August 2021

Research articles

    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Studying evolution of the primary body axis in vivo and in vitro

    Kerim Anlas, Vikas Trivedi
    The shared capacity of stem cells to recapitulate initial body plan formation in vitro without species-specific cues, suggests the existence of alternative, evolutionarily conserved developmental trajectories.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Edge-strand of BepA interacts with immature LptD on the β-barrel assembly machine to direct it to on- and off-pathways

    Ryoji Miyazaki et al.
    In vivo crosslinking approaches revealed that the edge-strand of Escherichia coli metallopeptidase BepA interacts with an assembly intermediate of β-barrel outer membrane protein LptD on the outer membrane protein translocon for its targeting to degradation or maturation.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The mechanism of MICU-dependent gating of the mitochondrial Ca2+uniporter

    Vivek Garg et al.
    A comprehensive functional analysis of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) demonstrates that the auxiliary MICU subunits potentiate Ca2+ transport via MCU.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    TGFβ signalling is required to maintain pluripotency of human naïve pluripotent stem cells

    Anna Osnato et al.
    Identifying the pathways that support human naive-state pluripotent stem cells provides insights into the signalling-based regulation of human pluripotency and enables informed decisions to improve conditions for pluripotent cell culture.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Leveraging the Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery to systematically map functional epigenetic variation

    Teresa Romeo Luperchio et al.
    Chromatin/transcriptome profiling in multiple mouse models with mutations in epigenetic machinery (EM) reveals shared abnormalities including many IgA-relevant genes, indicating that this kind of joint analysis may elucidate the multigenic nature of EM disorders.
    1. Neuroscience

    Correction of amblyopia in cats and mice after the critical period

    Ming-fai Fong et al.
    Visual impairment caused by monocular deprivation early in life can be reversed rapidly at older ages by temporarily blocking all activity in the non-deprived eye.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Sterically confined rearrangements of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein control cell invasion

    Esteban Dodero-Rojas et al.
    SARS-CoV-2 entry mechanism through membrane fusion is regulated by the spike protein glycosylation state.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Mutational sources of trans-regulatory variation affecting gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Fabien Duveau et al.
    Mapping mutations affecting gene expression within the yeast genome and within a gene regulatory network reveals properties of the raw material for regulatory variation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sleeping at the Switch

    Maude Bouchard et al.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Development and genetics of red coloration in the zebrafish relative Danio albolineatus

    Delai Huang et al.
    In the zebrafish relative Danio albolineatus, red erythrophores share a common progenitor with yellow xanthophores and require Cyp2ae2 and Bdh1a for accumulation of red ketocarotenoid pigment.
    1. Plant Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The structure of photosystem I from a high-light-tolerant cyanobacteria

    Zachary Dobson et al.
    The necessity of studying extremophile organisms is exemplified by the structure of photosystem I from a high-light tolerant cyanobacteria, demonstrating the relationship between the structure and function in photosystem I.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Disintegration promotes protospacer integration by the Cas1-Cas2 complex

    Chien-Hui Ma et al.
    Disintegration, regarded as an abortive side reaction antithetical to DNA transposition, can promote protospacer integration at the CRISPR locus via DNA repair pathways.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    The pro-regenerative effects of hyperIL6 in drug-induced liver injury are unexpectedly due to competitive inhibition of IL11 signaling

    Jinrui Dong et al.
    IL6ST (gp130) binding proteins, such as HyperIL6, promote liver regrowth in a STAT3-indpependent manner through competitive inhibition of anti-regenerative IL11 signaling.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Endothelial junctional membrane protrusions serve as hotspots for neutrophil transmigration

    Janine JG Arts et al.
    Neutrophils use dorsal membrane protrusions of endothelial cells to cross the vascular wall.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    HBO1-MLL interaction promotes AF4/ENL/P-TEFb-mediated leukemogenesis

    Satoshi Takahashi et al.
    Interaction of the MLL and HBO1 complexes is a key nexus for leukemic transformation that can serve as a therapeutic target.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The roles of history, chance, and natural selection in the evolution of antibiotic resistance

    Alfonso Santos-Lopez et al.
    Selection imposed by antibiotics may dominate evolutionary forces acting on opportunistic pathogens like Acinetobacter baumannii, yet chance effects and a prior history in biofilm may constrain resistance and impose collateral sensitivities.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Crosstalk between nitric oxide and retinoic acid pathways is essential for amphioxus pharynx development

    Filomena Caccavale et al.
    Previously undescribed morphogenetic and developmental mechanisms unravel that the cooperation of two ancient signaling pathways, nitric oxide and retinoic acid, is essential to build a chordate embryo.
    1. Neuroscience

    The BigBrainWarp toolbox for integration of BigBrain 3D histology with multimodal neuroimaging

    Casey Paquola et al.
    The BigBrainWarp toolbox facilitates integration of 3D human brain histology with neuroimaging, helping neuroscientists to utilise cytoarchitectural information in conjunction with in vivo imaging.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Identification of neural progenitor cells and their progeny reveals long distance migration in the developing octopus brain

    Astrid Deryckere et al.
    Neurogenic progenitor cells surrounding the eye placode generate neurons that migrate over long distances to the developing octopus brain.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    An evidence-based 3D reconstruction of Asteroxylon mackiei, the most complex plant preserved from the Rhynie chert

