebrate codex using the gene breaking protein trap library

    Noriko Ichino et al.
    The analysis of the first 1000 revertible protein trap alleles in zebrafish resulted in new functional genomic annotations and produced a panel of potential new models of human disease.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Modeling the metabolic interplay between a parasitic worm and its bacterial endosymbiont allows the identification of novel drug targets

    David M Curran et al.
    A genome scale model of Brugia malayi metabolism illustrates a dynamic reliance on energy production pathways across its life cycle and identifies new drugs with experimentally supported anti-parasitic properties.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Caterpillar-induced rice volatiles provide enemy-free space for the offspring of the brown planthopper

    Xiaoyun Hu et al.
    The brown planthopper has evolved a highly adaptive oviposition strategy by exploiting caterpillar-induced plant volatiles that provide safe havens for its offspring.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    MARCH8 inhibits viral infection by two different mechanisms

    Yanzhao Zhang et al.
    The host transmembrane protein MARCH8, previously known as an expression regulator of host proteins, is a powerful antiviral host factor with a potentially broad antiviral spectrum through two different mechanisms.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein paralog defines a novel class of heme-binding proteins

    Danish Khan et al.
    A new class of fungal hemoproteins is described that emphasizes the versatility of the Sec14-fold for translating binding of chemically distinct ligands to control of diverse sets of cellular activities.
    1. Neuroscience

    A theory of joint attractor dynamics in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex accounts for artificial remapping and grid cell field-to-field variability

    Haggai Agmon, Yoram Burak
    A theory of coordinated neural network dynamics in multiple brain areas offers an explanation for several recent experimental findings in the hippocampus and medial entorhinal cortex.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Neural arbitration between social and individual learning systems

    Andreea Oliviana Diaconescu et al.
    Arbitration is formalised as the relative precision of predictions afforded by reward and social learning systems and is represented in modality-specific dopaminergic and dopaminoceptive regions, including the midbrain and amygdala.
    1. Neuroscience

    Deletion of Stk11 and Fos in mouse BLA projection neurons alters intrinsic excitability and impairs formation of long-term aversive memory

    David Levitan et al.
    Stk11 and Fos expression plays an important role in CTA long-term memory formation by modulating the intrinsic excitability of BLApn.
    1. Cell Biology

    Irisin directly stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo

    Eben G Estell et al.
    The regulation of bone homeostasis by the exercise-induced myokine irisin is in part potentiated by a direct action on osteoclast differentiation and resorption.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Ecdysone steroid hormone remote controls intestinal stem cell fate decisions via the PPARγ-homolog Eip75B in Drosophila

    Lisa Zipper et al.
    A systemic hormone controls progenitor fate decisions independent of local fate determining pathways in the adult intestinal stem cell niche of Drosophila melanogaster..
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The autophagy adaptor NDP52 and the FIP200 coiled-coil allosterically activate ULK1 complex membrane recruitment

    Xiaoshan Shi et al.
    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange, electron microscopy, and vesicle reconstitution show how binding of the autophagy adaptor NDP52 to the FIP200 subunit of the ULK1 complex triggers membrane binding in autophagy.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Geometric models for robust encoding of dynamical information into embryonic patterns

    Laurent Jutras-Dubé et al.
    Propagation, speed and shapes of genetic waves of expression during development can be modeled by a simple interplay between two transcriptional modules (dynamic/static), which explains robustness and precision of patterning.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Population-scale proteome variation in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Bogdan Andrei Mirauta et al.
    Protein abundance changes across human-induced pluripotent stem cell lines reflect genetic variation across donors, with underlying mechanisms including modulation of RNA expression and modification of protein-coding sequences.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Discovery of surrogate agonists for visceral fat Treg cells that modulate metabolic indices in vivo

    Ricardo A Fernandes et al.
    Surrogate agonist peptide ligands discovered through screening of an IAb-peptide library potentiate expansion of visceral adipose tissue resident regulatory T cells and protect mice from inflammation and improve metabolic indices.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structure of VASH1-SVBP bound to microtubules

    Faxiang Li et al.
    Cryo-electron microscopy structure of vasohibin 1 bound to microtubules reveals how this enzyme prefers to remove the C-terminal tyrosine of α-tubulin in the microtubule lattice.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The role of the NMD factor UPF3B in olfactory sensory neurons

    Kun Tan et al.
    The nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) branch-specific factor UPF3B influences olfactory sensory neuron cell populations, the olfactory receptor repertoire, and antimicrobial gene expression.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A large effective population size for established within-host influenza virus infection

