September 2020

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Antinociceptive modulation by the adhesion GPCR CIRL promotes mechanosensory signal discrimination

    Sven Dannhäuser et al.
    An interdisciplinary approach uncovers a new antinociceptive molecular mechanism and shows that the adhesion GPCR CIRL adjusts the sensation of gentle touch and noxious mechanical insult in opposite directions.
    1. Neuroscience

    The role of cochlear place coding in the perception of frequency modulation

    Kelly L Whiteford et al.
    Human perceptual sensitivity to frequency modulation across the hearing range can be explained by a unitary neural code based on neural responses to amplitude modulation and fidelity of cochlear tuning.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    New insights on the modeling of the molecular mechanisms underlying neural maps alignment in the midbrain

    Elise Laura Savier et al.
    A dominant sensory map provides positional information through correlated activity and transposed molecular cues to guide secondary sensory projections for alignment and organization.
    1. Neuroscience

    A circuit mechanism for decision-making biases and NMDA receptor hypofunction

    Sean Edward Cavanagh et al.
    Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and experimental model for schizophrenia, produces decision-making deficits in monkeys, which are predicted by a lowering of cortical excitation-inhibition balance in a spiking circuit model.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Sperm-specific COX6B2 enhances oxidative phosphorylation, proliferation, and survival in human lung adenocarcinoma

    Chun-Chun Cheng et al.
    The cancer testis antigen COX6B2 enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity thereby promoting proliferation and survival in cancer cells and represents a therapeutic target for inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation selectively in tumors.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Histone deacetylase knockouts modify transcription, CAG instability and nuclear pathology in Huntington disease mice

    Marina Kovalenko et al.
    Genetic knockout of Hdac2 modifies molecular and cellular phenotypes in Huntington’s disease mice and has a prominent transcriptional regulatory role in adult medium spiny neurons.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Lef1 expression in fibroblasts maintains developmental potential in adult skin to regenerate wounds

    Quan M Phan et al.
    Adult wound repair can be rejuvenated to heal like young skin by activating neonatal transcription factors in fibroblasts.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Genome expansion in early eukaryotes drove the transition from lateral gene transfer to meiotic sex

    Marco Colnaghi et al.
    Lateral gene transfer is unable to resist mutation accumulation in large genomes, leading to selective pressure for the origin of meiotic sex in the first eukaryotes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Unexplained repeated pregnancy loss is associated with altered perceptual and brain responses to men’s body-odor

    Liron Rozenkrantz et al.
    Women with unexplained miscarriages have an altered behavioral and brain response to men's body-odor, and this may reflect a factor in their condition.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Pregnancy success in mice requires appropriate cannabinoid receptor signaling for primary decidua formation

    Yingju Li et al.
    Cannabinoid signaling is critical for integration of vascular system and uterine decidualization.
    1. Neuroscience

    Purkinje cell neurotransmission patterns cerebellar basket cells into zonal modules defined by distinct pinceau sizes

    Joy Zhou et al.
    Targeted genetic silencing and reporter labeling reveal that Purkinje cell activity organizes cerebellar basket cells into zonal modules based on the sizes of their projections.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Genome-wide CRISPR screens of oral squamous cell carcinoma reveal fitness genes in the Hippo pathway

    Annie Wai Yeeng Chai et al.
    Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screens enable the identification of actionable vulnerabilities of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their unique dependencies on YAP1 and WWTR1 of the Hippo pathway.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Modelling the emergence of whisker barrels

    Sebastian S James et al.
    Whisker barrels provide clues about neocortical development, as computer modelling shows that barrels can self-organize, based on competition between adjacent thalamocortical axons, suggesting that genetic instruction plays a secondary role.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Phenotypic analysis of the unstimulated in vivo HIV CD4 T cell reservoir

    Jason Neidleman et al.
    An in-depth view of the in vivo blood and tissue HIV reservoir is presented highlighting shared phenotypic features between individuals, thus enabling marked ex vivo enrichment of replication-competent latent cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Feed-forward recruitment of electrical synapses enhances synchronous spiking in the mouse cerebellar cortex

    Andreas Hoehne et al.
    Transient recruitment of electrical synapses mediates precisely timed excitation and inhibition to enhance synchronized control of cerebellar cortical output.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Endothelial TGF-β signaling instructs smooth muscle cell development in the cardiac outflow tract

    Giulia LM Boezio et al.
    Alk5/TGF-β signaling is required in the endothelium to orchestrate zebrafish cardiac outflow tract morphogenesis, regulating smooth muscle cell and extracellular matrix organization.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A physicochemical perspective of aging from single-cell analysis of pH, macromolecular and organellar crowding in yeast

    Sara N Mouton et al.
    In mitotically aging yeast cells, the cytosol acidifies, the distances between the organellar membranes decrease dramatically, but crowding on the scale of the average size protein is relatively stable.
    1. Neuroscience

    Testicular hormones mediate robust sex differences in impulsive choice in rats

    Caesar M Hernandez et al.
    Sex differences in impulsive decision making, such that males are less impulsive than females, are critically dependent upon testicular but not ovarian hormones.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Defining the function of OmpA in the Rcs stress response

    Kilian Dekoninck et al.
    In vivo and in vitro approaches uncover a new function for the β-barrel OmpA and reveal how it interacts with the stress sensor lipoprotein RcsF.
    1. Plant Biology

    Phosphatidylcholines from Pieris brassicae eggs activate an immune response in Arabidopsis

    Elia Stahl et al.
    Plants detect the presence of phospholipids in eggs from a herbivorous insect and trigger innate immunity.
    1. Neuroscience

    The dynamic interplay between ATP/ADP levels and autophagy sustain neuronal migration in vivo

    Cedric Bressan et al.
    Imaging of energy status and autophagy during neuronal migration revealed that ATP/ADP levels dynamically change during the migratory and stationary phases and that ATP reduction induces autophagy to maintain migration.
    1. Neuroscience

    Direct translation of climbing fiber burst-mediated sensory coding into post-synaptic Purkinje cell dendritic calcium

