June 2021

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Organelle calcium-derived voltage oscillations in pacemaker neurons drive the motor program for food-seeking behavior in Aplysia

    Alexis Bédécarrats et al.
    An atypical neuronal pacemaker mechanism triggers feeding motor pattern in Aplysia..
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Miro1-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in parvalbumin interneurons

    Georgina Kontou et al.
    Cell imaging and electrophysiology in the mouse hippocampus reveal a crucial role for the spatiotemporal regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in PV+ interneurons on cell morphology, network activity, and behavior.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Quantitative live-cell imaging and computational modeling shed new light on endogenous WNT/CTNNB1 signaling dynamics

    Saskia MA de Man et al.
    Genome editing, advanced live-cell microscopy, and computational modeling were combined to measure WNT/CTNNB1 signaling parameters at the single molecule level, revealing critical regulatory nodes in this important signal transduction pathway.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic with the World Mortality Dataset

    Ariel Karlinsky, Dmitry Kobak
    The World Mortality Dataset and paper is the largest dataset of all-cause mortality currently in existence for tracking mortality and excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    The Ca2+-activated cation channel TRPM4 is a positive regulator of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Yang Guo et al.
    The TRPM4 ion channel has been identified as an important component in the causation of mechanical pressure overload-induced pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular mortality.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A fusion peptide in preS1 and the human protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 are involved in hepatitis B virus membrane fusion process

    Jimena Pérez-Vargas et al.
    The mechanism triggering HBV membrane fusion involves ERp57, a cellular protein disulfide isomerase, and ultimately leads to the exposition of a fusion peptide that was identified in the pre-S1 determinant.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    The neuronal calcium sensor Synaptotagmin-1 and SNARE proteins cooperate to dilate fusion pores

    Zhenyong Wu et al.
    During neurotransmitter release, calcium-induced membrane insertion of the C2B domain of Synaptotagmin re-orients the bound SNARE complex which dilates the fusion pore in a mechanical lever action.
    1. Neuroscience

    Specialized coding patterns among dorsomedial prefrontal neuronal ensembles predict conditioned reward seeking

    Roger I Grant et al.
    Excitatory output neurons in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex display heterogeneously specialized coding properties that evolve during cue-reward learning and predict cue-driven reward seeking.
    1. Neuroscience

    5'-UTR SNP of FGF13 causes translational defect and intellectual disability

    Xingyu Pan et al.
    A 5'-UTR SNP of FGF13 impairs PTBP2 interacting with FGF13 mRNA, leading to reduced FGF13 translation and deficits in brain development and cognitive functions.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Large-scale phenotypic drug screen identifies neuroprotectants in zebrafish and mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa

    Liyun Zhang et al.
    Using a cross-species phenotypic drug discovery pipeline, compounds promoting rod photoreceptor survival in zebrafish and mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa were identified, evidence of additive effects of paired compounds and inhibition of PARP-dependent cell death suggest novel therapeutic strategies.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A phase transition enhances the catalytic activity of SARM1, an NAD+ glycohydrolase involved in neurodegeneration

    Heather S Loring et al.
    The catalytic activity of SARM1, a key promoter of neuronal degeneration, is activated by >2000-fold by a phase transition.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Developing a multivariate prediction model of antibody features associated with protection of malaria-infected pregnant women from placental malaria

    Elizabeth H Aitken et al.
    Machine learning identified six protective antibody features and showed for the first time that serological markers can predict protection from placental-malaria, which is important for evaluation and development of vaccines.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Mechanical stretch scales centriole number to apical area via Piezo1 in multiciliated cells

    Saurabh Kulkarni et al.
    Embryonic and mechanical manipulations of Xenopus multiciliated epithelium reveals that cell non-autonomous tensile forces generated by embryonic elongation calibrate cilia number in multiciliated cells via a mechanosensitive ion channel, Piezo1.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rapid feedback on hospital onset SARS-CoV-2 infections combining epidemiological and sequencing data

    Oliver Stirrup et al.
    Epidemiological and viral sequence data can be combined to provide standardised feedback on cases of hospital onset COVID-19 infection that would be useful for infection prevention and control.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Transcription-associated topoisomerase 2α (TOP2A) activity is a major effector of cytotoxicity induced by G-quadruplex ligands

    Madeleine Bossaert et al.
    Topoisomerase 2α DNA breaks induced by G-quadruplex ligands are associated with a topological stress resulting from a transcription-dependent mechanism and counteracted by DNA topoisomerase 1 and factors promoting transcription elongation.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Resistance to different anthracycline chemotherapeutics elicits distinct and actionable primary metabolic dependencies in breast cancer

    Shawn McGuirk et al.
    Breast cancer resistant to either doxorubicin or epirubicin relies on distinct primary metabolic processes, which can be targeted to reduce cancer progression.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    High-speed, three-dimensional imaging reveals chemotactic behaviour specific to human-infective Leishmania parasites

    Rachel C Findlay et al.
    High-speed holographic microscopy shows that Leishmania parasites modify their swimming behaviour to target human macrophages.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Global constraints within the developmental program of the Drosophila wing

    Vasyl Alba et al.
    A novel mathematical strategy for the integrated analysis of adult body structures quantifies the degree and nature of developmental robustness and its evolutionary implications.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure and mechanistic features of the prokaryotic minimal RNase P

    Rebecca Feyh et al.
    The novel cryo-electron microscopy structure of a bacterial protein-only RNase P illustrates how a small protein oligomerizes into a dodecameric assembly to catalyze the 5’-end maturation of tRNAs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Direct extraction of signal and noise correlations from two-photon calcium imaging of ensemble neuronal activity

    Anuththara Rupasinghe et al.
    An inference paradigm for extracting neuronal correlations from two-photon imaging data, without requiring intermediate spike deconvolution, provides significant performance gains over existing methods as demonstrated by theoretical analysis, simulation studies, and real-data applications.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ankyrin-R regulates fast-spiking interneuron excitability through perineuronal nets and Kv3.1b K+ channels