    Casper K Lumby et al.
    Once an influenza infection is established, selection acts efficiently in favouring fitter viral genotypes, its effects being limited only by the short length of a typical infection.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Differentiating Drosophila female germ cells initiate Polycomb silencing by regulating PRC2-interacting proteins

    Steven Z DeLuca et al.
    Characterization of Drosophila female germ cell differentiation shows that nurse cells initiate Polycomb silencing by regulating Pcl and Scm levels to alter the biochemical properties of the PRC2 H3K27 methylase.
    1. Neuroscience

    Inhibition of striatonigral autophagy as a link between cannabinoid intoxication and impairment of motor coordination

    Cristina Blázquez et al.
    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol impairs motor coordination in mice by inhibiting autophagy in the striatonigral pathway, thus defining a new conceptual view of how cannabis acts in the brain.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Genomic architecture and evolutionary antagonism drive allelic expression bias in the social supergene of red fire ants

    Carlos Martinez-Ruiz et al.
    Analyses of allelic- and socially-biased gene expression reveal that suppressed recombination causes most of the expression differences in the social supergene, with only few differences due to socially antagonistic selection.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural insights into the Ca2+-dependent gating of the human mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    Yan Wang et al.
    Cryo-EM structures of human MCU-EMRE-MICU1-MICU2 complex in the apo and Ca2+-bound states reveal how MICU1 and MICU2 impart their gating function to the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of human Frizzled5 by fiducial-assisted cryo-EM supports a heterodimeric mechanism of canonical Wnt signaling

    Naotaka Tsutsumi et al.
    Cryo-EM structure of monomeric human Frizzled5 was determined with a universal fiducial antibody at 3.7 Å overall resolution, which supports a simple Fzd/LRP6 heterodimerization mechanism of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
    1. Neuroscience

    Altered functional connectivity during speech perception in congenital amusia

    Kyle Jasmin et al.
    Individuals with amusia, who have unreliable pitch processing, show decreased functional connectivity between right auditory and left language-related cortex during speech perception, demonstrating a neural basis for compensatory dimensional weighting.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Positively selected modifications in the pore of TbAQP2 allow pentamidine to enter Trypanosoma brucei

    Ali H Alghamdi et al.
    Study of TbAQP2 adaptations and substrate interactions shows how this aquaglyceroporin enables cellular entry of large antimicrobial agents in Trypanosoma brucei.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Mechanisms underlying genome instability mediated by formation of foldback inversions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Bin-zhong Li et al.
    Genetic analysis combined with whole genome sequencing elucidates mechanisms and pathways that form and prevent a specific class of genome rearrangements, foldback inversions, seen in many human cancers.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Mitochondrial volume fraction and translation duration impact mitochondrial mRNA localization and protein synthesis

    Tatsuhisa Tsuboi et al.
    Mitochondria can tune the protein synthesis of nuclear-encoded proteins through condition-dependent mRNA localization that is regulated by translation elongation and the geometric constraints of the cell.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Stem cell regionalization during olfactory bulb neurogenesis depends on regulatory interactions between Vax1 and Pax6

    Nathalie Coré et al.
    Vax1 suppresses dopaminergic neuron phenotype by inhibiting Pax6 expression in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and is necessary to generate Calbindin interneurons for the postnatal olfactory bulb.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    HetL, HetR and PatS form a reaction-diffusion system to control pattern formation in the cyanobacterium nostoc PCC 7120

    Xiaomei Xu et al.
    Genetic, biochemistry and modeling approaches reveal elements of a Turing-type reaction-diffusion system to control pattern formation in differentiating cyanobacterial filaments.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Transient intracellular acidification regulates the core transcriptional heat shock response

    Catherine G Triandafillou et al.
    When translation stops, cells require intracellular acidification to turn on the conserved heat shock response during stress, and stress-triggered acidification (common in eukaryotes) is adaptive, promoting cell and population fitness.
    1. Neuroscience

    A machine-vision approach for automated pain measurement at millisecond timescales

    Jessica M Jones et al.
    Development of a fully automated pain scale using machine learning tools in computational neuroethology and creation of new software, reveals a robust circuit-dissection compatible platform for objective pain measurement.
    1. Neuroscience

    Rapid stimulus-driven modulation of slow ocular position drifts

    Tatiana Malevich et al.
    Slow, continuous changes in eye position when gaze is fixed, previously believed to be random drifts, are shown to exhibit highly systematic and short-latency response characteristics to visual stimuli.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    How to measure and evaluate binding affinities

