July 2021

Image credit: Tim Hore/Blackstone Hill Station

Research articles

    1. Neuroscience

    Multiple neuronal networks coordinate Hydra mechanosensory behavior

    Krishna N Badhiwala et al.
    Despite lacking traditional ganglia or centralization, the Hydra nervous system computes sensorimotor responses via localized neuron ensembles.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    McsB forms a gated kinase chamber to mark aberrant bacterial proteins for degradation

    Bence Hajdusits et al.
    The McsB kinase is critical for protein quality control in Gram-positive bacteria, assembling a gated phosphorylation chamber during heat-shock conditions to selectively mark misfolded proteins for degradation.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling contributes to an inflammatory microenvironment and its blockade enhances progression of murine pancreatic precancerous lesions

    Veethika Pandey et al.
    Blockage of CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling between murine pancreatic precancerous lesion cells and inflammatory macrophages generates a tumor-promoting microenvironment.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Fast and flexible estimation of effective migration surfaces

    Joseph Marcus et al.
    Fast and flexible estimation of effective migration surfaces (FEEMS) is a new statistical method that can quickly infer and visualize patterns of migration from genetic data with spatial coordinates.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Application of human liver organoids as a patient-derived primary model for HBV infection and related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Elisa De Crignis et al.
    Human liver organoids provide a patient-derived platform to interrogate host and viral mechanisms of HBV replication, perform anti-HBV and toxicity drug screens, and investigate the molecular determinants of related tumorigenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sensory coding and the causal impact of mouse cortex in a visual decision

    Peter Zatka-Haas et al.
    Local sensory signals in visual and frontal cortex play a causal role in task performance, while widespread dorsal cortical signals correlating with movement reflect processes that do not.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Social fluidity mobilizes contagion in human and animal populations

    Ewan Colman et al.
    A new way of measuring sociality in human and animal contact networks reveals the link between social behavior, population density, and disease transmission.
    1. Neuroscience

    Long-term stability of cortical ensembles

    Jesús Pérez-Ortega et al.
    Spontaneous and visually evoked neuronal ensembles in mouse visual cortex can last for weeks, potentially supporting the long-lasting representation of perceptions and memories.
    1. Neuroscience

    Single caudate neurons encode temporally discounted value for formulating motivation for action

    Yukiko Hori et al.
    The dorsal part of the primate caudate head signals integrated multi-dimensional incentive factors essential for computing the motivation for action.
    1. Neuroscience

    Resonating neurons stabilize heterogeneous grid-cell networks

    Divyansh Mittal, Rishikesh Narayanan
    Intrinsic neuronal resonance stabilizes heterogeneous neural networks by suppressing low-frequency perturbations.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    A subset of CB002 xanthine analogs bypass p53-signaling to restore a p53 transcriptome and target an S-phase cell cycle checkpoint in tumors with mutated-p53

    Liz Hernandez Borrero et al.
    Anti-tumor properties of sub-class of xanthine analogs involve restoration of p53 pathway transcriptome, independent of p53/p73, dependent on ATF3/ATF4 and Noxa in mutated-p53 tumors and the compounds trigger an S-phase checkpoint.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    An autoinhibitory clamp of actin assembly constrains and directs synaptic endocytosis

    Steven J Del Signore et al.
    Autoinhibition allows synaptic endocytic actin regulators to pre-deploy to synaptic membranes at high concentrations and constrains actin assembly to productive events.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Interrogating theoretical models of neural computation with emergent property inference

    Sean R Bittner et al.
    Emergent property inference, a novel machine learning methodology, learns distributions of neural circuit model parameters that produce computational properties and provides novel scientific insight through the quantification of the rich parametric structure it captures.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Reduced antibody cross-reactivity following infection with B.1.1.7 than with parental SARS-CoV-2 strains

    Nikhil Faulkner et al.
    Heterotypic immunity, the ability of immunity induced by one SARS-CoV-2 variant to protect against another, is asymmetric, with the UK (B.1.1.7) variant, eliciting weaker heterotypic immunity than other variants.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Decoding locomotion from population neural activity in moving C. elegans

    Kelsey M Hallinen et al.
    Neurons in the brain exhibit activity with various relations to locomotion and these signals are best decoded by combining activities from many neurons.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural heterogeneity of cellular K5/K14 filaments as revealed by cryo-electron microscopy

    Miriam S Weber et al.
    Keratins assemble into tubular filaments with a central density and exhibit structural heterogeneity, which is reflected in alterations of the helical arrangement.
    1. Neuroscience

    Scanned optogenetic control of mammalian somatosensory input to map input-specific behavioral outputs

    Ara Schorscher-Petcu et al.
    A system to generate ‘remote touch’ in freely behaving mice can be utilized to map behavior caused by precise somatosensory inputs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Disrupting cortico-cerebellar communication impairs dexterity

    Jian-Zhong Guo et al.
    The flow of neural activity across the cortico-cerebellar loop enables mice to reach for objects with skill and precision.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    NirD curtails the stringent response by inhibiting RelA activity in Escherichia coli

    Loïc Léger et al.
    Genetic and biochemical approaches uncover a novel mode of regulation of the alarmone synthetase RelA through a functional and direct interaction with the small subunit of the nitrite reductase NirD.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Eukaryotic initiation factor EIF-3.G augments mRNA translation efficiency to regulate neuronal activity

    Stephen M Blazie et al.
    The eIF3 translation initiation complex exerts specific regulation on neuronal protein levels by targeting mRNAs with GC-rich 5' UTR.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Murine muscle stem cell response to perturbations of the neuromuscular junction are attenuated with aging

    Jacqueline A Larouche et al.
    Muscle stem cells locally respond to perturbations of motor neurons and the neuromuscular junction.
    1. Neuroscience

    Transcriptomic encoding of sensorimotor transformation in the midbrain

    Zhiyong Xie et al.
    Single-cell RNA-sequencing and neural circuitry analyses reveal that sensorimotor transformation of different behaviors which are performed by separate circuit modules in the superior colliculus are molecularly defined by distinct transcriptomic codes of specific neuron subtypes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Tissue-specific targeting of DNA nanodevices in a multicellular living organism

    Kasturi Chakraborty et al.
    DNA nanodevices can be targeted to specific cell types in Caenorhabditis elegans with subcellular precision by exploiting either endogenous or synthetic receptors.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Single-cell analysis of mosquito hemocytes identifies signatures of immune cell subtypes and cell differentiation

    Hyeogsun Kwon et al.
    Single-cell RNA-seq analysis reveals an increased complexity of mosquito hemocytes, enabling the functional and molecular characterization of immune cell sub-populations in Anopheles gambiae.
    1. Developmental Biology

    An adhesion G protein-coupled receptor is required in cartilaginous and dense connective tissues to maintain spine alignment

    Zhaoyang Liu et al.
    The regulation of the biomechanical properties of tendons/ligaments is essential for the maintenance of spine alignment in the mouse.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    High potency of sequential therapy with only β-lactam antibiotics