    Sharon R Stevens et al.
    Analysis of AnkyrinR conditional knockout mice shows that AnkyrinR regulates PV+ fast-spiking interneurons by organizing and maintaining perineuronal nets and through the membrane clustering of Kv3.1b K+ channels.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A novel decoy strategy for polymyxin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    Jaeeun Park et al.
    Outer membrane vesicles serve as decoys to reduce the chance of direct polymyxin B (PMB) binding to cells, which partly explains why many clinical isolates and microbial communities can be protected against PMB treatment.
    1. Cell Biology

    Unique integrated stress response sensors regulate cancer cell susceptibility when Hsp70 activity is compromised

    Sara Sannino et al.
    Unique integrate stress response sensors differentially trigger pro-survival versus pro-apoptotic responses in cells confronted with Hsp70 inhibitor-associated proteotoxic challenges.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A covariation analysis reveals elements of selectivity in quorum sensing systems

    Samantha Wellington Miranda et al.
    The extension of covariation analyses to proteins that coevolve but do not physically interact enabled identification of selectivity residues in quorum sensing proteins, providing insight into the evolution of signaling systems.
    1. Neuroscience

    The genetic organization of longitudinal subcortical volumetric change is stable throughout the lifespan

    Anders Martin Fjell et al.
    Volumetric lifespan change in subcortical structures follows fundamental principles of brain development, lifespan continuity, genetic organization, and age-invariant relationships to cognition.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Evolution of fibroblasts in the lung metastatic microenvironment is driven by stage-specific transcriptional plasticity

    Ophir Shani et al.
    Metastases-associated fibroblasts show stage-dependent transcriptional plasticity and their rewiring is regulated by Myc.
    1. Cell Biology

    ADF and cofilin-1 collaborate to promote cortical actin flow and the leader bleb-based migration of confined cells

    Maria F Ullo, Jeremy S Logue
    Fast amoeboid migrating cells require both cofilin-1 and ADF for fast actin turnover at 'leader bleb' necks.
    1. Neuroscience

    De novo learning versus adaptation of continuous control in a manual tracking task

    Christopher S Yang et al.
    Humans can rapidly build a new controller when learning continuous movement tasks and can flexibly integrate this process with adaptation of an existing controller.
    1. Cell Biology

    A Cas-BCAR3 co-regulatory circuit controls lamellipodia dynamics

    Elizabeth M Steenkiste et al.
    Epithelial cells coordinate integrin signaling with protrusion via a two-protein module, with one protein defining localization and downstream signaling, the other serving as a phosphorylation switch and providing negative feedback.
    1. Neuroscience

    Thalamus and claustrum control parallel layer 1 circuits in retrosplenial cortex

    Ellen KW Brennan et al.
    Parallel input streams to layer 1 identify a computationally distinct principal neuronal subtype ideally positioned to support spatial orientation computations in the granular retrosplenial cortex.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    BAP1/ASXL complex modulation regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition during trophoblast differentiation and invasion

    Vicente Perez-Garcia et al.
    BAP1/ASXL is a key regulator of trophoblast invasion during early mouse and human placentation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Matriptase activation of Gq drives epithelial disruption and inflammation via RSK and DUOX

    Jiajia Ma et al.
    The serine protease Matriptase orchestrates simultaneous epithelial cell motility and inflammation in pathological states through respective activation of the MAPK pathway and generation of hydrogen peroxide.
    1. Neuroscience

    The human cerebellum is essential for modulating perceptual sensitivity based on temporal expectations

    Assaf Breska, Richard B Ivry
    Cerebellar degeneration disrupts the use of interval-based temporal cues, but not rhythmic cues, to proactively modulate perceptual sensitivity, implicating the cerebellum in temporal control of visual attention.
    1. Neuroscience

    In silico analysis of the transcriptional regulatory logic of neuronal identity specification throughout the C. elegans nervous system

    Lori Glenwinkel et al.
    Neuron type-specific gene batteries share cis-regulatory motifs.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to measles, meningococcal A, and yellow fever vaccination in 10 countries

    Katy AM Gaythorpe et al.
    Routine and campaign vaccination disruption in 2020 may lead to measles outbreaks and yellow fever burden increases in some countries, but is unlikely to greatly increase meningococcal A burden.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Evaluating distributional regression strategies for modelling self-reported sexual age-mixing

    Timothy M Wolock et al.
    Integrating the sinh-arcsinh distribution into a distributional regression framework allows us to produce precise, local estimates of sexual age-mixing, facilitating more accurate modelling of sexually transmitted disease dynamics.
    1. Neuroscience

    The Prop1-like homeobox gene unc-42 specifies the identity of synaptically connected neurons

    Emily G Berghoff et al.
    Circuit transcription factors may define the differentiation and assembly of distinct neurons into functional circuitry.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Introgression shapes fruit color convergence in invasive Galápagos tomato

    Matthew JS Gibson et al.
    A wild tomato species adopts local fruit color via introgression from an endemic relative, during its invasion onto the Galápagos Islands.
    1. Cell Biology

    Different translation dynamics of β- and γ-actin regulates cell migration

    Pavan Vedula et al.
    β- and γ-cytoplasmic actins have different translation rates in cells and exert different nucleotide coding sequence-dependent effects on cell migration.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Multiple pathways of toxicity induced by C9orf72 dipeptide repeat aggregates and G4C2 RNA in a cellular model

    Frédéric Frottin et al.
    Protein aggregates resulting from mutations in C9orf72 impair different aspects of cellular quality control in the cytosol and the nucleus, but mRNA-mediated effects contribute more strongly to toxicity.
    1. Plant Biology

    A hypothesis on the capacity of plant odorant-binding proteins to bind volatile isoprenoids based on in silico evidences

    Deborah Giordano et al.
    It is hypothesized that volatile organic compounds emitted by plants after stress induction may be sensed by neighboring eavesdropping plants using odorant-binding proteins.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Exosome component 1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and sensitizes human kidney renal clear cell carcinoma cells to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor

    Qiaoling Liu et al.
    EXOSC1 acts as an endogenous source of mutation inkidney renalclear cell carcinoma via cleaving single-stranded DNA.
    1. Medicine