    Inga Jarmoskaite et al.
    Simple guidelines and a checklist are provided for performing high-quality equilibrium binding measurements.
    1. Developmental Biology

    The novel ciliogenesis regulator DYRK2 governs Hedgehog signaling during mouse embryogenesis

    Saishu Yoshida et al.
    DYRK2 regulator governs the mammalian ciliogenesis to maintain proper embryogenesis via activation of the Hh signaling during development in vivo.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Temperature stress induces mites to help their carrion beetle hosts by eliminating rival blowflies

    Syuan-Jyun Sun, Rebecca M Kilner
    Temperature, the presence of an enemy species and the density of the mutualistic partner species interact to determine the expression of a protective mutualism.
    1. Neuroscience

    Improving a probabilistic cytoarchitectonic atlas of auditory cortex using a novel method for inter-individual alignment

    Omer Faruk Gulban et al.
    Inter-individual human brain alignment that uses macro-anatomical priors in addition to cortical curvature improves micro-anatomical correspondence between auditory areas.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Osterix-Cre marks distinct subsets of CD45- and CD45+ stromal populations in extra-skeletal tumors with pro-tumorigenic characteristics

    Biancamaria Ricci et al.
    Osterix, a transcription factor regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, is expressed in subsets of CAFs with osteogenic features and marks tumor infiltrating immune populations enriched in immune suppressive markers.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    A minimal self-organisation model of the Golgi apparatus

    Quentin Vagne et al.
    An unbiased model for the self-organisation of the Golgi apparatus displays either anterograde vesicular transport or cisternal maturation depending on ratios of budding, fusion and biochemical conversion rates.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Cdc13 is predominant over Stn1 and Ten1 in preventing chromosome end fusions

    Zhi-Jing Wu et al.
    Cdc13 prevents chromosomes from end-to-end fusion.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Membrane voltage dysregulation driven by metabolic dysfunction underlies bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides

    Giancarlo Noe Bruni, Joel M Kralj
    Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that can kill Escherichia coli by building up internal voltage through disrupting the normal consumption of ATP.
    1. Neuroscience

    Heterogeneous somatostatin-expressing neuron population in mouse ventral tegmental area

    Elina Nagaeva et al.
    The midbrain area for salience, reward and aversion in mouse brain harbours among the dopamine cells three subtypes somatostatin-expressing neurons that show combinatorial neurotransmitter phenotypes and interneuron properties.
    1. Neuroscience

    Tuning of olfactory cortex ventral tenia tecta neurons to distinct task elements of goal-directed behavior

    Kazuki Shiotani et al.
    Individual neurons of ventral tenia tecta which is a part of olfactory cortex tune to specific time windows in the behavioral context during odor-guided goal-directed behaviors.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Harmful DNA:RNA hybrids are formed in cis and in a Rad51-independent manner

    Juan Lafuente-Barquero et al.
    RNA does not form DNA:RNA hybrids in trans that compromise genome integrity.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tailored design of protein nanoparticle scaffolds for multivalent presentation of viral glycoprotein antigens

    George Ueda et al.
    De novo protein nanoparticles were designed from scratch to present viral glycoprotein antigens, providing a systematic way to study the influence of antigen presentation geometry on immune response.
    1. Medicine

    Underlying dyslipidemia postpartum in women with a recent GDM pregnancy who develop type 2 diabetes

    Mi Lai et al.
    Lipid dysmetabolism occurs at postpartum in women who progress from GDM to type 2 diabetes, and specific lipids could predict the progression.
    1. Neuroscience

    A flexible framework for simulating and fitting generalized drift-diffusion models

    Maxwell Shinn et al.
    Sophisticated decision-making mechanisms and complex experimental paradigms can be modeled, simulated, and fit to empirical response time data, using a flexible and efficient computational modeling framework.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A novel function of R-spondin1 in regulating estrogen receptor expression independent of Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    Ajun Geng et al.
    Wnt/β-Catenin independent role of Rspo1 in physiological condition is revealed.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structure of the lysosomal chloride-proton exchanger CLC-7 in complex with OSTM1

    Marina Schrecker et al.
    Single-particle cryo-EM structures of CLC-7 in the presence and absence of its β-subunit, OSTM1, reveal insights into transporter regulation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Expression of different L1 isoforms of Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus as mechanism to circumvent adaptive immunity