    Seung-Eon Roh et al.
    Purkinje cell dendritic calcium response is finely controlled by the burst activity of climbing fiber during sensory coding.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Characterization of the mechanism by which the RB/E2F pathway controls expression of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B

    Pieter A Roelofs et al.
    The antiviral and genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B is repressed in normal cells by PRC1.6/E2F6 and DREAM/E2F4 complexes and deregulation of this axis provides a unifying mechanism for overexpression in cancer.
    1. Neuroscience

    Experience, circuit dynamics, and forebrain recruitment in larval zebrafish prey capture

    Claire S Oldfield et al.
    Experience strengthens hunting in larval zebrafish by recruiting the forebrain to increase the prey-evoked activity in visual areas and trigger motor activity and prey capture.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A multi-layered and dynamic apical extracellular matrix shapes the vulva lumen in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Jennifer D Cohen et al.
    Confocal imaging, electron microscopy, and genetic perturbations provide an unprecedented view of a complex and dynamic luminal matrix that determines tube shape during morphogenesis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    POMK regulates dystroglycan function via LARGE1-mediated elongation of matriglycan

    Ameya S Walimbe et al.
    Protein O-Mannose Kinase enables Like-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase 1 to elongate matriglycan on α-dystroglycan, thereby allowing matriglycan to function as a scaffold for extracellular matrix proteins and prevent muscular dystrophy.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and Hsp70 protect Plasmodium falciparum from heat-induced cell death

    Kuan-Yi Lu et al.
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate interacts with PfHsp70-1 and stabilizes the Plasmodium digestive vacuole under febrile temperatures.
    1. Plant Biology

    Photosynthesis without β-carotene

    Pengqi Xu et al.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Symbiont-mediated cytoplasmic incompatibility: what have we learned in 50 years?

    J Dylan Shropshire et al.
    This review serves as a gateway to experimental, conceptual, and quantitative themes of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and outlines significant gaps in the understanding of CI's mechanism that are ripe for investigation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    MondoA regulates gene expression in cholesterol biosynthesis-associated pathways required for zebrafish epiboly

    Meltem Weger et al.
    The glucose-sensing transcription factor MondoA regulates zebrafish epiboly via cholesterol biosynthesis genes including the human disease gene Nsdhl, revealing an unknown role for metabolic glucose signalling in vertebrate development.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular mechanism for direct actin force-sensing by α-catenin

    Lin Mei et al.
    Biophysical and structural studies reveal how low piconewton forces across actin enhance binding by the critical cell-cell adhesion protein α-catenin versus its force insensitive homolog vinculin.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Hedgehog signaling is required for endomesodermal patterning and germ cell development in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    Cheng-Yi Chen et al.
    The dependence of Nematostella germ cell specification on zygotic Hedgehog pathway activity supports the hypothesis that the eumetazoan common ancestor segregated its germline by inductive signals rather than maternal determinants.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Alstrom syndrome gene is a stem-cell-specific regulator of centriole duplication in the Drosophila testis

    Cuie Chen, Yukiko M Yamashita
    Alms1a is a centrosomal protein that exhibits asymmetric localization between mother and daughter centrosomes in asymmetrically dividing stem cells in Drosophila testis, controlling centriole duplication.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Stoichiometric interactions explain spindle dynamics and scaling across 100 million years of nematode evolution

    Reza Farhadifar et al.
    Stoichiometric interactions between microtubules and cortical force-generators set spindle size, position and dynamics, and its scaling with cell size in nematode species.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Unbiased homeologous recombination during pneumococcal transformation allows for multiple chromosomal integration events

    Jun Kurushima et al.
    DNA uptake and recombination in pneumococcus are highly efficient and independent of the cell-cycle or genetic location of the transformed allele, but limited to maximally 50% of the population.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Bimodal function of chromatin remodeler Hmga1 in neural crest induction and Wnt-dependent emigration

    Shashank Gandhi et al.
    Chromatin remodeler Hmga1 has two separable functions in neural crest development, first neural crest specification at the neural plate border and later in Wnt-dependent emigration from the neural tube.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Live imaging of hair bundle polarity acquisition demonstrates a critical timeline for transcription factor Emx2

    Yosuke Tona, Doris K Wu
    Acquisition of hair bundle orientation in sensory hair cells is only sensitive to Emx2 during a critical time window.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Ribosome recycling is not critical for translational coupling in Escherichia coli

    Kazuki Saito et al.
    Without ribosome recycling factor, ribosomes in Escherichia coli accumulate in 3'-UTRs and queue upstream of stop codons, but no effects were observed on the translational coupling of neighboring genes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Light-regulated allosteric switch enables temporal and subcellular control of enzyme activity

    Mark Shaaya et al.
    Light-sensitive allosteric switch module, a broadly applicable protein engineering method, is used for the regulation of protein activity with tight temporal control and spatial precision.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Tuning movement for sensing in an uncertain world

    Chen Chen et al.
    Animals work in a world full of surprises, where using energy to position sensors proportional to the location's expected information avoids the pitfalls of positioning them at the information maxima.
    1. Ecology
    2. Neuroscience

    BiteOscope, an open platform to study mosquito biting behavior

    Felix JH Hol et al.
    A new tool to visualize blood-feeding mosquitoes in high resolution and quantitatively characterize their behavior sheds light on contact-dependent sensing and blood-feeding dynamics of several medically relevant mosquito species.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Nutrient status shapes selfish mitochondrial genome dynamics across different levels of selection

    Bryan L Gitschlag et al.
    Food supply and nutrient stress tolerance coordinately shape the multilevel selection dynamics of a mitochondrial cheater by promoting cheater persistence at both within-host and between-host levels of selection.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ribosomal profiling during prion disease uncovers progressive translational derangement in glia but not in neurons

    Claudia Scheckel et al.
    Cell-type-specific ribosome profiling during prion disease progression identified minor translational changes in neurons as well as profound glia changes many of which are shared with other neurodegenerative diseases.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Host-induced spermidine production in motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers phagocytic uptake

    Sebastian Felgner et al.
    Upon host cell contact, motile but not non-motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibit a change in their gene expression program that includes the expression of spermidine, which triggers motility-dependent phagocytosis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Homeostatic plasticity in the retina is associated with maintenance of night vision during retinal degenerative disease