    Dual targeting of salt inducible kinases and CSF1R uncouples bone formation and bone resorption

    Cheng-Chia Tang et al.
    Simultaneous inhibition of two distinct kinase targets stimulates bone formation without concurrently increasing bone resorption, therefore representing a promising new treatment strategy for osteoporosis.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Loss of heterozygosity results in rapid but variable genome homogenization across yeast genetic backgrounds

    Abhishek Dutta et al.
    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) mediated diversification of the diploid S. cerevisiae hybrid genomes during asexual propagation are vast and exceptionally varied depending on the genetic background.
    1. Medicine

    Restored TDCA and valine levels imitate the effects of bariatric surgery

    Markus Quante et al.
    Restored taurodeoxycholic acid and valine levels imitate the effects of bariatric surgery on weight loss and obesity-related disorders.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Planarian stem cells sense the identity of the missing pharynx to launch its targeted regeneration

    Tisha E Bohr et al.
    Loss of a single organ, the planarian pharynx, triggers immediate proliferation and expansion of stem cells required to replace it.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Increased burden of familial-associated early-onset cancer risk among minority Americans compared to non-Latino Whites

    Qianxi Feng et al.
    Familial cancer clustering was significantly higher in US minority populations compared to those of US European origin, suggesting renewed need for a focus on family cancer predisposition in US Latinos, Blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Smartphone screen testing, a novel pre-diagnostic method to identify SARS-CoV-2 infectious individuals

    Rodrigo M Young et al.
    PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 from samples taken from smartphone screens, Phone Screen Testing, provides a sensitive, cost-effective, simple, and non-invasive new method that could boost COVID-19 mass test screening.
    1. Medicine

    Adipsin promotes bone marrow adiposity by priming mesenchymal stem cells

    Nicole Aaron et al.
    Adipsin, the oldest known adipokine, has a novel role as a a regulator of bone marrow fat and, consequently, overall bone health.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Broad geographic sampling reveals the shared basis and environmental correlates of seasonal adaptation in Drosophila

    Heather E Machado et al.
    Seasonal selection is a general feature of Drosophila melanogaster genetic variation, occurring in North American and European populations and affecting large proportions of the genome.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Quantitative mapping of human hair greying and reversal in relation to life stress

    Ayelet M Rosenberg et al.
    A method to profile hair pigmentation patterns establishes a new approach for psychobiological studies and links metabolic changes to greying in humans.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural dynamics of semantic categorization in semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia

    V Borghesani et al.
    Following anterior temporal lobe neurodegeneration, defective semantic representations are compensated via enhanced perceptual processing and associated with a dysregulation of the semantic control system.
    1. Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Combination of inflammatory and vascular markers in the febrile phase of dengue is associated with more severe outcomes

    Nguyen Lam Vuong et al.
    Relationships of biomarkers with clinical outcome differed between children and adults and the best combinations associated with moderate/severe dengue comprised of six/seven vascular and immune biomarkers.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Ketogenic diet restrains aging-induced exacerbation of coronavirus infection in mice

    Seungjin Ryu et al.
    Ketogenic diet protects against coronavirus-infected aged mice, which, like humans, are significantly more susceptible to infections, by deactivating NLRP3 inflammasome, reducing pathogenic monotypes, and expanding γδ T cells in the lung.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Neuropeptide ACP facilitates lipid oxidation and utilization during long-term flight in locusts

    Li Hou et al.
    CRISPR/Cas 9 technology and multiple-omics study reveal an essential regulatory role of neuropeptide ACP in lipid utilization related to prolonged flight of locusts.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    The EMT transcription factor Snai1 maintains myocardial wall integrity by repressing intermediate filament gene expression

    Alessandra Gentile et al.
    The transcription factor Snai1b maintains the myocardial wall integrity by limiting cell extrusions and regulating the intermediate filament gene desmin b.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stability of neocortical synapses across sleep and wake states during the critical period in rats

    Brian A Cary, Gina G Turrigiano
    Sleep and wake states are not sufficient to drive changes in neocortical synaptic strengths.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Role of the transcriptional regulator SP140 in resistance to bacterial infections via repression of type I interferons

    Daisy X Ji et al.
    Repression of type I interferons by SP140 is essential for resistance to Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    1. Cell Biology

    Single-cell transcriptomics defines heterogeneity of epicardial cells and fibroblasts within the infarcted murine heart

    Julia Hesse et al.
    The transcriptional landscape of epicardial cells revealed 11 cell populations that differentially expressed early cardiac genes and numerous cardioprotective paracrine factors defining their regenerative potential.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Dependency of human and murine LKB1-inactivated lung cancer on aberrant CRTC-CREB activation

    Xin Zhou et al.
    Targeting aberrant CRTC-CREB activation blocks the growth of LKB1-inactivated lung cancer.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Psychosocial experiences modulate asthma-associated genes through gene-environment interactions

    Justyna A Resztak et al.
    Psychosocial environments modulate genetic risk of asthma and other allergic diseases through altered peripheral blood gene expression.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Cavin3 released from caveolae interacts with BRCA1 to regulate the cellular stress response

    Kerrie-Ann McMahon et al.
    Cavin3 associates with BRCA1 upon disassembly of caveolae in response to mechanical and non-mechanical stressors to influence DNA repair and apoptosis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Interneuron-specific gamma synchronization indexes cue uncertainty and prediction errors in lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex

    Kianoush Banaie Boroujeni et al.
    A fast spiking interneuron sub-type in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex fires and gamma-synchronizes prominently during adaptive learning of reward values when outcomes are uncertain and choice options have similar values.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Protective function and durability of mouse lymph node-resident memory CD8+ T cells

    Scott M Anthony et al.
    Repeated antigen encounters alter the transcriptional state and function of lymph node-resident memory CD8+ T cells to mediate improved immunity against viral infection.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) generates heterotypic ubiquitin chains