    Aditi Batra et al.
    Sequential therapy with only β-lactam antibiotics achieves surprisingly high potency by exploiting both low rates of spontaneous resistance emergence and low rates of spontaneous cross-resistance among the drugs in sequence.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure and analysis of nanobody binding to the human ASIC1a ion channel

    Yangyu Wu et al.
    Development of specific and high-affinity nanobodies to probe the structure of human acid sensing ion channel-1a and as binding modifiers of the toxins PcTx and MitTx1.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Epi-mutations for spermatogenic defects by maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Yukiko Tando et al.
    Gene analyses reveal the abnormal DNA methylation and expression of the genes essential for spermatogenesis as a cause of spermatogenic defects in offspring induced by maternal exposure of a chemical.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Processing of the ribosomal ubiquitin-like fusion protein FUBI-eS30/FAU is required for 40S maturation and depends on USP36

    Jasmin van den Heuvel et al.
    Endoproteolytic cleavage of the ribosomal precursor protein FUBI-eS30 is required for efficient maturation of small ribosomal subunits in the cytoplasm of human cells and involves the nucleolar deubiquitinase USP36.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Medicine

    Association of human breast cancer CD44-/CD24- cells with delayed distant metastasis

    Xinbo Qiao et al.
    CD44-/CD24- breast cancer cells contribute to delayed postoperative distant metastasis by their spontaneous conversion into CD44+/CD24- breast cancer stem cells (CSCs).
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Structural basis of the effect of activating mutations on the EGF receptor

    Ioannis Galdadas et al.
    Computational methods reveal how mutations affect the conformational landscape of the kinase domain of EGFR resulting in abnormal signaling and provide a structural framework for ongoing drug discovery efforts on mutant-specific EGFR inhibition.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Revisiting the guidelines for ending isolation for COVID-19 patients

    Yong Dam Jeong et al.
    Compared with the approach isolating COVID-19 patients for a fixed period, the approach using repeated PCR testing mitigates unnecessarily lengthy isolation of patients while minimizing the risk of further transmission.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    T cell stiffness is enhanced upon formation of immunological synapse

    Philipp Jung et al.
    Upon activation of T cell receptors at the contact site, T cells were substantially stiffened at the cell body as well as at the lamellipodia, which is mediated by Ca2+.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Co-circulation of multiple influenza A reassortants in swine harboring genes from seasonal human and swine influenza viruses

    Pia Ryt-Hansen et al.
    The abundance and complex genetic diversity of swIAV were documented and the zoonotic potential evaluated.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Quantitative mapping of dense microtubule arrays in mammalian neurons

    Eugene A Katrukha et al.
    Quantitative super-resolution light microscopy reveals the relative abundance and three-dimensional organization of different microtubule subsets within dendrites of mammalian neurons.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    RTN3 inhibits RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses by impairing TRIM25-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination

    Ziwei Yang et al.
    RTN3 is upregulated upon RNA viral infection, in turn suppresses antiviral responses by impairing TRIM25-mediated RIG-I K63-linked polyubiquitination and decreases neutrophil populations and inflammatory infiltration, representing a novel inflammatory resolution.
    1. Neuroscience

    Transcriptomics-informed large-scale cortical model captures topography of pharmacological neuroimaging effects of LSD

    Joshua B Burt et al.
    Computational models of large-scale cortical dynamics, integrating gene expression mapping to pattern pharmacological modulation across cortex, capture inter-areal topographies of functional connectivity alterations induced by lysergic acid diethylamide, providing a framework for simulating effects of pharmacology in the human brain.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Single-molecule imaging of chromatin remodelers reveals role of ATPase in promoting fast kinetics of target search and dissociation from chromatin

    Jee Min Kim et al.
    Chromatin remodeling enzymes perform target search by utilizing ATP-binding and hydrolysis to facilitate 1D-diffusion on and rapid detachment from chromatin in living yeast.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Towards novel herbicide modes of action by inhibiting lysine biosynthesis in plants

    Tatiana P Soares da Costa et al.
    Proof-of-principle for a new herbicide mode of action through the identification of novel inhibitors of lysine biosynthesis with in planta efficacy.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    In vivo analysis reveals that ATP-hydrolysis couples remodeling to SWI/SNF release from chromatin

    Ben C Tilly et al.
    Visualization of BRM remodelers engaging their endogenous genomic targets revealed highly transient and dynamic interactions with chromatin, which are fueled by ATP-hydrolysis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortical excitability signatures for the degree of sleepiness in human

    Chin-Hsuan Chia et al.
    Patterns of cortical excitability changes reflect the degree of sleepiness in humans.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    miR-1 coordinately regulates lysosomal v-ATPase and biogenesis to impact proteotoxicity and muscle function during aging

    Isabelle Schiffer et al.
    Coordinate control of lysosomal v-ATPase subunits and biogenesis factor TFEB by miR-1 identifies a key regulatory axis with strong links to age-related proteotoxic disease.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Identification of drugs associated with reduced severity of COVID-19 – a case-control study in a large population

    Ariel Israel et al.
    Large-scale retrospective analysis suggests medications and dietary supplements, such as rosuvastatin, ezetimibe, ubiquinone, risedronate, vitamin D, and magnesium, are associated with a lower rate of severe COVID-19 disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Perception of microstimulation frequency in human somatosensory cortex

    Christopher L Hughes et al.
    Increasing microstimulation frequency in some regions of the human somatosensory cortex decreased the perceived intensity and evoked specific percepts, providing insight into cortical organization and sensory feedback approaches for brain–computer interfaces.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spike frequency adaptation supports network computations on temporally dispersed information

    Darjan Salaj et al.
    Spike frequency adaptation provides spiking neural networks with long short-term memory.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Living with relatives offsets the harm caused by pathogens in natural populations

    Hanna M Bensch et al.
    Experiments show that pathogens spread more easily among relatives causing increased mortality, but such costs are cancelled out by the benefits of living with kin when pathogens are rare.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs reveals an uncoupled conformation

    Piotr Kolata, Rouslan G Efremov
    The dynamic structure of respiratory complex I from mesophilic bacterium is revealed and demonstrates existence of uncoupled conformations in the bacterial complex.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Chondrocytes in the resting zone of the growth plate are maintained in a Wnt-inhibitory environment

    Shawn A Hallett et al.
    Slow-cycling chondrocytes are maintained in a Wnt-inhibitory environment within the resting zone, unraveling a novel mechanism regulating maintenance and differentiation of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)-expressing skeletal stem cells of the postnatal growth plate.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    HOXA9 promotes MYC-mediated leukemogenesis by maintaining gene expression for multiple anti-apoptotic pathways

    Ryo Miyamoto et al.
    HOXA9 is a transcriptional maintenance factor for anti-apoptotic genes that accelerate MYC-driven leukemia.
    1. Neuroscience

    Predominantly linear summation of metabotropic postsynaptic potentials follows coactivation of neurogliaform interneurons