    Henri Leinonen et al.
    Mouse retina manifests homeostatic plasticity and adapts to photoreceptor degeneration to resist visual decline.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Spectral clustering of risk score trajectories stratifies sepsis patients by clinical outcome and interventions received

    Ran Liu et al.
    Spectral clustering applied to risk trajectories of sepsis patients discovered four distinct clusters stratified by risk of septic shock, mortality, and treatments received prior to an abrupt physiological transition.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Ubiquitin-interacting motifs of ataxin-3 regulate its polyglutamine toxicity through Hsc70-4-dependent aggregation

    Sean L Johnson et al.
    Pathogenesis in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 is enhanced by the heat-shock protein family member, Hsc70-4, uncovering new mechanisms of toxicity for this disease and suggesting pleiotropic roles for chaperones.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The effect of hybridization on transposable element accumulation in an undomesticated fungal species

    Mathieu Hénault et al.
    Transposable elements are not reactivated in natural hybrids of the yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus, but their accumulation is genotype-specific and is not predicted by the evolutionary divergence between a hybrid's parents.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Genetic mapping of etiologic brain cell types for obesity

    Pascal N Timshel et al.
    Unbiased computational integration of single-cell- and human genetics data shows that susceptibility to obesity is driven by a broad set of neuronal populations across the brain.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Site-specific effects of neurosteroids on GABAA receptor activation and desensitization

    Yusuke Sugasawa et al.
    Differential, state-dependent occupancy of three discrete binding sites on α1β3 GABAA receptors determines whether a specific neurosteroid analogue potentiates or inhibits GABA-elicited currents or competitively antagonizes neurosteroid action.
    1. Neuroscience

    Localized inhibition in the Drosophila mushroom body

    Hoger Amin et al.
    A large interneuron in the Drosophila mushroom body has compartmentalized activity, which causes localized inhibition and predicts that Kenyon cells inhibit themselves more than they inhibit other individual Kenyon cells.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Serine phosphorylation regulates the P-type potassium pump KdpFABC

    Marie E Sweet et al.
    Phosphorylation of a highly conserved serine residue is a physiological response of Escerichia coli to environmental potassium levels that inhibits transport by KdpFABC to maintain cellular homeostasis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Therapeutic effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in a rat model of ADHD

    Da Hee Jung et al.
    High-definition anodal transcranial stimulation alleviated cognitive deficits, affected dopaminergic neurotransmission factors, increased expression of several neurotrophic factors involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activated hippocampal neurogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dynamic encoding of social threat and spatial context in the hypothalamus

    Piotr Krzywkowski et al.
    Threat and context-responsive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus are reshaped by experience to drive social avoidance.
    1. Neuroscience

    AANAT1 functions in astrocytes to regulate sleep homeostasis

    Sejal Davla et al.
    Drosophila astrocytes regulate the homeostatic response to sleep need and express the AANAT1 enzyme that limits brain accumulation of serotonin and dopamine caused by overnight sleep deprivation.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Deciphering the regulatory genome of Escherichia coli, one hundred promoters at a time

    William T Ireland et al.
    A combination of massively parallel reporter assays and mass spectrometry uncovers the regulation of previously unexplored promoters across the Escherichia coli genome.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Apelin signaling drives vascular endothelial cells toward a pro-angiogenic state

    Christian SM Helker et al.
    Apelin signaling promotes sprouting behavior of endothelial cells by modulating their metabolic state.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Genome-wide alterations of uracil distribution patterns in human DNA upon chemotherapeutic treatments

    Hajnalka L Pálinkás et al.
    Human genomic DNA contains uracil in the late replicating, constitutive heterochromatic regions, while treatment with drugs perturbing thymidylate biosynthesis shifts the uracil distribution pattern towards the euchromatin in UNG-inhibited cells.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    PTPRG is an ischemia risk locus essential for HCO3-dependent regulation of endothelial function and tissue perfusion

    Kristoffer B Hansen et al.
    HCO3-sensitive regulation of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase RPTPγ provides a novel mechanism for acid-base-mediated coordination of cerebrovascular perfusion during increased local metabolism and for protection against ischemia.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Cell-cycle-gated feedback control mediates desensitization to interferon stimulation

    Anusorn Mudla et al.
    Cell cycle gating enables a temporal compartmentalization of negative vs positive feedback control processes, leading to differential responses to repetitive interferon stimulations.
    1. Cell Biology

    WDR90 is a centriolar microtubule wall protein important for centriole architecture integrity

    Emmanuelle Steib et al.
    Centriole integrity is ensured by the connection between the inner scaffold and microtubule triplets through POC16/WDR90 proteins.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    The transcriptomic response of cells to a drug combination is more than the sum of the responses to the monotherapies

    Jennifer EL Diaz et al.
    The transcriptomic profiles of the constituent monotherapies of synergistic drug pairs tend to be correlated and result in novel gene expression in the combinations.
    1. Neuroscience

    Acetylcholine is released in the basolateral amygdala in response to predictors of reward and enhances the learning of cue-reward contingency

    Richard B Crouse et al.
    The release of acetylcholine in the basolateral amygdala is precisely timed to salient events during reward learning but has long-lasting effects that potentiate learning of cue-reward contingencies.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    A novel DNA primase-helicase pair encoded by SCCmec elements

    Aleksandra Bebel et al.
    SCCmec genomic islands encode a novel primase-helicase pair in which priming ability is conferred upon an A-family DNA polymerase domain by a novel protein cofactor.
    1. Neuroscience

    External location of touch is constructed post-hoc based on limb choice

    Femke Maij et al.
    Humans retrospectively localize touch after deciding on which limb it occurred, challenging the mainstream idea that tactile location in space is the basis for assigning touch to a body part.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Antibody escape by polyomavirus capsid mutation facilitates neurovirulence

    Matthew D Lauver et al.
    Cryo EM and a custom subvolume refinement approach applied to mouse polyomavirus revealed the in vivo impact of polyomavirus capsid mutations on antiviral antibody immunoevasion and neurovirulence.
    1. Neuroscience