    Alan Rodriguez Carvajal et al.
    The E3 ubiquitin ligase complex linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) forms a branched chain on linear ubiquitin chains depending on the RING-in-between-RING-type E3 ligase heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1 (HOIL-1L).
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Regional sequencing collaboration reveals persistence of the T12 Vibrio cholerae O1 lineage in West Africa

    Eme Ekeng et al.
    The T12 Vibrio cholerae lineage has been continuously circulating in West Africa since at least 2012, highlighting the importance of regional disease control efforts.
    1. Neuroscience

    A bidirectional corticoamygdala circuit for the encoding and retrieval of detailed reward memories

    Ana C Sias et al.
    The bidirectional orbitofrontal cortex-basolateral amygdala circuit helps us to learn the details of predicted rewarding events and then to use that information to make good reward pursuit decisions.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Apical PAR complex proteins protect against programmed epithelial assaults to create a continuous and functional intestinal lumen

    Maria Danielle Sallee et al.
    During intestinal development, apical PAR complex proteins keep apical domains and junctions continuous between cells as they divide and elongate, and ultimately build a continuous functional tube.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A functional model of adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis

    Olivia Gozel, Wulfram Gerstner
    The GABA input switching from excitatory to inhibitory during maturation of adult-born dentate granule cells is crucial for their integration into the preexisting circuit.
    1. Cell Biology

    A signal capture and proofreading mechanism for the KDEL-receptor explains selectivity and dynamic range in ER retrieval

    Andreas Gerondopoulos et al.
    KDEL receptor structures with variant HDEL and RDEL signals help decode the cell biological mechanism for the selective retrieval of escaped endoplasmic reticulum luminal proteins.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    BET family members Bdf1/2 modulate global transcription initiation and elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Rafal Donczew, Steven Hahn
    Yeast bromodomain-containing factors Bdf1/2 offer insights into the biological role of the BET family of transcriptional regulators, which is a promising target in cancer therapy.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Single-cell RNA-seq analysis reveals penaeid shrimp hemocyte subpopulations and cell differentiation process

    Keiichiro Koiwai et al.
    Single-cell mRNA sequencing on hemocytes of penaeid shrimp revealed six types of hemocytes, type markers, differentiation pathways, and different immune roles among these subpopulations based on their transcriptional profiles.
    1. Neuroscience

    Working memory gates visual input to primate prefrontal neurons

    Behrad Noudoost et al.
    Visual input to prefrontal cortex preferentially targets neurons with both sensory and motor properties, and the synaptic efficacy of these inputs is facilitated by working memory.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Intrinsic OXPHOS limitations underlie cellular bioenergetics in leukemia

    Margaret AM Nelson et al.
    Across a physiological span of ATP-free energy, leukemic mitochondria primarily consume, rather than produce, ATP.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Early maternal loss leads to short- but not long-term effects on diurnal cortisol slopes in wild chimpanzees

    Cédric Girard-Buttoz et al.
    Wild chimpanzees contrast to humans since adult male chimpanzees do not exhibit physiological indicators of biological embedding of the stress associated to maternal loss early in life.
    1. Cell Biology

    circPTPN12/miR-21–5 p/∆Np63α pathway contributes to human endometrial fibrosis

    Minmin Song et al.
    Upregulation of circPTPN12 in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) of fibrotic endometrium sponged miR-21–5 p and resulted in upregulation of its target gene, ΔNp63α, which induced transition of EECs to mesenchymal cells.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structurally distributed surface sites tune allosteric regulation

    James W McCormick et al.
    Deep mutational scanning of a synthetic allosteric chimera revealed that a sparse set of mutations on the protein surface improved regulation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Plant Biology

    Genomic basis for drought resistance in European beech forests threatened by climate change

    Markus Pfenninger et al.
    European beech harbours substantial genetic variation at genomic loci associated with drought resistance and newly identified loci can help to accelerate and monitor adaptation to climate change.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Establishment of H3K9me3-dependent heterochromatin during embryogenesis in Drosophila miranda

    Kevin H-C Wei et al.
    Heterochromatin is established at nucleation sites associated with open chromatin and RNA transcripts and matures into stable domains if they are found near transposable elements targeted by maternally deposited piRNAs.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Plant Biology

    Biosynthesis of a sulfated exopolysaccharide, synechan, and bloom formation in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803

    Kaisei Maeda et al.
    A potentially useful cyanobacterial sulfated exopolysaccharide and its biosynthesis and regulation genes, which contribute to the laboratorial bloom formation, are elucidated for the first time among prokaryotes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The cryptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of human basal ganglia

    Katalin Skrapits et al.
    Neuroanatomical studies reveal presence and cholinergic phenotype of 150,000-200,000 extrahypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in human basal ganglia and basal forebrain, and RNA-sequencing detects gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor-1 expression in cholinergic interneurons but not in spiny projection neurons of the human putamen.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Tetrahydroxanthohumol, a xanthohumol derivative, attenuates high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by antagonizing PPARγ

    Yang Zhang et al.
    Identifying xanthohumol and its derivatives as PPARγ anatagonists provides new insight into how natural compounds beneficially treat obesity and metabolic syndrome, and provide new compounds for therapeutic development.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    Genetic architecture of 11 organ traits derived from abdominal MRI using deep learning

    Yi Liu et al.
    Systematic quantification of abdominal organ health parameters using deep learning generates new insights into the genetic architecture of cardiometabolic health traits.
    1. Neuroscience

    The temporal representation of experience in subjective mood

    Hanna Keren et al.
    While current theories assume that mood is dominated by most recent experiences, computational modeling shows that mood is shaped by first experiences that carry a long-lasting overarching influence on mood.
    1. Neuroscience

    Preserved sensory processing but hampered conflict detection when stimulus input is task-irrelevant

    Stijn Adriaan Nuiten et al.
    When all features of conflicting sensory input are task-irrelevant, the brain can still process its sensory information, whereas conflict detection requires that minimally one stimulus feature is task-relevant or associated with a response.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Myosin-based regulation of twitch and tetanic contractions in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Cameron Hill et al.
    The physiological contraction of skeletal muscle is controlled by structural changes in the thick filaments, establishing a new paradigm for developing potential treatments for muscle weakness.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Cancer immunotherapy by NC410, a LAIR-2 Fc protein blocking human LAIR-collagen interaction