    Attila Ozsvár et al.
    Summation of metabotropic GABAergic responses remain linear even if most superficial layer interneurons specialized to recruit GABAB receptors are simultaneously active.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sequence structure organizes items in varied latent states of working memory neural network

    Qiaoli Huang et al.
    Items at different positions of a sequence are maintained in distinct latent states of working memory system and are reactivated in reverse order over time, which is further related to recency effect in memory behavior.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Cdc4 phospho-degrons allow differential regulation of Ame1CENP-U protein stability across the cell cycle

    Miriam Böhm et al.
    The cell cycle machinery regulates the assembly of the multi-protein kinetochore complex by targeting excess subunits for degradation via the proteasome.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    Autoregulatory control of microtubule binding in doublecortin-like kinase 1

    Regina L Agulto et al.
    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 modulates its own kinase activity to tune its microtubule-binding affinity, providing molecular insights into a unique form of autoregulatory control over microtubule-binding activity.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    A Brownian ratchet model for DNA loop extrusion by the cohesin complex

    Torahiko L Higashi et al.
    A structure-based model of the chromosomal cohesin complex, accompanied by molecular-mechanistic simulations, explains cohesin's key role in topologically entrapping DNA, as well as its ability to alternatively extrude DNA loops.
    1. Neuroscience

    A transient postnatal quiescent period precedes emergence of mature cortical dynamics

    Soledad Domínguez et al.
    Maturation of cortical network dynamics is characterized by a nadir that signals the shift from local, loosely correlated, prominently sensory-driven patterns to internally organized, spatially distributed, and temporally precise activity.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Plant Biology

    Repression of CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 prevents epigenetic collateral damage in Arabidopsis

    Ranjith K Papareddy et al.
    MicroRNA-mediated repression of a DNA methyltransferase prevents the ectopic methylation of thousands of genes based on distinct chromatin features during embryogenesis, which can reduce expression and persist for weeks afterwards.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Impact of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection on the risk of subsequent symptomatic malaria in a longitudinal cohort in Kenya

    Kelsey M Sumner et al.
    The increased risk for symptomatic malaria following an asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection supports targeting asymptomatic infections as a tool to reduce clinical malaria in high-transmission settings.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Topography and motion of acid-sensing ion channel intracellular domains

    Tyler Couch et al.
    The cytosolic elements of the acid-sensing ion channel move toward the plasma membrane when the channel is exposed to acidic conditions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Molecular characterization of projection neuron subtypes in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Sara Zeppilli et al.
    Different subtypes of projection neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb are defined by distinct gene expression patterns and transcription factor networks.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Relish plays a dynamic role in the niche to modulate Drosophila blood progenitor homeostasis in development and infection

    Parvathy Ramesh et al.
    Ecdysone-mediated regulation of Relish expression and activation in the hematopoietic niche is essential for progenitor maintenance in the Drosophila Lymph gland.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Regulated delivery controls Drosophila Hedgehog, Wingless, and Decapentaplegic signaling

    Ryo Hatori et al.
    Delivery of Hedgehog, Decapentaplegic and Wingless to target cells in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc is regulated in both amount and destination, and is not dependent on constitutive release or uptake from a common pool.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Plant Biology

    Host-associated microbe PCR (hamPCR) enables convenient measurement of both microbial load and community composition

    Derek S Lundberg et al.
    hamPCR is a cost-effective and transformative amplicon sequencing strategy to describe microbiota composition and measure its overall abundance, applicable to all samples in which host and microbial DNA are co-extracted.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    Expansion of CD10neg neutrophils and CD14+HLA-DRneg/low monocytes driving proinflammatory responses in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Daniela Fraccarollo et al.
    Immature CD10neg neutrophils and CD14+HLA-DRneg/low monocytes inducing proinflammatory and adaptive immune responses emerge in patients with large acute myocardial infarction.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Price equation captures the role of drug interactions and collateral effects in the evolution of multidrug resistance

    Erida Gjini, Kevin B Wood
    A simple mathematical model reveals that antibiotic interactions and collateral effects of evolution are inseparable drivers of multidrug resistance linked by the well-known Price equation from evolutionary theory.
    1. Neuroscience

    A role for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells in the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) but not arcuate kisspeptin neuron output in male mice

    Charlotte Vanacker et al.
    Astrocyte signaling can activate the firing of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and stimulate hormone release.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Image3C, a multimodal image-based and label-independent integrative method for single-cell analysis

    Alice Accorsi et al.
    Image3C is a new image-based analysis of cell population composition for research organisms in which detailed cellular phenotypes are unknown or for which species-specific reagents are not available.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    SOX21 modulates SOX2-initiated differentiation of epithelial cells in the extrapulmonary airways

    Evelien Eenjes et al.
    The balance between SOX2 and SOX21 is evolutionary conserved and is important for cell fate decision during lung epithelium development and repair after damage.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    CTP and parS coordinate ParB partition complex dynamics and ParA-ATPase activation for ParABS-mediated DNA partitioning

    James A Taylor et al.
    CTP and centromere-like parS-DNA act synergistically and catalytically to activate ParB, which remains activated after leaving parS to tune ParA–ParB and ParB–ParB interaction dynamics for robust ParABS-mediated F-plasmid DNA segregation.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Pioneer neutrophils release chromatin within in vivo swarms

    Hannah M Isles et al.
    Neutrophil swarms form around a single endogenous pioneer neutrophil in vivo, mediated by DNA release from pioneer neutrophils.
    1. Cell Biology

    CDK1 controls CHMP7-dependent nuclear envelope reformation

    Alberto T Gatta et al.
    CHMP7 is phosphorylated by CDK1 upon mitotic entry, preventing interaction with LEM2 and inappropriate assembly during mitotic exit.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Effect of malaria parasite shape on its alignment at erythrocyte membrane

    Anil K Dasanna et al.
    A numerical model of malaria parasite adhesion to an erythrocyte shows that the original egg-like shape of merozoites is more robust than other shapes in negotiating various physiological conditions during the alignment process upon erythrocyte invasion.
    1. Plant Biology

    Two NLR immune receptors acquired high-affinity binding to a fungal effector through convergent evolution of their integrated domain

    Aleksandra Białas et al.
    The HMA domains of Pikp-1 and Pikm-1 NLR receptors have convergently evolved to bind AVR-PikD with high affinity through distinct evolutionary and biochemical paths.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Repurposing eflornithine to treat a patient with a rare ODC1 gain-of-function variant disease

    Surender Rajasekaran et al.
    Genetic sequencing has led to the increased diagnoses of rare diseases, strategies such as repurposing drugs and global metabolomics offer promise and bring hope to afflicted families.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Linking plasmid-based beta-lactamases to their bacterial hosts using single-cell fusion PCR

    Peter J Diebold et al.
    One-step Isolation and Lysis (OIL) PCR offers a robust, versatile, accessible, and high-throughput method for linking mobile DNA with bacterial hosts in natural microbial communities.
    1. Neuroscience