    A dual role for Cav1.4 Ca2+ channels in the molecular and structural organization of the rod photoreceptor synapse

    J Wesley Maddox et al.
    Ca2+ influx through Cav1.4 channels is required for the structural, but not the molecular organization of the rod photoreceptor synapse.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Quantitative mapping of transcriptome and proteome dynamics during polarization of human iPSC-derived neurons

    Feline W Lindhout et al.
    A dynamic qualitative and quantitative map of human iPSC-derived neuronal stem cells transitioning into polarized neurons with the identification and characterization of a previously unrecognized axon developmental stage.
    1. Neuroscience

    A whole-brain connectivity map of mouse insular cortex

    Daniel A Gehrlach et al.
    Whole-brain in- and outputs of inhibitory and excitatory neurons located in distinct subregions of the mouse insular cortex were mapped using viral-tracing strategies.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Training deep neural density estimators to identify mechanistic models of neural dynamics

    Pedro J Gonçalves et al.
    Deep neural networks can be trained to automatically find mechanistic models which quantitatively agree with experimental data, providing new opportunities for building and visualizing interpretable models of neural dynamics.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Alkylative damage of mRNA leads to ribosome stalling and rescue by trans translation in bacteria

    Erica N Thomas et al.
    Alkylation stress modify mRNAs and results in translation arrest, which activates the ribosome-rescue pathway of trans translation in bacteria.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    MAPK activity dynamics regulate non-cell autonomous effects of oncogene expression

    Timothy J Aikin et al.
    The temporal patterns of MAPK activity differentially regulate cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous effects of oncogene expression.
    1. Neuroscience

    Attention-related modulation of caudate neurons depends on superior colliculus activity

    James P Herman et al.
    The pattern of spatial attention preferences in caudate neurons is altered by superior colliculus inactivation, demonstrating that a superior colliculus to basal ganglia link is important for selective attention.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    miRNA profile is altered in a modified EAE mouse model of multiple sclerosis featuring cortical lesions

    Nicola S Orefice et al.
    A novel EAE model featuring cortical lesions and an autoimmune heterogeneity, two key parameters missing in the classical model, allows for insights in disease pathogenesis.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    IER5, a DNA damage response gene, is required for Notch-mediated induction of squamous cell differentiation

    Li Pan et al.
    Unbiased analyses highlight context-specific crosstalk between Notch, DNA damage response genes, and PP2A, and provide a roadmap for understanding how Notch induces squamous cell differentiation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Optogenetic activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins by LOV2GIVe, a rationally engineered modular protein

    Mikel Garcia-Marcos et al.
    LOV2GIVe allows to activate Gi proteins non-invasively with innocuous blue light based on a design principle unrelated to light-activated GPCRs (metazoan opsins), thereby expanding the range of potential experimental applications.
    1. Neuroscience

    Efficient sampling and noisy decisions

    Joseph A Heng et al.
    An efficient coding theory for higher-level cognitive processes reveals that humans efficiently adapt to contextual distributions by economizing on environmental prior information.
    1. Medicine

    Obesity and diabetes as comorbidities for COVID-19: Underlying mechanisms and the role of viral–bacterial interactions

    Ilja L Kruglikov et al.
    Dysfunctionaladipose tissue puts obese and type 2 diabetic patients at higher risk.
    1. Cell Biology

    SWELL1 regulates skeletal muscle cell size, intracellular signaling, adiposity and glucose metabolism

    Ashutosh Kumar et al.
    LRRC8A is an essential component of a mechanoresponsive ion channel signaling complex that tunes skeletal muscle differentiation, muscle cell size, function and metabolic pathways to regulate adiposity and systemic glycemia.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Transport of DNA within cohesin involves clamping on top of engaged heads by Scc2 and entrapment within the ring by Scc3

    James E Collier et al.
    Rigorous biochemical and structural analyses reveal the precise topology of cohesin's association with DNA and suggest a mechanism for how DNA is transported inside the ring.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Mutational resilience of antiviral restriction favors primate TRIM5α in host-virus evolutionary arms races

    Jeannette L Tenthorey et al.
    Mutations in the TRIM5α retrovirus-binding interface frequently improve but rarely disrupt retroviral restriction.
    1. Medicine

    Performance of a deep learning based neural network in the selection of human blastocysts for implantation

    Charles L Bormann et al.
    A well-trained deep learning neural network can outperform and can potentially assist expertly trained embryologists in selecting embryos based on their implantation potential, even amongst high-quality euploid blastocyst embryos.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Transmission of West Nile and five other temperate mosquito-borne viruses peaks at temperatures between 23°C and 26°C

    Marta S Shocket et al.
    Mechanistic, trait-based models for transmission of West Nile virus and observed incidence of human West Nile disease cases in the US both show optimal transmission at 24-25°C.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Erasable labeling of neuronal activity using a reversible calcium marker

    Fern Sha et al.
    Protein engineering of a reversibly switchable fluorescent protein enables post-hoc reversible and repeatable marking of elevated calcium concentrations using blue light.
    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Global landscape of phenazine biosynthesis and biodegradation reveals species-specific colonization patterns in agricultural soils and crop microbiomes

    Daniel Dar et al.
    Computational approach quantifies the abundance of phenazine-antibiotic producing and biodegrading bacteria in diverse soil and plant-associated habitats.
    1. Neuroscience

    Vascular control of the CO2/H+-dependent drive to breathe

    Colin M Cleary et al.
    Understanding how loss of CO2/H+ vascular reactivity affects respiratory control may facilitate development of treatments for breathing problems in this population.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    A large accessory protein interactome is rewired across environments

    Zhimin Liu et al.
    A massively multiplexed multi-condition screen shows that protein interactomes are larger than previously thought and contain highly dynamic regions that reorganize to drive or respond to cellular changes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    TMEM79/MATTRIN defines a pathway for Frizzled regulation and is required for Xenopus embryogenesis

    Maorong Chen et al.
    TMEM79 targets frizzled receptor for degradation through inhibiting USP8 and is required for Xenopus embryogenesis.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of the bacterial ribosome at 2 Å resolution