    M Ines Pascoal Ramos et al.
    NC410, a LAIR-2 Fc protein blocking LAIR-collagen interaction, might be a powerful new strategy for cancer immunotherapy for collagen-rich immune-excluded tumors.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates chromatin rewiring and lineage transformation in lung cancer

    Yusuke Inoue et al.
    Lineage transformation in lung cancer is dictated by ERK activity and requires permissive chromatin alterations in the context of targeted therapy resistance.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Identical sequences found in distant genomes reveal frequent horizontal transfer across the bacterial domain

    Michael Sheinman et al.
    Horizontal gene transfer between distantly related bacterial species is frequent and widespread and can be efficiently identified using alignment-free methods.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortical signatures of precision grip force control in children, adolescents, and adults

    Mikkel Malling Beck et al.
    Precise motor control is supported by connectivity within a cortical grasping network from childhood to adulthood, but older individuals display more top-down control and superior motor performance compared to children.
    1. Neuroscience

    Glycinergic axonal inhibition subserves acute spatial sensitivity to sudden increases in sound intensity

    Tom P Franken et al.
    The location of impact sounds, common stimuli whose detection is crucial for survival, is encoded by a precise interaction between excitation and inhibition rather than coincidence detection of excitatory events.
    1. Cell Biology

    An in vivo reporter for tracking lipid droplet dynamics in transparent zebrafish

    Dianne Lumaquin et al.
    A novel transgenic lipid droplet reporter in transparent casper zebrafish allows direct visualization of individual lipid droplets in a living animal.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Locating macromolecular assemblies in cells by 2D template matching with cisTEM

    Bronwyn A Lucas et al.
    2D template matching complements 3D template matching of tomograms, providing fast and specific detection of molecules in cryo-EM images of cells, as well as generating 3D reconstructions from detected targets.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Major genetic discontinuity and novel toxigenic species in Clostridioides difficile taxonomy

    Daniel R Knight et al.
    The Clostridioides difficile taxonomy is characterised by major taxonomic incoherence and clear species boundaries.
    1. Cell Biology

    Micron-scale geometrical features of microtubules as regulators of microtubule organization

    Nandini Mani et al.
    Micron-scale geometrical features of individual microtubule polymers and polymer networks encode information that guides the self-organization of microtubules into specialized structures for diverse cellular functions such as cell division and signaling in eukaryotic cells.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Microtubule reorganization during female meiosis in C. elegans

    Ina Lantzsch et al.
    Structural rearrangements of meiotic spindles during the transition from metaphase to anaphase can be controlled by local changes of microtubule dynamics, such as nucleation and/or turnover, and that katanin promotes microtubule turnover by severing microtubules near the chromosomes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Unsupervised changes in core object recognition behavior are predicted by neural plasticity in inferior temporal cortex

    Xiaoxuan Jia et al.
    Temporal continuity-induced plasticity in individual neurons of inferior temporal cortex builds neural representations that underlie robust core object recognition behavior.
    1. Cell Biology

    Scaling of subcellular actin structures with cell length through decelerated growth

    Shane G McInally et al.
    The size of a subcellular structure, yeast actin cables, scales with the linear dimensions of the cell, which is achieved by feedback control of their growth rate.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    CDK control pathways integrate cell size and ploidy information to control cell division

    James Oliver Patterson et al.
    DNA concentration, cyclin levels, phosphatase activity, and CDK phosphorylation combine to directly link cell size to cell division.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Full assembly of HIV-1 particles requires assistance of the membrane curvature factor IRSp53

    Kaushik Inamdar et al.
    The formation of HIV-1 particles requires a bending of the membrane that cannot be achieved by the Gag protein alone and thus there is need for the I-BAR protein IRSp53 to aid in the formation of HIV-1 buds.
    1. Cancer Biology

    A systematic CRISPR screen reveals an IL-20/IL20RA-mediated immune crosstalk to prevent the ovarian cancer metastasis

    Jia Li et al.
    A genome-wide in vivo CRISPR screen identifies an IL-20/IL20RA-mediated crosstalk between peritoneum mesothelial cells and ovarian cancer cells that promotes the formation of M1-like macrophages to prevent ovarian cancer metastasis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Shape-invariant encoding of dynamic primate facial expressions in human perception

    Nick Taubert et al.
    Contrasting with neural network theories, a study of the cross-species perception of dynamic faces with highly realistic human and monkey avatars reveals independent perceptual encoding of facial shape and expression.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Occurrence of foamy macrophages during the innate response of zebrafish to trypanosome infections

    Sem H Jacobs et al.
    Transparent zebrafish, reveal the occurrence of foamy macrophages during an extracellular trypanosome infection and their association with an exacerbated inflammatory response.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists to prevent hyperinflammation and death from lower respiratory tract infection

    Allison Koenecke et al.
    Patients exposed to ⍺1-AR antagonists have reduced risks of mechanical ventilation and death in lower respiratory tract infection-related illnesses, highlighting the need for prospective trials assessing ⍺1-AR antagonists' effectiveness in COVID-19.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A putative structural mechanism underlying the antithetic effect of homologous RND1 and RhoD GTPases in mammalian plexin regulation

    Yanyan Liu et al.
    Small Rho GTPases confer up- and downregulation in mammalian plexin signaling by differential interactions with cell membrane.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling promotes the assembly of RanBP2/RanGAP1-SUMO1/Ubc9 nuclear pore subcomplex via PKC-θ-mediated phosphorylation of RanGAP1

    Yujiao He et al.
    T-cell receptor signaling actively regulates gating of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in T cells by inducing translocation of protein kinase C-θ to the NPC to promote the sumoylation of RanGAP1.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Ubiquitination and degradation of NF90 by Tim-3 inhibits antiviral innate immunity

    Shuaijie Dou et al.
    Tim-3 promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of NF90, a novel virus sensor, and negatively regulates the NF90-SG pathway-mediated antiviral innate immunity.
    1. Medicine