    Yingying Fu et al.
    Cutaneous papillomaviruses potentially escape humoral immune response by synthesizing an alternative major capsid protein isoform during the initial course of infection that is unable to induce neutralizing antibodies.
    1. Medicine

    Metabolic response of blood vessels to TNFα

    Abidemi Junaid et al.
    The metabolic readout of endothelial function in the microvessels-on-a-chip facilitates mechanistic studies and detection of biomarkers for microvascular diseases in a physiological relevant environment.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Medicine

    Intrinsic excitation-inhibition imbalance affects medial prefrontal cortex differently in autistic men versus women

    Stavros Trakoshis et al.
    Excitation-inhibition imbalance affects medial prefrontal cortex differently in autistic males versus females.
    1. Neuroscience

    Can sleep protect memories from catastrophic forgetting?

    Oscar C González et al.
    Computational modeling predicts that sleep replay plays a protective role against catastrophic forgetting by revealing synaptic mechanisms allowing overlapping populations of neurons to store multiple interfering memories.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Activation of a neural stem cell transcriptional program in parenchymal astrocytes

    Jens P Magnusson et al.
    Parenchymal astrocytes are quiescent neural stem cells whose neurogenic potential can be unleashed by targeted manipulations guided by single-cell RNA sequencing data.
    1. Cell Biology

    Complementary α-arrestin-ubiquitin ligase complexes control nutrient transporter endocytosis in response to amino acids

    Vasyl Ivashov et al.
    Metabolic cues enlist ubiquitin ligase adaptors for the selective control of cellular nutrient acquisition strategies.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Efficient coding of natural scene statistics predicts discrimination thresholds for grayscale textures

    Tiberiu Tesileanu et al.
    An optimization principle allows natural-image data to predict human sensitivity to synthetic, un-natural textures with multiple gray levels.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    The structural determinants of PH domain-mediated regulation of Akt revealed by segmental labeling

    Nam Chu et al.
    NMR and biochemical analysis reveal new insights into how the critical protein kinase Akt is regulated by phosphorylation and is inhibited by an experimental therapeutic.
    1. Cancer Biology

    NuRD subunit CHD4 regulates super-enhancer accessibility in rhabdomyosarcoma and represents a general tumor dependency

    Joana G Marques et al.
    In fusion-positive rhabdomyosarcoma, CHD4 positively regulates super-enhancer-mediated gene expression by allowing a chromatin architecture at these cis-regulatory regions, which is permissive to the binding of the transcription factor PAX3-FOXO1.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Single molecule poly(A) tail-seq shows LARP4 opposes deadenylation throughout mRNA lifespan with most impact on short tails

    Sandy Mattijssen et al.
    LARP4 protects mRNAs against deadenylation over a wide range of poly(A) lengths but with most apparent functional impact on short lengths known to sensitize PABP binding and mRNA stability.
    1. Neuroscience

    Boosts in brain signal variability track liberal shifts in decision bias

    Niels A Kloosterman et al.
    Modulation of moment-to-moment irregularity of neural activity closely tracks our ability to flexibly adapt decision biases to the environment.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    EDF1 coordinates cellular responses to ribosome collisions

    Niladri K Sinha et al.
    Endothelial Differentiation Factor 1 (EDF1) plays a critical role in driving mRNA-specific quality control and global transcriptional responses in response to ribosome collisions.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Alternative splicing of coq-2 controls the levels of rhodoquinone in animals

    June H Tan et al.
    The switch from ubiquinone to rhodoquinone synthesis that is required for parasitic helminths to survive in anaerobic host tissues is due to alternative splicing of polyprenyltransferase COQ-2.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    A human ESC-based screen identifies a role for the translated lncRNA LINC00261 in pancreatic endocrine differentiation

    Bjoern Gaertner et al.
    Ribosome profiling and loss-of-function during human ESC pancreatic differentiation reveal abundant lncRNA translation and an essential role for translated LINC00261 in beta cell differentiation, likely through a trans-regulatory, microprotein-independent mechanism.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Gene autoregulation by 3’ UTR-derived bacterial small RNAs

    Mona Hoyos et al.
    Bacterial small RNAs derived from the 3' untranslated region of an mRNA can serve as autoregulatory elements.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    ZCWPW1 is recruited to recombination hotspots by PRDM9 and is essential for meiotic double strand break repair

    Daniel Wells et al.
    ZCWPW1 has co-evolved with PRDM9, in particular the PRDM9-SET domain, and although not involved in PRDM9's role in positioning recombination events, it is required for PRDM9's role in pairing chromosomes.