    Zoe L Watson et al.
    High-resolution maps and models of the bacterial ribosome provide new chemical insights into protein synthesis, and should enable the development of robust tools for cryo-EM structure modeling and refinement.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Stress-activated MAPK signaling controls fission yeast actomyosin ring integrity by modulating formin For3 levels

    Elisa Gómez-Gil et al.
    Microscopic and biochemical analysis show that the stress-activated MAP kinase pathway targets the formin For3 to modulate actomyosin ring integrity in response to environmental cues.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    A single-cell atlas of the mouse and human prostate reveals heterogeneity and conservation of epithelial progenitors

    Laura Crowley et al.
    Single-cell analyses identify distinct epithelial populations that are conserved between the adult mouse and human prostate, including populations with properties of multipotent progenitors in organoid formation and tissue reconstitution assays.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural insights into human acid-sensing ion channel 1a inhibition by snake toxin mambalgin1

    Demeng Sun et al.
    Mambalgin1 binds to the thumb domain of human ASIC1a channel and inhibits the channel through hindering the proton-induced transitions from the resting closed state to the active and/or desensitized state.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Large domains of heterochromatin direct the formation of short mitotic chromosome loops

    Maximilian H Fitz-James et al.
    Large regions of foreign DNA inserted into mammalian chromosomes assemble into H3K9me3-heterochromatin and result in increased condensin loading with organisation into shorter mitotic chromosome loops than endogenous DNA.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Alternative splicing at neuroligin site A regulates glycan interaction and synaptogenic activity

    Shinichiro Oku et al.
    Inclusion of a neuroligin alternatively spliced insert that interacts with a neurexin glycan modification promote development of functional synaptic connections between neurons and may help alleviate consequences of NLGN mutations.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural variability determines coding strategies for natural self-motion in macaque monkeys

    Isabelle Mackrous et al.
    Whether central vestibular neurons implement faithful stimulus encoding for the vestibulo-occular reflex or optimized coding via temporal whitening for other vestibular functions is determined by neural variability.
    1. Ecology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Nutrient levels and trade-offs control diversity in a serial dilution ecosystem

    Amir Erez et al.
    Whereas theories of ecological diversity mostly consider continuously supplied nutrients, a seasonal model uncovers a general mechanism that controls diversity and reconciles conflicting experimental findings.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis of αE-catenin–F-actin catch bond behavior

    Xiao-Ping Xu et al.
    A molecular mechanism for force-dependent binding of the cell adhesion proteins αE-catenin and vinculin to actin is derived from the structure of the αE-catenin actin-binding domain bound to F-actin.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Dichotomous role of the human mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+/Li+ exchanger NCLX in colorectal cancer growth and metastasis

    Trayambak Pathak et al.
    Colorectal tumors down-regulate the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+/Li+ exchanger (NCLX) to alter mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling and initiate transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming that drives tumor chemo-resistance and metastasis.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Dissecting the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments in Glioblastoma-on-a-Chip for optimized PD-1 immunotherapy

    Xin Cui et al.
    A biomimetic and patient-specific Glioblastoma-on-a-Chip microphysiological system provides an avenue for personalized screening of PD-1 immunotherapy and novel combinational therapies that maximize therapeutic outcomes in Glioblastoma patients.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Vascular dimorphism ensured by regulated proteoglycan dynamics favors rapid umbilical artery closure at birth

    Sumeda Nandadasa et al.
    Morphologic, molecular, biomechanical and computational analyses show that the specialized extracellular matrix architecture of the umbilical artery contributes to its rapid closure at birth and regulates smooth muscle cell differentiation.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Soluble collectin-12 mediates C3-independent docking of properdin that activates the alternative pathway of complement

    Jie Zhang et al.
    A systematic set of experiments reveals how properdin specifically directs AP activation independently of primary C3 deposition additionally as an alternative convertase stabilizer, thus revising immune machinery of complement activation.
    1. Ecology
    2. Plant Biology

    Comment on 'Lack of evidence for associative learning in pea plants'

    Monica Gagliano et al.
    We are writing to comment on the article by Markel, 2020, which reports an unsuccessful attempt to replicate our finding of associative learning in plants.
    1. Plant Biology

    Response to comment on 'Lack of evidence for associative learning in pea plants'

    Kasey Markel
    I am writing to respond to the comment by Gagliano et al. on my article about associative learning in plants (Markel, 2020).
    1. Cell Biology

    Atg1 kinase in fission yeast is activated by Atg11-mediated dimerization and cis-autophosphorylation

    Zhao-Qian Pan et al.
    A mechanistic dissection of how autophagy kinase Atg1 is activated in fission yeast reveals surprising differences from the known Atg1 activation mechanisms previously defined in budding yeast.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    SOX11 promotes epithelial/mesenchymal hybrid state and alters tropism of invasive breast cancer cells

    Erik Oliemuller et al.
    SOX11+ breast tumours display reactivated embryonic developmental signalling and organogenetic features and are at elevated risk of developing metastases, so may benefit from more aggressive therapies.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The host exosome pathway underpins biogenesis of the human cytomegalovirus virion

    Declan L Turner et al.
    The HCMV virion envelope is derived from the host exosome membrane, and exosome machinery and export pathways facilitate virion egress.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Plant Biology

    Natural variation in autumn expression is the major adaptive determinant distinguishing Arabidopsis FLC haplotypes

    Jo Hepworth et al.
    Variation in autumnal expression from starting expression levels and initial cold-down-regulation, rather than epigenetic silencing, is the major field variable conferred by worldwide haplotypes of the floral repressor gene, FLC.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Speciation and the developmental alarm clock

    Asher D Cutter, Joanna D Bundus
    Integrating speciation genetics with ontogeny can identify predictable rules in the molecular evolution of developmental pathways and in the accumulation of reproductive isolation as genomes diverge.
    1. Ecology
    2. Neuroscience

    Genetic variation in the social environment affects behavioral phenotypes of oxytocin receptor mutants in zebrafish