    Role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neurodevelopmental deficits and experience-dependent plasticity in Xenopus laevis

    Sayali V Gore et al.
    Chronic dysregulation of matrix-metalloproteinase 9, which is associated with some neurodevelopmental disorders, leads to local hyperconnectivity in the developing brain, resulting in altered sensory processing and increased seizure susceptibility.
    1. Neuroscience

    Conserved visual capacity of rats under red light

    Nader Nikbakht, Mathew E Diamond
    Psychometric measures reveal that, contrary to common assumption, rats have good visual form discrimination capacity under red and even far-red illumination.
    1. Cell Biology

    Pak1 kinase controls cell shape through ribonucleoprotein granules

    Joseph O Magliozzi, James B Moseley
    A newly discovered substrate of Pak1 kinase reveals novel mechanisms that control cell shape through regulated assembly of ribonucleoprotein granules.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mapping brain-behavior space relationships along the psychosis spectrum

    Jie Lisa Ji et al.
    A data-reduced neuro-behavioral geometry in psychosis spectrum disorders mapped symptoms stably on to distinct functional brain regions and offers a framework for informing personalized treatment selection decisions.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    An actin-related protein that is most highly expressed in Drosophila testes is critical for embryonic development

    Courtney M Schroeder et al.
    Non-canonical ‘testis-specific’ actin-related protein (Arp), Arp53D, is critical for early embryonic development in Drosophila, revealing important roles for lineage-specific, divergent, testis-expressed non-canonical Arps outside the male germline in animals.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Dynamically linking influenza virus infection kinetics, lung injury, inflammation, and disease severity

    Margaret A Myers et al.
    Important nonlinear links between infection, inflammation, and disease severity were revealed using experimentally validated mathematical models.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Analysis of the PcrA-RNA polymerase complex reveals a helicase interaction motif and a role for PcrA/UvrD helicase in the suppression of R-loops

    Inigo Urrutia-Irazabal et al.
    RNA polymerase recruits the PcrA DNA helicase via a conserved interaction motif in order to remove R-loops and prevent conflicts with replication.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The need for high-quality oocyte mitochondria at extreme ploidy dictates mammalian germline development

    Marco Colnaghi et al.
    Selective transfer of mitochondria in the Balbiani body ensures high-quality oocyte mitochondria at extreme ploidy, explaining many enigmatic features of female germline architecture including germ cell loss.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Cortex cis-regulatory switches establish scale colour identity and pattern diversity in Heliconius

    Luca Livraghi et al.
    The evolution of a butterfly mimetic phenotype is driven by modular cis-regulstory switches controlling a ‘hotspot’ gene.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    High-resolution, genome-wide mapping of positive supercoiling in chromosomes

    Monica S Guo et al.
    GapR-seq enables the global mapping of positive supercoiling in bacteria and yeast, revealing positive supercoils downstream of highly expressed genes and, in yeast, associated with centromeres, pericentromeres, telomeres, replication origins, and R-loops.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    KSHV-encoded vCyclin can modulate HIF1α levels to promote DNA replication in hypoxia

    Rajnish Kumar Singh et al.
    KSHV nullifies hypoxic restriction of DNA replication.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Ferroptotic stress promotes the accumulation of pro-inflammatory proximal tubular cells in maladaptive renal repair

    Shintaro Ide et al.
    Ferroptotic stress enhances the accumulation of damage-associated inflammatory proximal tubular cell state, thereby promoting maladaptive renal repair and the AKI-to-CKD transition.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Structure-guided microbial targeting of antistaphylococcal prodrugs

    Justin J Miller et al.
    Prodrug antibiotics can be designed that are serum-stable but readily cleaved inside bacterial pathogens.
    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Niche partitioning facilitates coexistence of closely related honey bee gut bacteria

    Silvia Brochet et al.
    Experiments in gnotobiotic bees and culture tubes can recapitulate gut microbiota coexistence patterns observed in nature.
    1. Neuroscience

    Differential conditioning produces merged long-term memory in Drosophila

    Bohan Zhao et al.
    Although flies cannot discriminate shock-paired and -unpaired odor 24 hr after single-trial aversive conditioning, they choose to avoid both of them, which is derived from a merged long-term memory.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Plasmodium falciparum K13 mutations in Africa and Asia impact artemisinin resistance and parasite fitness

    Barbara H Stokes et al.
    Plasmodium falciparum K13 mutations confer resistance to the antimalarial artemisinin in Asian and African parasites, with most gene-edited mutant K13 African parasite lines showing a fitness cost that may predict slow dissemination of artemisinin resistance in high-transmission settings.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Distinct skeletal stem cell types orchestrate long bone skeletogenesis

    Thomas H Ambrosi et al.
    Functional and molecular analyses of two distinct skeletal stem cell populations establish the important role of stem cell diversity that provides a framework for novel investigations into skeletal biology.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Highly contiguous assemblies of 101 drosophilid genomes

    Bernard Y Kim et al.
    One hundred one high-quality drosophilid genomes are released, along with low-cost assembly workflows, as an open community resource for studying genetics, ecology, and evolution in this important model system.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Development of antibacterial compounds that constrain evolutionary pathways to resistance

    Yanmin Zhang et al.
    Integrated multi-scale, multi-tool approach to design novel 'evolution drugs' which can delay the emergence of antibiotic resistance by constraining bacterial evolutionary escape strategies.
    1. Neuroscience

    Localization, proteomics, and metabolite profiling reveal a putative vesicular transporter for UDP-glucose

    Cheng Qian et al.
    Identification of novel vesicular transporters will shed light on to expanding the chemical diversity of neurotransmitters or neuromodulators.
    1. Neuroscience

    Reconciling functional differences in populations of neurons recorded with two-photon imaging and electrophysiology

    Joshua H Siegle et al.
    Discrepancies between functional responses measured with electrophysiology and calcium imaging can be largely reconciled by considering the spike-to-calcium transfer function, neuronal sampling bias, and cluster merging artifacts during spike sorting.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Calponin-homology domain mediated bending of membrane-associated actin filaments

    Saravanan Palani et al.
    Combination of actin and curly on lipid membranes constitutes a new, minimalistic system to generate high curvature actin rings that can contract upon the action of myosin II filaments.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct synaptic transfer functions in same-type photoreceptors

    Cornelius Schröder et al.
    The ribbon synapses of zebrafish UV-cone photoreceptors preferentially transmit transient or sustained components in light-stimuli depending on their location in the eye.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Action potential-coupled Rho GTPase signaling drives presynaptic plasticity

    Shataakshi Dube O'Neil et al.
    Proteomic and genetic analysis discovers a new cytoskeletal mechanism of presynaptic short-term plasticity common across neuronal cell types.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Homo-oligomerization of the human adenosine A2A receptor is driven by the intrinsically disordered C-terminus