    Chitinase 3-like-1 contributes to acetaminophen-induced liver injury by promoting hepatic platelet recruitment

    Zhao Shan et al.
    Chitinase 3-like-1 promotes Kupffer cells to recruit platelets, thereby contributing to liver injury, and serves as a therapeutic target in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Tumor stiffening reversion through collagen crosslinking inhibition improves T cell migration and anti-PD-1 treatment

    Alba Nicolas-Boluda et al.
    Tumor stiffness blocks T cell migration in tumors.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    HP1α is a chromatin crosslinker that controls nuclear and mitotic chromosome mechanics

    Amy R Strom et al.
    Micromanipulation experiments demonstrate that HP1α strengthens interphase and mitotic chromosome mechanics and maintains nuclear shape by chromatin crosslinking, separate from histone methylation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    FnCas9-based CRISPR diagnostic for rapid and accurate detection of major SARS-CoV-2 variants on a paper strip

    Manoj Kumar et al.
    A newly developed lateral flow assay can diagnose mutational signatures of major SARS CoV-2 variants in a rapid, inexpensive, and sequence-free manner.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Protein-based condensation mechanisms drive the assembly of RNA-rich P granules

    Helen Schmidt et al.
    P granule assembly depends in part on protein-protein interactions that drive condensation independent of RNA.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Neuroscience

    Injection with Toxoplasma gondii protein affects neuron health and survival

    Oscar A Mendez et al.
    Multi-level profiling of Toxoplasma gondii-injected neurons identifies brain regions and neuron subtype predilections as well as the effect of Toxoplasma interactions on neuron physiology and health.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Allosteric conformational ensembles have unlimited capacity for integrating information

    John W Biddle et al.
    The effective higher-order binding cooperativities arising from an ensemble of dynamically interchanging conformations are identified and shown to fully describe integration of binding information at thermodynamic equilibrium.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Calcium signaling through a transient receptor channel is important for Toxoplasma gondii growth

    Karla Marie Márquez-Nogueras et al.
    A transient receptor channel in Toxoplasma gondii that conducts calcium represents the first molecular element that initiates upstream calcium signals that activate parasite pathogenic pathways.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    High-fidelity, efficient, and reversible labeling of endogenous proteins using CRISPR-based designer exon insertion

    Haining Zhong et al.
    A high-fidelity and efficient strategy to use CRISPR/Cas9 to reversibly insert large DNA fragments into somatic cells to label or modify endogenous proteins for research and, in the future, for gene therapy.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    miR-125-chinmo pathway regulates dietary restriction-dependent enhancement of lifespan in Drosophila

    Manish Pandey et al.
    miR-125 functions as a potential dietary restriction mimetic by promoting longevity through regulation of fat metabolism.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The push-to-open mechanism of the tethered mechanosensitive ion channel NompC

    Yang Wang et al.
    A pushing force on the ankyrin repeat region of NompC leads to the gating of the mechanosensitive ion channel, which may enable cells to feel compression and shrinkage.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Live imaging and biophysical modeling support a button-based mechanism of somatic homolog pairing in Drosophila

    Myron Barber Child VI et al.
    Biophysical modeling and quantitative live-cell imaging converge to show that the century-old puzzle of somatic homolog pairing in Drosophila operates via a button model.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Stimulus-induced gamma rhythms are weaker in human elderly with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Dinavahi VPS Murty et al.
    Visual narrow-band gamma rhythms are reduced in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, confirming previous rodent research and forming crucial first steps for development of EEG-based biomarkers for humans.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Start codon disruption with CRISPR/Cas9 prevents murine Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy

    Hironori Uehara et al.
    Adenoviral CRISPR/Cas9 gene knockdown of mutant Col8a2 achieves structural and functional rescue of murine Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy, the first demonstration of post-mitotic CRISPR-based knockdown for phenotypic restoration.
    1. Developmental Biology

    SORBS2 is a genetic factor contributing to cardiac malformation of 4q deletion syndrome patients

    Fei Liang et al.
    Combined evidence of human genetics, in vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation, and mouse model indicates that SORBS2 is a regulator of second heart field development and its deficiency causes seemingly opposite atrial septal defects.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Plexin-B2 controls the timing of differentiation and the motility of cerebellar granule neurons

    Eljo Van Battum et al.
    3D imaging and time-lapse video-microscopy show that the PlexinB2 receptor controls the tempo of granule cell differentiation and sets the pace of their migration in mouse cerebellum.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Variations of intracellular density during the cell cycle arise from tip-growth regulation in fission yeast

    Pascal D Odermatt et al.
    The density of the cytoplasm in S. pombe varies in time and space during the cell cycle through modulation of tip growth rate coupled with constant mass growth rate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spherical arena reveals optokinetic response tuning to stimulus location, size, and frequency across entire visual field of larval zebrafish

    Florian A Dehmelt et al.
    Systematic stimulation across the entire visual field reveals that zebrafish optokinetic behavior is most strongly driven by lateral stimulus locations, as a result of both retinal and extra-retinal effects.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Functional biology in its natural context: A search for emergent simplicity

    Joy Bergelson et al.
    The time is right to study biological function without stripping systems of their essential eco-evolutionary context.
    1. Neuroscience

    Uncovering a ‘sensitive window’ of multisensory and motor neuroplasticity in the cerebrum and cerebellum of male and female starlings

    Jasmien Orije et al.
    Despite the structural sexual dimorphism in the song control system, both male and female starlings experience similar seasonal neuroplasticity in multisensory systems and cerebellum during the photosensitive phase, which acts as a sensitive window of plasticity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Temporally delayed linear modelling (TDLM) measures replay in both animals and humans

    Yunzhe Liu et al.
    Temporally delayed linear modelling provides a domain-general linear framework for sequence detection and statistical testing, and is able to detect replays in both human neuroimaging and animal electrophysiology.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatially displaced excitation contributes to the encoding of interrupted motion by a retinal direction-selective circuit

    Jennifer Ding et al.
    The direction-selective circuit in the retina adjusts the contributions of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms under different stimulus conditions to generate context-dependent neural representations of visual features.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    RAL GTPases mediate EGFR-driven intestinal stem cell proliferation and tumourigenesis