    Diogo Ribeiro et al.
    Individual social behavior results from the interaction between the individuals own oxytocin receptor genotype and the oxytocin receptor genotypes of other individuals present in its social environment.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Topology-driven protein-protein interaction network analysis detects genetic sub-networks regulating reproductive capacity

    Tarun Kumar et al.
    Regulatory networks of genes controlling different aspects of insect reproduction have been identified by a systems-level analysis of quantitative phenotypic information obtained from the loss of individual cell signaling genes.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Histone deposition pathways determine the chromatin landscapes of H3.1 and H3.3 K27M oncohistones

    Jay F Sarthy et al.
    Deposition of mutant oncohistones by alternative nucleosome assembly pathways results in dramatic local differences in histone methylation in pediatric diffuse midline gliomas.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neurofascin and Kv7.3 are delivered to somatic and axon terminal surface membranes en route to the axon initial segment

    Aniket Ghosh et al.
    Neuronal neurofascin takes a surprisingly circuitous route in the neuronal plasma membrane to the axon initial segment where it stabilises ion channel complexes responsible for initiating action potentials.
    1. Neuroscience

    Minimally dependent activity subspaces for working memory and motor preparation in the lateral prefrontal cortex

    Cheng Tang et al.
    The evidence of subspace computation in the lateral prefrontal cortex provides insights into the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility and interference between different cognitive processes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Breakage of the oligomeric CaMKII hub by the regulatory segment of the kinase

    Deepti Karandur et al.
    Activation and autophosphorylation of CaMKII releases the regulatory segment, which can then bind to and destabilize the hub assembly by trapping large fluctuations in the hub architecture.
    1. Neuroscience

    CB1-receptor-mediated inhibitory LTD triggers presynaptic remodeling via protein synthesis and ubiquitination

    Hannah R Monday et al.
    CB1-receptor-mediated inhibitory long-term depression (LTD) relies on both protein synthesis and ubiquitination to elicit structural changes that underlie long-term reduction of GABA release.
    1. Neuroscience

    Long ascending propriospinal neurons provide flexible, context-specific control of interlimb coordination

    Amanda M Pocratsky et al.
    Conditional silencing of long ascending propriospinal neurons disrupts interlimb coordination of the fore and hindlimb pairs, but in a highly context-specific manner.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Nonlinearities between inhibition and T-type calcium channel activity bidirectionally regulate thalamic oscillations

    Adam C Lu et al.
    A multi-scale integration of experimental and computational approaches shows how a non-linear dependence of T-type calcium channel gating on GABAB receptor activity regulates thalamic network oscillations.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    A regulatory pathway that selectively up-regulates elongasome function in the absence of class A PBPs

    Yesha Patel et al.
    Balanced peptidoglycan synthesis requires regulators, including sigma-I and WalKR, that coordinate the diffusive action of class A PBPs and the directional motion of the MreB-directed elongasome.
    1. Neuroscience

    Firing rate-dependent phase responses of Purkinje cells support transient oscillations

    Yunliang Zang et al.
    Computational and theoretical models show that rate adaptation of phase responses can regulate Purkinje cell outputs by forming transient oscillations in fast-spiking neurons.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Marked synergy by vertical inhibition of EGFR signaling in NSCLC spheroids shows SOS1 is a therapeutic target in EGFR-mutated cancer

    Patricia L Theard et al.
    Combined EGFR and SOS1 inhibition synergize to inhibit NSCLC spheroid growth.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    EphrinB2-EphB4 signalling provides Rho-mediated homeostatic control of lymphatic endothelial cell junction integrity

    Maike Frye et al.
    EphrinB2/EphB4-mediated regulation of cytoskeletal contractility is a key homeostatic mechanism of lymphatic endothelial cell-cell junction maintenance, and provides a potential target for therapeutic modulation of lymphatic vessel permeability and function.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genome duplication in Leishmania major relies on persistent subtelomeric DNA replication

    Jeziel Dener Damasceno et al.
    Duplication of Leishmania chromosomes combines S-phase DNA replication initiated at a single internal region with subtelomeric DNA replication detectable outside S-phase, potentially explaining genome plasticity in this important parasite.
    1. Medicine

    Direct reprogramming of human smooth muscle and vascular endothelial cells reveals defects associated with aging and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    Simone Bersini et al.
    Direct reprogramming of smooth muscle cells from HGPS patients revealed that BMP4 is a key contributor of vascular degeneration and might represent a new therapeutic target.
    1. Neuroscience

    Non-thalamic origin of zebrafish sensory nuclei implies convergent evolution of visual pathways in amniotes and teleosts

    Solal Bloch et al.
    Mesencephalic origin of the zebrafish thalamocortical-like visual projection neurons indicates independent evolution of tectofugal visual pathways in amniotes and teleosts.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva mutant ACVR1 signals by multiple modalities in the developing zebrafish

    Robyn S Allen et al.
    The human Fibrodysplasia-Ossificans-Progressiva BMP-receptor mutant signals in zebrafish in the absence of ligand-binding, displays BMP ligand-responsive hyperactivity, neither requiring other type-I-BMP receptors, unlike wild-type, challenging views of the pathological mechanism.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    A perspective on HPK1 as a novel immuno-oncology drug target

    Sansana Sawasdikosol, Steven Burakoff
    HPK1 is an important immuno-oncology drug target that may induce superior anti-tumor immunity through the multiple roles HPK1 may play at multiple steps of the cancer immunity cycle.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Removing unwanted variation with CytofRUV to integrate multiple CyTOF datasets

    Marie Trussart et al.
    CytofRUV is a computational algorithm that effectively enables batch effect reduction in multiple CyTOF batches with an adaptable normalisation method and an R-Shiny application with diagnostics plots.
    1. Neuroscience

    A limbic circuit selectively links active escape to food suppression

    Estefania P Azevedo et al.
    Lateral septum neurotensin neurons are active in response to stress where escape is a viable strategy and decrease consumption via effects on hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake.
    1. Neuroscience

    The effects of chloride dynamics on substantia nigra pars reticulata responses to pallidal and striatal inputs