    Khanh Dinh Quoc Nguyen et al.
    The C-terminus of A2A receptor drives oligomer formation via an intricate network of disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, and hydrophobic interactions, all of which are enhanced by depletion interactions.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structures of the caspase-activated protein XKR9 involved in apoptotic lipid scrambling

    Monique S Straub et al.
    The cryo-EM structures of XKR9 define the architecture and caspase-mediated activation of a protein family that is involved in the exposure of phosphatidylserine during apoptosis leading to the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Functional development of a V3/glycan-specific broadly neutralizing antibody isolated from a case of HIV superinfection

    Mackenzie M Shipley et al.
    A bnAb derived from a case of HIV superinfection has distinct qualities from other HIV-specific bnAbs, including framework residues that contribute to neutralization breadth and a unique viral escape profile.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Non-canonical H3K79me2-dependent pathways promote the survival of MLL-rearranged leukemia

    William F Richter et al.
    FLT3-ITD/STAT5A signaling is more sensitive to Dot1L inhibition than the canonical MLL-fusion activated drivers of leukemogenesis, providing a potential therapeutic avenue for one of the most frequent lesions in leukemia.
    1. Ecology

    Rapid spread of a densovirus in a major crop pest following wide-scale adoption of Bt-cotton in China

    Yutao Xiao et al.
    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) selects for beneficial interactions between the target insect pest (Helicoverpa armigera) and its symbiotic densovirus that enhances its performance on Bt-crops under field conditions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Alpha oscillations and event-related potentials reflect distinct dynamics of attribute construction and evidence accumulation in dietary decision making

    Azadeh HajiHosseini, Cendri A Hutcherson
    Alpha oscillations represent an intermediate stage of evidence accumulation that is influenced by self-regulation in value-based decision making.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A plant-like mechanism coupling m6A reading to polyadenylation safeguards transcriptome integrity and developmental gene partitioning in Toxoplasma

    Dayana C Farhat et al.
    The epitranscriptomic-driven mRNA polyadenylation pathway protects transcriptome integrity by restricting transcriptional read-throughs and RNA chimera formation in apicomplexan parasites and plants.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Functional interdependence of the actin nucleator Cobl and Cobl-like in dendritic arbor development

    Maryam Izadi et al.
    Extended biochemical and functional analyses in primary neurons show that early neuronal morphogenesis critically relies on cooperation of the actin nucleator Cobl and its ancestor Cobl-like and uncover their cooperative mechanisms at dendritic branch initiation sites.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Single-cell analysis of the ventricular-subventricular zone reveals signatures of dorsal and ventral adult neurogenesis

    Arantxa Cebrian-Silla et al.
    Adult neural stem cells differ in the types of neurons they generate according to their location and new territories and genes associated with dorsal and ventral neurogenic lineages in the adult mouse brain are revealed.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Folding of cohesin’s coiled coil is important for Scc2/4-induced association with chromosomes

    Naomi J Petela et al.
    First evidence of cohesin folding occurring in vivo and during cohesion together with a detailed description of the structural aspects of cohesin's elbow folding through a series of novel structures.
    1. Neuroscience

    Tracking the relation between gist and item memory over the course of long-term memory consolidation

    Tima Zeng et al.
    Human learners’ memory for generalities across individual items biased memory for these items after 1 month.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Relationship between changing malaria burden and low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa: A difference-in-differences study via a pair-of-pairs approach

    Siyu Heng et al.
    A novel pair-of-pairs matching approach finds that community-level reductions in malaria burden can potentially substantially reduce the low birth weight rate in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among firstborns.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The role of interspecies recombination in the evolution of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci

    Joshua C D'Aeth et al.
    Selection by national-level antibiotic consumption and vaccination trends drives atypical recombinations, frequently resulting in interspecies sequence exchange at many sites across a bacterial species’ chromosome.
    1. Neuroscience

    Loss of Tsc1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells induces transcriptional and translation changes in FMRP target transcripts

    Jasbir Singh Dalal et al.
    Tsc1 mutation in cerebellar Purkinje cells leads to downregulation of synapse genes that are targets of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein.
    1. Neuroscience

    A locomotor neural circuit persists and functions similarly in larvae and adult Drosophila

    Kristen Lee, Chris Q Doe
    Descending interneurons maintain synaptic connectivity and behavioral function despite pruning during metamorphosis, showing that synaptic specificity is established twice at different life stages.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    AAV ablates neurogenesis in the adult murine hippocampus

    Stephen Johnston et al.
    Future work using recombinant AAV as an experimental tool in the dentate gyrus or as a gene therapy for diseases of the central nervous system should be carefully evaluated.
    1. Cell Biology

    CEP78 functions downstream of CEP350 to control biogenesis of primary cilia by negatively regulating CP110 levels

    André Brás Gonçalves et al.
    Analysis of mutant cells combined with biochemical experiments reveals that CEP78 is recruited to the centrosome by CEP350 and regulates ciliogenesis and ciliary length control through CP110-dependent and CP110-independent mechanisms, respectively.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Fast deep neural correspondence for tracking and identifying neurons in C. elegans using semi-synthetic training

    Xinwei Yu et al.
    A deep neural network trained on semi-synthetic data learns to quickly track and identify neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Role of BRCA2 DNA-binding and C-terminal domain in its mobility and conformation in DNA repair

    Maarten W Paul et al.
    Highly conserved C-terminal domains of the tumor suppressor BRCA2 are not essential for accumulation at damaged DNA but affect conformation and cell survival, implying roles beyond delivering strand-exchange protein RAD51.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural correlates of ingroup bias for prosociality in rats

    Inbal Ben-Ami Bartal et al.
    A distinct neural network, including the nucleus accumbens as a central hub, is active when rats are exposed to trapped ingroup members they had previously helped escape a trap, but not for outgroup members who had not been helped.
    1. Cancer Biology

    An epigenetic switch regulates the ontogeny of AXL-positive/EGFR-TKi-resistant cells by modulating miR-335 expression

    Polona Safaric Tepes et al.
    Erlotinib-resistant AXL overexpressing cells are present in therapy-naive tumors, and expression of AXL in these cells is regulated through a stochastic mechanism centered on the epigenetic regulation of miR-335.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural insights into hormone recognition by the human glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor

    Fenghui Zhao et al.
    The structure provides key insights into hormone recognition and activation of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor.
    1. Neuroscience

    Value signals guide abstraction during learning

    Aurelio Cortese et al.
    Valuation of sensory information in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a key function in constructing the abstract representations that guide complex behaviours.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Akt phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate to limit PI3K-mediated PIP3 synthesis

    Alison L Kearney et al.
    Akt phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate to engage negative feedback and limit signal propagation.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Lives saved with vaccination for 10 pathogens across 112 countries in a pre-COVID-19 world

    Jaspreet Toor et al.
    Vaccination activities that occurred before the COVID-19 pandemic, 2000-2019, are estimated to avert 50 million deaths, highlighting the enormous benefits of continued and improving vaccination.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Heterochromatin-dependent transcription of satellite DNAs in the Drosophila melanogaster female germline