    Máté Nászai et al.
    Combined genetic experiments and cellular trafficking assays in Drosophila and mammalian models uncover a new role of RAS-like GTPases in EGFR signalling activation during tissue regeneration and tumourigenesis through regulation of EGFR internalisation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Asymptomatic Bordetella pertussis infections in a longitudinal cohort of young African infants and their mothers

    Christopher J Gill et al.
    Longitudinal qPCR-based pertussis surveillance of a low-resource African cohort reveals frequent asymptomatic pertussis infections in both young infants and mothers and suggests possible early warning signals for epidemic outbreaks.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    The critical role of Hedgehog-responsive mesenchymal progenitors in meniscus development and injury repair

    Yulong Wei et al.
    Meniscal Gli1+ cells are mesenchymal progenitors that contribute to the development and injury repair of meniscus.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Reshaping of bacterial molecular hydrogen metabolism contributes to the outgrowth of commensal E. coli during gut inflammation

    Elizabeth R Hughes et al.
    Bioinformatics analyses and experiments in mouse models reveal how Escherichia coli accesses the molecular hydrogen pool to boost colonization during acute colitis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Cytoplasmic mRNA decay represses RNA polymerase II transcription during early apoptosis

    Christopher Duncan-Lewis et al.
    Human cells respond to cytoplasmic mRNA depletion during early apoptosis by inhibiting RNA polymerase II transcription, thereby magnifying the gene expression shutdown during stress.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Short and long sleeping mutants reveal links between sleep and macroautophagy

    Joseph L Bedont et al.
    Unbiased and targeted genetic approaches reveal a link between sleep and autophagy that could be relevant for sleep function, and for understanding pathological consequences of chronic sleep loss.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortical entrainment to hierarchical contextual rhythms recomposes dynamic attending in visual perception

    Peijun Yuan et al.
    The human brain involuntarily exploits multiscale regularities in rhythmic contexts to recompose the dynamic profile of visual temporal attention.
    1. Neuroscience

    Unveiling the sensory and interneuronal pathways of the neuroendocrine connectome in Drosophila

    Sebastian Hückesfeld et al.
    Core of a neuroendocrine synaptic network consists of a parallel set of interneurons that target distinct combinations of neuroendocrine outputs, thus enabling variability and flexibility in selection of physiological activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Punishment insensitivity in humans is due to failures in instrumental contingency learning

    Philip Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel et al.
    Punishment insensitive individuals are not more impulsive or anxious, they dislike aversive outcomes and predictors of these outcomes, but are simply less likely to learn their control over them.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Multiplexed proteomics of autophagy-deficient murine macrophages reveals enhanced antimicrobial immunity via the oxidative stress response

    Timurs Maculins et al.
    Multiplexed mass spectrometry shows how the autophagy gene Atg16l1 regulates macrophage innate immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens by modulating basal oxidative stress responses.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Canonical NF-κB signaling maintains corneal epithelial integrity and prevents corneal aging via retinoic acid

    Qian Yu et al.
    Corneal aging is regulated by the NF-κB-retinoic acid pathway and can be delayed by retinoic acid administration.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Convalescent plasma use in the USA was inversely correlated with COVID-19 mortality

    Arturo Casadevall et al.
    A population-level analysis of convalescent plasma use and COVID-19 mortality in the USA revealed an inverse correlation and an estimate that recent declines in plasma use could have resulted in about 30,000 excess deaths.
    1. Neuroscience

    Differential dopaminergic modulation of spontaneous cortico–subthalamic activity in Parkinson’s disease

    Abhinav Sharma et al.
    Dopaminergic medication has differential effects on the discovered electrophysiological networks, which could be used to develop new electrical and pharmacological interventions in Parkinson’s disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dorsal raphe nucleus to anterior cingulate cortex 5-HTergic neural circuit modulates consolation and sociability

    Laifu Li et al.
    Inhibition of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei or 5-HT terminals in the anterior cingulate cortex decreased consolation-like behaviors and reduced sociability.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Tight nanoscale clustering of Fcγ receptors using DNA origami promotes phagocytosis

    Nadja Kern et al.
    Manipulating nanoscale spacing of Fcγ receptors using DNA origami demonstrates that ligand clustering regulates receptor phosphorylation and phagocytosis.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Latent gammaherpesvirus exacerbates arthritis through modification of age-associated B cells

    Isobel C Mouat et al.
    Latent gammaherpesvirus infection predisposes mice to develop more severe disease following induction of arthritis by elevating pathogenic interferon-gamma-expressing age-associated B cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    Kinesin-6 Klp9 orchestrates spindle elongation by regulating microtubule sliding and growth

    Lara Katharina Krüger et al.
    During anaphase B spindle elongation, Klp9 controls the speed of both microtubule sliding and microtubule growth to coordinate the processes and thus maintain spindle stability for faithful chromosome separation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    HNRNPM controls circRNA biogenesis and splicing fidelity to sustain cancer cell fitness

    Jessica SY Ho et al.
    HNRNPM regulates exon inclusion and circularization events on transcripts of key homeostatic genes promoting cancer growth.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Translation inhibitory elements from Hoxa3 and Hoxa11 mRNAs use uORFs for translation inhibition

    Fatima Alghoul et al.
    Hoxa3 and Hoxa11 translation inhibitory elements block cap-dependent translation by using upstream open reading frames with distinct modes of action.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Plant Biology

    Repression by the Arabidopsis TOPLESS corepressor requires association with the core mediator complex

    Alexander R Leydon et al.
    The TPL corepressor binds to the core mediator complex through MED21 to inhibit transcription while simultaneously priming repressed genes for rapid reactivation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Dwarf open reading frame (DWORF) is a direct activator of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump SERCA

    M'Lynn E Fisher et al.
    Activation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump and enhancement of cellular calcium homeostasis by dwarf open reading frame reveal how this small membrane protein opposes phospholamban inhibitory function in cardiac muscle.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Systematic screening of viral and human genetic variation identifies antiretroviral resistance and immune escape link