    Ryan S Phillips et al.
    The effects of chloride homeostasis can explain diverse responses of basal ganglia output neurons to putatively inhibitory inputs and may tune these neurons' synchrony, oscillations and behavior in decision-making scenarios.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Keratins and plakin family cytolinker proteins control the length of epithelial microridge protrusions

    Yasuko Inaba et al.
    Although intermediate filaments are not widely known to contribute to the morphogenesis of cellular protusions, keratin filaments and cytolinkers are critical for the development of microridge protrusions in zebrafish skin.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Regulation of stem/progenitor cell maintenance by BMP5 in prostate homeostasis and cancer initiation

    Mathieu Tremblay et al.
    Gata3 loss in prostate basal stem/progenitor cells upregulates BMP5 which is necessary and sufficient to sustain full self-renewal potential and its inhibition significantly delays both prostate and skin tumor progression.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Pattern regulation in a regenerating jellyfish

    Chiara Sinigaglia et al.
    Clytia jellyfish regenerate body shape and organs through a mechanically driven process that coordinates tissue remodeling, localized proliferation, and precursor migration and promotes Wnt signaling at a muscle-based landmark.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Quantifying antibody kinetics and RNA detection during early-phase SARS-CoV-2 infection by time since symptom onset

    Benny Borremans et al.
    A meta-analysis shows that seroconversion of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is not affected by disease severity and finds higher viral RNA detection probability in lower respiratory tract and fecal samples.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Sox17 and β-catenin co-occupy Wnt-responsive enhancers to govern the endoderm gene regulatory network

    Shreyasi Mukherjee et al.
    Genomic analysis of Xenopus gastrula reveal that the transcription factor Sox17 interacts with the Wnt signaling effector ß-catenin on enhancers to regulate the transcriptional program underlying endoderm germ layer formation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus undergoes major structural remodeling during rotational switching

    Brittany L Carroll et al.
    In situ structures of the flagellar motors genetically docked in CCW and CW rotational states reveal major rearrangement that facilitates rotational switch in Vibrio alginolyticus..
    1. Neuroscience

    Empathic pain evoked by sensory and emotional-communicative cues share common and process-specific neural representations

    Feng Zhou et al.
    Machine learning analyses reveal that the observation of acute pain inflictions and facial expressions of pain evoke shared pain-specific neural representations.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Novel C1q receptor-mediated signaling controls neural stem cell behavior and neurorepair

    Francisca Benavente et al.
    Complement C1q directly drives the behavior of human neural stem cells via a classical receptor signaling mechanism modulating their capacity for functional integration in vivo.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Extensive and diverse patterns of cell death sculpt neural networks in insects

    Sinziana Pop et al.
    Developmental cell death plays a key role during insect neurogenesis and is increased in specific neuronal populations in flies that have evolved flightlessness.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Reactive oxygen species oxidize STING and suppress interferon production

    Lili Tao et al.
    Redox modification of STING represents a novel target for interferon regulation and control of herpesvirus replication.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular basis for N-terminal alpha-synuclein acetylation by human NatB

    Sunbin Deng et al.
    The cryo-EM structure of the human N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB bound to a cognate N-terminal alpha-synuclein peptide reveals the molecular determinants of NatB-specific protein acetylation.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Why is cyclic dominance so rare?

    Hye Jin Park et al.
    A mathematical model for a popular biological diversity mechanism, cyclic dominance, is more likely to emerge by assembly than by evolutionary diversification, which rationalizes why few empirically studies find it.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Repurposing of KLF5 activates a cell cycle signature during the progression from a precursor state to oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    Connor Rogerson et al.
    Genome-wide redistribution of KLF5 binding leads to activation of a cell cycle gene expression programme and proliferation control in oesophageal cancer.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The visual pigment xenopsin is widespread in protostome eyes and impacts the view on eye evolution

    Clemens Christoph Döring et al.
    The employment of xenopsin in ciliary and mixed microvillar/ciliary eye sensory cells in several protostome animals suggests high evolutionary plasticity of photoreceptors.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The Mla pathway in Acinetobacter baumannii has no demonstrable role in anterograde lipid transport

    Matthew J Powers et al.
    An outer membrane vesicle pulse-chase assay demonstrates that the Acinetobacter baumannii Mla system is a retrograde lipid transporter.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A connectome and analysis of the adult Drosophila central brain

    Louis K Scheffer et al.
    New reconstruction methods are used to create a publicly available dense reconstruction of the neurons and chemical synapses of central brain of Drosophila, with analysis of its graph properties.
    1. Neuroscience

    Upregulation of TRPM3 in nociceptors innervating inflamed tissue

    Marie Mulier et al.
    The expression and function of the cation channel TRPM3 is strongly increased in sensory neurons innervating inflamed tissue, likely contributing to inflammatory hyperalgesia and persistent pain.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Co-expression analysis reveals interpretable gene modules controlled by trans-acting genetic variants

    Liis Kolberg et al.
    Co-expression analysis combined with functional enrichment improves the detection and prioritisation of trans-eQTLs when applied to emerging cell-type-specific datasets.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural analysis of the Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system core complex

    Clarissa L Durie et al.
    The structure of the Legionella pneumophilaType IV secretion system provides the detailed molecular model of this complex molecular machine required for pathogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mesoscopic-scale functional networks in the primate amygdala

    Jeremiah K Morrow et al.
    Multivariate data decomposition applied to local field potentials recorded from the primate amygdala revealed simultaneously active and functionally distinct networks, defined by anatomical boundaries between the nuclei.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    CD163 and pAPN double-knockout pigs are resistant to PRRSV and TGEV and exhibit decreased susceptibility to PDCoV while maintaining normal production performance

    Kui Xu et al.
    The double-gene-knockout pig is a valuable model to help understand the mechanisms of CD163 and pAPN in the infection of multiple viruses and offers excellent breeding materials for disease-resistant pigs.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    mTOR signaling regulates the morphology and migration of outer radial glia in developing human cortex

    Madeline G Andrews et al.
    mTOR signaling regulates the morphology of a human-enriched neural stem cell population and thus contributes to the radial architecture of the developing human cortex with implications for neurodevelopmental disease.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Identification of protein-protected mRNA fragments and structured excised intron RNAs in human plasma by TGIRT-seq peak calling