    Xiaolu Wei et al.
    The piRNA pathway regulates satellite DNAs in the Drosophila melanogaster germline and affects heterochromatin establishment at pericentromeric satellite DNA in embryos, implying a general role for piRNAs in ensuring genome stability.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Genetically incorporated crosslinkers reveal NleE attenuates host autophagy dependent on PSMD10

    Jingxiang Li et al.
    Transient interactions between NleE and PMSD10 suppress PSMD10 interaction with ATG7 to attenuate host autophagosome formation.
    1. Medicine

    Mechanisms underlying neonate-specific metabolic effects of volatile anesthetics

    Julia Stokes et al.
    Volatile anesthetics impair hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle function in adult and neonatal mice, with citrate accumulation driving a neonate-specific inhibition of beta-oxidation and ketosis through their increased relative sensitivity to malonyl-CoA.
    1. Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Ct threshold values, a proxy for viral load in community SARS-CoV-2 cases, demonstrate wide variation across populations and over time

    A Sarah Walker et al.
    Wide variation in cycle threshold (Ct) values from SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests over calendar time offers the potential for their broader use in public testing programmes as an ‘early-warning’ system for shifts in infectious load and hence transmission.
    1. Neuroscience

    Non-canonical role for Lpar1-EGFP subplate neurons in early postnatal mouse somatosensory cortex

    Filippo Ghezzi et al.
    A combined developmental genetics, electrophysiology, and optical approach identify two distinct and dynamic components of the developing neuronal circuit that relay and interpret thalamic input in primary sensory neocortex.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Fish primary embryonic pluripotent cells assemble into retinal tissue mirroring in vivo early eye development

    Lucie Zilova et al.
    Fish-derived pluripotent cells instinctively form retinal tissue recapitulating key steps of early eye development.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Sorting nexin-27 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through the synaptic adhesion protein LRFN2

    Kirsty J McMillan et al.
    An unbiased proteomic approach identifies a new regulator of AMPA receptor trafficking providing additional insight into synaptic transmission and plasticity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The fluoride permeation pathway and anion recognition in Fluc family fluoride channels

    Benjamin C McIlwain et al.
    In the extremely selective fluoride channels from the bacterial Fluc family, fluoride ions access the pore via two points, an electropositive vestibule and a triad of conserved residues involved in anion recognition.
    1. Neuroscience

    Increased theta/alpha synchrony in the habenula-prefrontal network with negative emotional stimuli in human patients

    Yongzhi Huang et al.
    Increased theta/alpha band activities within the habenula area and the prefrontal cortex, as well as the increased synchrony between the two structures in the same frequency band can serve as an indicator for negative emotions in humans.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    CTP promotes efficient ParB-dependent DNA condensation by facilitating one-dimensional diffusion from parS

    Francisco de Asis Balaguer et al.
    Single-molecule methods reveal that cytidine triphosphate promotes DNA condensation specifically at bacterial centromeres by facilitating one-dimensional diffusion of ParB from parS sites.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    The GNU subunit of PNG kinase, the developmental regulator of mRNA translation, binds BIC-C to localize to RNP granules

    Emir E Avilés-Pagán et al.
    The Drosophila PNG kinase controls mRNA translation at the oocyte-to-embryo transition, and its GNU activating subunit is shown here to bind translational repressors and be a component of RNP granules.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct forms of synaptic plasticity during ascending vs descending control of medial olivocochlear efferent neurons

    Gabriel E Romero, Laurence O Trussell
    In a fast brainstem relay controlling hearing sensitivity, descending synaptic control from midbrain provides the dominant source of excitation, due to a distinct form of synaptic plasticity.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural intermediates observed only in intact Escherichia coli indicate a mechanism for TonB-dependent transport

    Thushani D Nilaweera et al.
    Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance on intact Escherichia coli reveals a substrate-induced structural transition in BtuB, the vitamin B12 transporter, which is not seen in reconstituted membranes and indicates a mechanism of transport.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    E2F/Dp inactivation in fat body cells triggers systemic metabolic changes

    Maria Paula Zappia et al.
    The E2F/Dp transcription factors, which are key cell cycle regulators, can also mediate the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in larva by controlling both systemic trehalose homeostasis and fat storage.
    1. Ecology

    An octopamine receptor confers selective toxicity of amitraz on honeybees and Varroa mites

    Lei Guo et al.
    The structural and pharmacological difference of the invertebrate counterpart of β-adrenergic receptor confers selective toxicity of an insecticide on honeybees and their devastating parasite Varroa mites.
    1. Neuroscience

    The role of P2Y12 in the kinetics of microglial self-renewal and maturation in the adult visual cortex in vivo

    Monique S Mendes et al.
    Adult microglia are born by the division of single surviving microglia that rapidly acquire mature morphologies and functions in order to perform their physiological roles in the brain.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Targeting an anchored phosphatase-deacetylase unit restores renal ciliary homeostasis

    Janani Gopalan et al.
    An anchored phosphatase-deacetylase complex participates in primary cilia development.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Highly localized intracellular Ca2+ signals promote optimal salivary gland fluid secretion

    Takahiro Takano et al.
    Measurement of physiological intracellular Ca2+ signals following neural stimulation in vivo reveals distinct spatiotemporal characteristics that promote optimal salivary gland fluid secretion.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    How subtle changes in 3D structure can create large changes in transcription

    Jordan Yupeng Xiao et al.
    Promoter futile cycles can explain how subtle differences in genome folding sometimes generate large difference in gene expression.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    The structural connectome constrains fast brain dynamics

    Pierpaolo Sorrentino et al.
    The fast spreading of neural activity across the brain has a complex structure, imposed by the white-matter bundles.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dynamic early clusters of nodal proteins contribute to node of Ranvier assembly during myelination of peripheral neurons

    Elise LV Malavasi et al.
    Dynamic early clusters of nodal proteins in peripheral nerves represent a neurofascin-dependent developmental stage of node assembly during myelination that precedes heminode formation.
    1. Ecology

    Matrix-trapped viruses can prevent invasion of bacterial biofilms by colonizing cells

    Matthew C Bond et al.
    Microfluidic culture and high-resolution 3-D microscopy establish that bacteriophages trapped in the outer matrix layers of a bacterial biofilm remain active and can prevent colonization of the biofilm by newly arriving bacteria.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Notch-induced endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation governs mouse thymocyte β−selection

    Xia Liu et al.
    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a critical protein quality control checkpoint for thymocyte β-slection.
    1. Neuroscience

    Pupal behavior emerges from unstructured muscle activity in response to neuromodulation in Drosophila

    Amicia D Elliott et al.
    The elementary units of a fruit fly behavioral sequence are described at single-muscle resolution and shown to exhibit variability that is subject to neuromodulatory regulation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Developmental Biology

    Maternally inherited piRNAs direct transient heterochromatin formation at active transposons during early Drosophila embryogenesis