    Huyen Nguyen et al.
    The presence of certain HLA alleles drives the emergence or maintenance of otherwise deleterious drug-resistant mutations in patients living with HIV, even when the patient is antiretroviral treatment naïve.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Traumatic injury compromises nucleocytoplasmic transport and leads to TDP-43 pathology

    Eric N Anderson et al.
    Traumatic injury leads to functional defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport and TDP-43 pathology in multiple model systems.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genetic code expansion enables visualization of Salmonella type three secretion system components and secreted effectors

    Moirangthem Kiran Singh et al.
    Genetic code expansion (GCE) enables site-specific labeling and visualization of Salmonella secreted effectors, secretion system components and provides a viable alternative for labeling proteins that do not tolerate N- or C-terminal tags.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Pore mutation N617D in the skeletal muscle DHPR blocks Ca2+ influx due to atypical high-affinity Ca2+ binding

    Anamika Dayal et al.
    Characterization of Ca2+ selectivity and non-conductance mechanism induced by pore mutation N617D in the skeletal muscle DHPR.
    1. Neuroscience

    The trajectory of cortical GABA across the lifespan, an individual participant data meta-analysis of edited MRS studies

    Eric C Porges et al.
    Individual participant data meta-analysis reveals the estimated lifespan trajectory of cortical GABA, characterized by an early rapid increase, followed by a period of stability during early adulthood, and a gradual decrease.
    1. Medicine

    Targeting a cell surface vitamin D receptor on tumor-associated macrophages in triple-negative breast cancer

    Fernanda I Staquicini et al.
    A peptide motif targeting tumor-infiltrating macrophage in triple-negative breast cancer delays tumor growth and favors an antitumor immune response.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Mapping the endemicity and seasonality of clinical malaria for intervention targeting in Haiti using routine case data

    Ewan Cameron et al.
    A demonstration of the power of routine case data and statistical modelling to guide the allocation of anti-malarial interventions in a resource-constrained setting.
    1. Neuroscience

    Songbirds can learn flexible contextual control over syllable sequencing

    Lena Veit et al.
    Songbirds can use arbitrary visual cues to immediately, flexibly and adaptively control syntax of learned song vocalizations in a manner that parallels human cognitive control over syllable sequencing in speech.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Distinct expression requirements and rescue strategies for BEST1 loss- and gain-of-function mutations

    Qingqing Zhao et al.
    BEST1 autosomal dominant loss-of-function mutations surprisingly behave in a dominant-negative manner, whereas gain-of-function mutations exhibit a strong dominant effect that necessitates CRISPR/Cas9-mediated suppression of the endogenous mutant allele in gene therapy.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Handling of intracellular K+ determines voltage dependence of plasmalemmal monoamine transporter function

    Shreyas Bhat et al.
    Subtle differences in handling of intracellular cations can drive macroscopic functional differences in structurally similar monoamine transporters.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Alcohol consumption in the general population is associated with structural changes in multiple organ systems

    Evangelos Evangelou et al.
    The results imply that there is not a safe threshold below which there are no toxic effects of alcohol.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Bacterial death and TRADD-N domains help define novel apoptosis and immunity mechanisms shared by prokaryotes and metazoans

    Gurmeet Kaur et al.
    Prokaryotic TRADD-N and Death-like adaptor domains in diverse predicted apoptosis and immune systems from multicellular prokaryotes and metazoans indicate the common origin of key apoptosis mechanisms required for the stabilization of multicellularity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Contingency and chance erase necessity in the experimental evolution of ancestral proteins

    Victoria Cochran Xie et al.
    Replicating experimental evolution from ancestral proteins shows that historical contingency steadily overwhelms chance and necessity as the primary cause of evolutionary variation in molecular sequences on long phylogenetic timescales.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Understanding the evolution of multiple drug resistance in structured populations

    David V McLeod, Sylvain Gandon
    The evolution of multidrug resistance can be most easily understood by focusing upon the dynamical equations of linkage disequilibrium.
    1. Neuroscience

    Presynaptic NMDA receptors facilitate short-term plasticity and BDNF release at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Pablo J Lituma et al.
    By facilitating glutamate and BDNF release, presynaptic NMDA receptors may control information transfer from the dentate gyrus to the CA3 area of the hippocampus.
    1. Neuroscience

    Contribution of dorsal horn CGRP-expressing interneurons to mechanical sensitivity

    Line S Löken et al.
    Although primary sensory neuron-derived calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contributes to the processing of pain messages, an understudied population of dorsal horn CGRP-expressing interneurons also contributes to the processing of mechanical sensitivity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Rampant tooth loss across 200 million years of frog evolution

    Daniel J Paluh et al.
    Teeth are maintained in two amphibian groups (caecilians and salamanders) but were lost in frogs over 20 times independently, a higher incidence of edentulism than any other major vertebrate group.
    1. Medicine

    Miniaturized 3D bone marrow tissue model to assess response to Thrombopoietin-receptor agonists in patients

    Christian A Di Buduo et al.
    A 3D bone marrow niche that reproduces megakaryocyte differentiation and ex vivo platelet production from hematopoietic progenitors and iPSCs of thrombocytopenic patients predicts individual response to Eltrombopag accurately.
    1. Neuroscience

    Presynaptic inhibition of dopamine neurons controls optimistic bias

    Nobuhiro Yamagata et al.
    The subcellular activity of presynaptic terminals of dopamine neurons shapes the reward magnitude and memory specificity.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    An ABA-GA bistable switch can account for natural variation in the variability of Arabidopsis seed germination time

    Katie Abley et al.
    Arabidopsis shows extensive genetic diversity in germination time distributions, which can be explained by the underlying ABA/GA network functioning as a noisy bistable switch.

Magazine

  1. Executable Research Articles

    Edited by Fred Atherden
    1. Neuroscience

    Antidepressants: Where ketamine and dopamine collide

    David J Marcus, Michael R Bruchas
    1. Cell Biology

    Metabolism: A move in response to starvation

    Rebecca Martina Fausten, Maria Bohnert