    Jun Yao et al.
    Human plasma contains protein-protected mRNA fragments, myriad repeat RNAs, and novel intron RNAs, including a family of structured full-length excised introns, some corresponding to mirtron pre-miRNAs and agotrons.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cadherin clusters stabilized by a combination of specific and nonspecific cis-interactions

    Connor J Thompson et al.
    A combined experimental and computational approach was developed to understand lateral interactions between membrane-bound proteins and used to quantify the contributions of specific and non-specific interactions to cadherin cis-binding kinetics.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Complement opsonization of HIV affects primary infection of human colorectal mucosa and subsequent activation of T cells

    Pradyot Bhattacharya et al.
    Complement opsonized HIV exposure gives rise to a colorectal mucosal environment with an initial suppressed antiviral response and increased infection of immune cells and altered activation of T cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ultra-high-field imaging reveals increased whole brain connectivity underpins cognitive strategies that attenuate pain

    Enrico Schulz et al.
    A single-trial whole-brain analysis of three cognitive strategies to attenuate pain shows that a more effective pain attenuation is associated with increased functional connectivity across the entire brain.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Integrating genotypes and phenotypes improves long-term forecasts of seasonal influenza A/H3N2 evolution

    John Huddleston et al.
    The combination of phenotypic measures of antigenic drift and genotypic measures of functional constraint improves the accuracy of long-term seasonal influenza A/H3N2 forecasts.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cdon mutation and fetal alcohol converge on Nodal signaling in a mouse model of holoprosencephaly

    Mingi Hong et al.
    A combination of window-of-sensitivity, genetic, and in vitro findings illuminate mechanisms of gene–environment interaction in a multifactorial model of a common birth defect.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cryo-EM reveals species-specific components within the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system core complex

    Michael J Sheedlo et al.
    The structure of a Type IV secretion system provides a framework for understanding assembly of a protein-injection machine.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Resource plasticity-driven carbon-nitrogen budgeting enables specialization and division of labor in a clonal community

    Sriram Varahan et al.
    Sufficient aspartate drives specialization within a microbial colony, when some cells use it to create a limited carbon-resource, while other cells consume this resource and use aspartate for nucleotide synthesis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Multiple Wnts act synergistically to induce Chk1/Grapes expression and mediate G2 arrest in Drosophila tracheoblasts

    Amrutha Kizhedathu et al.
    Wnts can act synergistically to affect G2 arrest via transcriptional upregulation of a Checkpoint Kinase in the absence of any detectable DNA damage.
    1. Neuroscience

    What do adversarial images tell us about human vision?

    Marin Dujmović et al.
    Well-controlled psychological experiments show that there is little overlap in how humans and convolutional networks classify adversarial images, highlighting the problem of using CNNs as models of human vision.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Multiplexed measurement of variant abundance and activity reveals VKOR topology, active site and human variant impact

    Melissa A Chiasson et al.
    Human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) has a four transmembrane domain topology that supports the use of a homology model, enabling identification of active site residues and human variant impact.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Behavioural diversity of bonobo prey preference as a potential cultural trait

    Liran Samuni et al.
    Bonobo groups that share overlapping ranging areas and engage in regular social exchange show "behavioural group identity" of hunting techniques in the absence of local ecological variation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Recurrent processes support a cascade of hierarchical decisions

    Laura Gwilliams, Jean-Remi King
    The dynamics of neural responses during visual perception are best explained by a joint feedforward and recurrent architecture, which both maintains and broadcasts input features over time.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Intra-species differences in population size shape life history and genome evolution

    David Willemsen et al.
    Population genetics in turquoise killifish wild populations reveals how small population size and genetic drift determine the accumulation of deleterious gene variants leading to short lifespan.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis for histone variant H3tK27me3 recognition by PHF1 and PHF19

    Cheng Dong et al.
    Complex structures of Tudor domains of PHF1/19 with H3tK27me3 provide structural basis for preferential recognition of H3tK27me3 over canonical H3K27me3, implicating that H3tK27me3 might be a physiological ligand of PHF1/19.
    1. Cell Biology

    Ordered dephosphorylation initiated by the selective proteolysis of cyclin B drives mitotic exit

    James Holder et al.
    Selective APC/C-mediated proteolysis of cyclin B drives progression through the metaphase-anaphase transition whilst wide-spread waves of dephosphorylation co-ordinate the subsequent events of mitotic exit.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural basis for the reaction cycle of DASS dicarboxylate transporters

    David B Sauer et al.
    Structures of multiple states of two dicarboxylate transporters explain the conformational changes needed for substrate import.
    1. Neuroscience

    Activation of astrocytes in hippocampus decreases fear memory through adenosine A1 receptors

    Yulan Li et al.
    A new strategy of memory consolidation disruption based on astrocyte and purinergic signaling, which leads to persistent fear memory attenuation accompanied by reduced fear-related anxiety behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    Extensive and spatially variable within-cell-type heterogeneity across the basolateral amygdala

    Timothy P O'Leary et al.
    Basolateral amygdala excitatory neurons are a highly heterogenous collection of neurons that spatially covary in molecular, cellular, and circuit properties.
    1. Plant Biology

    KATANIN-dependent mechanical properties of the stigmatic cell wall mediate the pollen tube path in Arabidopsis

    Lucie Riglet et al.
    KATANIN1 in stigma papilla cells prevents disordered pollen tube growth and straightens pollen tube direction, allowing the pollen tube to find its correct path to the underlying female tissues.
    1. Neuroscience

    Axonal mechanisms mediating γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABA-A) inhibition of striatal dopamine release

    Paul F Kramer et al.
    GABA-A receptors on dopamine neuron axons not only depolarize the membrane but also limit action potential propagation, an effect potentiated by positive allosteric modulators of GABA-A receptors like diazepam (Valium).

Magazine

    1. Developmental Biology

    Stem Cells: More than just a pool

    Amanda Cinquin, Olivier Cinquin
    1. Plant Biology

    Pollen Tube Guidance: Growing straight through walls

    Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Sharon A Kessler