    Martin H Fabry et al.
    Maternally deposited Piwi-piRNA complexes co-transcriptionally repress transposable elements that transiently become active in somatic cells of the developing Drosophila embryo.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Loss of MGA repression mediated by an atypical polycomb complex promotes tumor progression and invasiveness

    Haritha Mathsyaraja et al.
    The MYC transcription factor network member MGA is a subunit of a non-canonical Polycomb complex, which, when inactivated, accelerates tumorigenesis in mouse models of cancer and proliferation in colon organoids.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The solubility product extends the buffering concept to heterotypic biomolecular condensates

    Aniruddha Chattaraj et al.
    The solubility product, a thermodynamic concept classically applied to poorly soluble ionic solutes, can rationalize the concentration dependence for liquid-liquid phase separation of multicomponent multivalent molecules.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    DNA-RNA hybrids at DSBs interfere with repair by homologous recombination

    Pedro Ortega et al.
    Genetic and physical analyses reveal that DNA-RNA hybrids form fortuitously at DNA double-strand breaks during transcription and need removal to allow repair by homologous recombination.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Crosstalk between repair pathways elicits double-strand breaks in alkylated DNA and implications for the action of temozolomide

    Robert P Fuchs et al.
    DNA lesions formed by alkylating agents trigger double-strand breaks, in the absence of replication, by the action of MMR and BER at nearby O-alkyl and N-alkyl adducts, respectively.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Somatic aging pathways regulate reproductive plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Maria C Ow et al.
    Somatic aging and germline RNAi pathways promote inheritance of ancestral starvation memory through reallocation of fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    1. Neuroscience

    Increased influence of prior choices on perceptual decisions in autism

    Helen Feigin et al.
    Perceptual decisions are influenced by preceding choices to a larger extent in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, such that they demonstrate a greater consistency bias.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Type VI secretion system killing by commensal Neisseria is influenced by expression of type four pili

    Rafael Custodio et al.
    The upper airway commensal, Neisseria cinerea, competes with related species using a T6SS, with antagonism modulated by the spatial dynamics of attacker and prey strains growing in a mixed community.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Reduced synchroneity of intra-islet Ca2+ oscillations in vivo in Robo-deficient β cells

    Melissa T Adams et al.
    Synchronized β cell response to glucose is lost concomitant with loss of islet architecture in Robo-deficient islets of Langerhans in vivo.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Genetic and pharmacological evidence for kinetic competition between alternative poly(A) sites in yeast

    Rachael Emily Turner et al.
    The natural compounds cordycepin and mycophenolic acid stimulate alternative polyadenylation through opposing effects on transcriptional rate.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A chimeric nuclease substitutes a phage CRISPR-Cas system to provide sequence-specific immunity against subviral parasites

    Zachary K Barth et al.
    Horizontal transfer of a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain allows a virus to destroy its subviral parasite and overcome parasite-mediated restriction.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Propelling and perturbing appendages together facilitate strenuous ground self-righting

    Ratan Othayoth, Chen Li
    Animals can, and robots should, use different types of appendages together to propel and perturb themselves to self-right when overturned, a strenuous yet crucial locomotor task.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Dynamics of primitive streak regression controls the fate of neuromesodermal progenitors in the chicken embryo

    Charlene Guillot et al.
    Inverse gradients of cell ingression and division in the epiblast allow the bipotent progenitors in the anterior streak to become the main progenitors for posterior axis formation from the tail bud.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    A new Heterodontosaurus specimen elucidates the unique ventilatory macroevolution of ornithischian dinosaurs

    Viktor J Radermacher et al.
    A new specimen of Heterodontosaurus elucidates how ornithischian dinosaurs evolved a body plan substantially different from that of other dinosaurs and what these differences meant for their breathing.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Method development and characterisation of the low-molecular-weight peptidome of human wound fluids

    Mariena JA van der Plas et al.
    Peptidomics method development and analysis of qualitative differences of peptide patterns in human wound fluids provide potential biomarkers for wound healing and infection.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortico-autonomic local arousals and heightened somatosensory arousability during NREMS of mice in neuropathic pain

    Romain Cardis et al.
    Neuropathic pain preserves mouse sleep in architecture and characteristic spectral bands but perturbs arousability in ways reminiscent of insomnia disorders, in which hyperarousal and hyperalertness to environmental stimuli are prevalent.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Novel neuroanatomical integration and scaling define avian brain shape evolution and development

    Akinobu Watanabe et al.
    More integrated brains in crown birds evolved through a mosaic assembly of new evolutionary and developmental dynamics across neuroanatomical regions that occurred along the dinosaur-bird transition.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Castration delays epigenetic aging and feminizes DNA methylation at androgen-regulated loci

    Victoria J Sugrue et al.
    Epigenetic clocks are an accurate measure of biological aging and 'tick' slower in male sheep that are castrated.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genetic depletion studies inform receptor usage by virulent hantaviruses in human endothelial cells

    Maria Eugenia Dieterle et al.
    Several previously proposed cell-surface receptors for hantaviruses could be deleted in endothelial cells with little or no effect on infection, indicating that critical hantavirus entry factors remain undiscovered.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Improving statistical power in severe malaria genetic association studies by augmenting phenotypic precision

    James A Watson et al.
    Complete blood count data can increase the accuracy of the diagnosis of severe malaria in children in high transmission settings.
    1. Ecology

    Inversion of pheromone preference optimizes foraging in C. elegans

    Martina Dal Bello et al.
    Worms' attraction to pheromones turns into repulsion when a food patch is depleted, helping them avoid already exploited territories and search for new food sources.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Mendelian randomization analysis provides causality of smoking on the expression of ACE2, a putative SARS-CoV-2 receptor

    Hui Liu et al.
    Smoking, measured by both initiation and intensity, are significantly associated with an elevated expression level of ACE2 in multiple human tissues/organs, subsequently increasing the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Rapid mechanical stimulation of inner-ear hair cells by photonic pressure

    Sanjeewa Abeytunge et al.
    A new method is described to apply rapid and uniform mechanical forces to vestibular and cochlear hair cells.
    1. Medicine

    7,8-Dihydroxyflavone modulates bone formation and resorption and ameliorates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis

    Fan Xue et al.
    In vitro and in vivo studies highlight the dual regulatory effects that 7,8-dihydroxyflavone exerts on bone formation and resorption.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct signatures of calcium activity in brain mural cells

    Chaim Glück et al.
    Increases of extracellular potassium silence capillary pericyte calcium signaling, suggesting a participation of capillary pericytes in the potassium-mediated neurovascular communication.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Future life expectancy in Europe taking into account the impact of smoking, obesity, and alcohol

    Fanny Janssen et al.
    Accounting for the impact of smoking, obesity, and alcohol on past mortality trends, we project, compared to common practice, longer individual lifespans and more elderly in society for the future.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Acid-base transporters and pH dynamics in human breast carcinomas predict proliferative activity, metastasis, and survival

    Nicolai J Toft et al.
    Cellular acidity, capacity for net acid extrusion, and expression of acid-base transporters in human breast carcinomas independently predict variation in proliferative activity, lymph node metastasis, and patient survival.
    1. Neuroscience

    GluA4 facilitates cerebellar expansion coding and enables associative memory formation

    Katarzyna Kita et al.
    GluA4-containing AMPA receptors are required for effective excitation of cerebellar granule cells and enable expansion coding and associative learning.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Dynamic persistence of UPEC intracellular bacterial communities in a human bladder-chip model of urinary tract infection

    Kunal Sharma et al.
    Live-cell imaging captures the heterogenity of bacterial growth within intracellular bacterial communities and demonstrates that the constituent bacteria are protected from clearance by antibiotics delivered with a physiologically relevant pharmacodynamic profile.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    ReporterSeq reveals genome-wide dynamic modulators of the heat shock response across diverse stressors

    Brian D Alford et al.
    A pooled genetic screening method measures the effect of knocking down every gene on a transcriptional stress response to proteotoxic stress (the heat shock response) using only nucleic acid sequencing, without cell enrichment or single-cell isolation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Insula to mPFC reciprocal connectivity differentially underlies novel taste neophobic response and learning in mice

    Haneen Kayyal et al.
    aIC to mPFC connections are correlative and necessary both for taste novelty behavior and learning while the reciprocal connection from mPFC to aIC is correlative and necessary for novelty behavior.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Novel LOTUS-domain proteins are organizational hubs that recruit C. elegans Vasa to germ granules

    Patricia Giselle Cipriani et al.
    Two novel LOTUS-domain proteins are core germ granule components that directly recruit Caenorhabditis elegans Vasa, regulate germ granule size and localization, and provide an organizational framework for ribonucleoprotein complexes.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    Soluble Fas ligand drives autoantibody-induced arthritis by binding to DR5/TRAIL-R2

    Dongjin Jeong et al.
    Soluble Fas ligand interacts specifically with tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF)10B, also known as death receptor 5, exacerbating arthritis in a Fas-independent manner.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    In vivo imaging of retrovirus infection reveals a role for Siglec-1/CD169 in multiple routes of transmission

    Kelsey A Haugh et al.
    Retroviruses exploit the lectin, Siglec-1/CD169, expressed on sentinel macrophages to promote infection during multiple routes of transmission.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Exosomes mediate horizontal transmission of viral pathogens from insect vectors to plant phloem

    Qian Chen et al.
    An important rice reovirus hijacks exosomes to traverse the apical plasmalemma into saliva-stored cavities in the salivary glands of insect vectors, facilitating viral horizontal transmission into rice phloem.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Connectional asymmetry of the inferior parietal lobule shapes hemispheric specialization in humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques

    Luqi Cheng et al.
    Humans showed the most widespread asymmetric connectivity between the inferior parietal lobule subregions and the rest of the brain compared to macaques and chimpanzees, which shapes hemispheric specialization in primates.
    1. Neuroscience

    An hourglass circuit motif transforms a motor program via subcellularly localized muscle calcium signaling and contraction

    Steven R Sando et al.
    By driving the localized contraction of subcellular muscle regions, a single motor neuron reverses the flow of material in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx, a neuromuscular pump, converting feeding into spitting.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Control of tissue development and cell diversity by cell cycle-dependent transcriptional filtering

    Maria Abou Chakra et al.
    A mathematical model predicts that cell cycle duration acts as a transcriptional filter and directly affects cell diversity in early eukaryotic development.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    A deep learning algorithm to translate and classify cardiac electrophysiology

    Parya Aghasafari et al.
    A deep learning network can classify cardiac myocytes into drug-free and drugged categories and predict the impact of electrophysiological perturbation across the continuum of aging.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Two de novo GluN2B mutations affect multiple NMDAR-functions and instigate severe pediatric encephalopathy

    Shai Kellner et al.
    Two novel mutations in the GRIN2B gene reduce glutamate affinity by >1000-fold, reduce the receptors proton-sensitivity, and exert a dominant-negative effect over receptors in neurons.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Pak1 and PP2A antagonize aPKC function to support cortical tension induced by the Crumbs-Yurt complex

    Cornelia Biehler et al.
    Cell biology analyses in Drosophila epithelial tissues reveal novel mechanisms connecting epithelial polarity proteins with Myosin-dependent cell contractility.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The molecular basis of coupling between poly(A)-tail length and translational efficiency

    Kehui Xiang, David P Bartel
    For poly(A)-tail length to influence mRNA translational efficiency, poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC) must be limiting, mRNAs lacking PABPC must be stable, and translation initiation must be sensitive to PABPC levels.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A novel mechanosensitive channel controls osmoregulation, differentiation, and infectivity in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Noopur Dave et al.
    Structurally divergent bacterial-like mechanosensitive channels control multiple cellular functions in protozoan parasites.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Efficacy profile of the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine revealed by Bayesian survival analysis of individual-level phase III data

    Daniel J Laydon et al.
    Bayesian survival analysis reveals comprehensive efficacy profile and mechanism of action for Sanofi-Pasteur’s CYD-TDV dengue vaccine, whereby vaccination acts as a silent, disease-free infection enhancing disease risk in seronegatives, but giving greater immunity in seropositives than two natural infections.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Crash landing of Vibrio cholerae by MSHA pili-assisted braking and anchoring in a viscoelastic environment

    Wenchao Zhang et al.
    Mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pili act as a braking and anchoring machine during the three-phase landing process of Vibrio cholerae.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Mice in a labyrinth show rapid learning, sudden insight, and efficient exploration

    Matthew Rosenberg et al.
    Mice exploring a labyrinth freely for the first time learn a complex action sequence after a handful of rewards, exhibiting a learning rate 1000-fold higher than in commonly-used paradigms.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Respiratory and intestinal epithelial cells exhibit differential susceptibility and innate immune responses to contemporary EV-D68 isolates

    Megan Culler Freeman et al.
    Parallel studies in primary human airway cells and stem cell-derived enteroids show that Enterovirus D-68 differentially infects and induces innate immune signaling in the respiratory and intestinal epithelium.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    A novel mitochondrial Kv1.3–caveolin axis controls cell survival and apoptosis

    Jesusa Capera et al.
    The association of caveolin with the potassium channel Kv1.3 fine-tunes cell survival and apoptosis.
    1. Medicine

    Hepatoenteric recycling is a new disposition mechanism for orally administered phenolic drugs and phytochemicals in rats

    Yifan Tu et al.
    A new disposition mechanism for glucuronides, where liver serves as recycle organ and intestine serves as metabolism organ, is established to better explain the disposition of phenolics in vivo.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Genetic variant in 3’ untranslated region of the mouse pycard gene regulates inflammasome activity

    Brian Ritchey et al.
    A new mode of inflammasome regulation was discovered through a mouse strain intercross that identified the Pycard locus was associated with IL-1β release, and gene editing showed this was due to an SNP in the Pycard mRNA regulating its turnover.