    Alexander J Hetherington et al.
    The body plan of the 407-million-year-old plant fossil Asteroxylon mackiei comprised three developmentally distinct systems of axes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Reexamination of N-terminal domains of syntaxin-1 in vesicle fusion from central murine synapses

    Gülçin Vardar et al.
    A mutant rescue approach in STX1-null autaptic neurons provides definitive answers and opens up new questions into a controversial matter of syntaxin-1's binding to Munc18-1 through its N-peptide and its function in neurotransmission.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Cancer risk perception and physician communication behaviors on cervical cancer and colorectal cancer screening

    Diane M Harper et al.
    The physician involving the woman as much as she wants in her health care is significantly associated with up-to-date dual cervical and colorectal cancer screening compared to being up to date in only cervical cancer screening.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Combinations of maternal-specific repressive epigenetic marks in the endosperm control seed dormancy

    Hikaru Sato et al.
    Analyses of cell type-specific data show that the maternal alleles of genes related to establishing and breaking seed dormancy are suppressed by different combinations of epigenetic marks in the endosperm of Arabidopsis.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Superspreaders drive the largest outbreaks of hospital onset COVID-19 infections

    Christopher JR Illingworth et al.
    Outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a hospital environment show evidence of superspreading, with 80% of infections caused by 21% of infected individuals.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stimulus-specific plasticity in human visual gamma-band activity and functional connectivity

    Benjamin J Stauch et al.
    When visual stimuli are repeated, gamma oscillations in human early visual cortex and feedforward gamma synchronization across the visual system show stimulus-specific and persistent increases.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Augmin deficiency in neural stem cells causes p53-dependent apoptosis and aborts brain development

    Ricardo Viais et al.
    Non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation mediated by augmin is essential for neural progenitor mitosis and survival, and thus brain development.
    1. Plant Biology

    An oomycete effector subverts host vesicle trafficking to channel starvation-induced autophagy to the pathogen interface

    Pooja Pandey et al.
    A pathogen effector mimics starvation-induced autophagy by subverting host endomembrane trafficking to stimulate biogenesis of autophagosomes around pathogen feeding sites, revealing how pathogens interlock distinct host compartments to facilitate infection.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Interferon receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to eschar-associated rickettsiosis

    Thomas P Burke et al.
    Type I interferon and interferon-γ signaling redundantly protects mice from the tick-borne pathogen Rickettsia parkeri in the skin, and interferon receptor-deficient mice are a tractable model for investigating rickettsiosis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Emergence of a smooth interface from growth of a dendritic network against a mechanosensitive contractile material

    Medha Sharma et al.
    A smooth and circular interface can form between domains of the cell cortex from local induction of a contractile actomyosin ring by centrifugal pushing forces of an expanding Arp2/3 actin network.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Subventricular zone/white matter microglia reconstitute the empty adult microglial niche in a dynamic wave

    Lindsay A Hohsfield et al.
    In an empty microglial niche, repopulating microglia arise from subventricular zone and white matter-associated areas without contributions from the bone marrow to fill the mouse brain via a spreading wave.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Loss of Mir146b with aging contributes to inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages

    Andrea Santeford et al.
    MicroRNA-146b regulates aging, activation, and mitochodrial function in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Integrated single-cell analysis unveils diverging immune features of COVID-19, influenza, and other community-acquired pneumonia

    Alex R Schuurman et al.
    Different etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia evoke both shared and diverging immunological responses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Systematic morphological and morphometric analysis of identified olfactory receptor neurons in Drosophila melanogaster

    Cesar Nava Gonzales et al.
    A morphological characterization of Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons—conducted systematically at nanoscale resolution—yields an extensive morphometric dataset, identifies novel features of olfactory sensilla, and raises intriguing questions for how the size and shape of sensory neurons influence their function.
    1. Physics of Living Systems
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Probing the effect of clustering on EphA2 receptor signaling efficiency by subcellular control of ligand-receptor mobility

    Zhongwen Chen et al.
    EphA2 receptor clustering enhances signaling transductions by increasing receptor phosphorylation and binding dwell time of downstream molecules in living cells.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Hypoxia triggers collective aerotactic migration in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Olivier Cochet-Escartin et al.
    Cell assemblies can use environmental cues created by their own respiration, such as oxygen gradients, to collectively guide themselves to more favorable locations in a remarkably robust and long-lasting way.
    1. Neuroscience

    Understanding neural signals of post-decisional performance monitoring: An integrative review

    Kobe Desender et al.
    A computationally explicit framework can explain post-decisional neural signals of performance monitoring.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    An engineered transcriptional reporter of protein localization identifies regulators of mitochondrial and ER membrane protein trafficking in high-throughput CRISPRi screens

    Robert Coukos et al.
    HiLITR is a molecular reporter of protein localization that enables straightforward, large-scale, fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based discovery of genes that regulate complex cellular processes, such as mitochondrial and ER tail-anchored protein trafficking.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    N501Y mutation of spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 strengthens its binding to receptor ACE2

    Fang Tian et al.
    Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 with mutation N501Y shows a faster association rate, slower dissociation rate, and higher binding probability and unbinding force to its human receptor protein ACE2, leading to higher transmission.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    GIV/Girdin, a non-receptor modulator for Gαi/s, regulates spatiotemporal signaling during sperm capacitation and is required for male fertility

    Sequoyah Reynoso et al.
    Spermatozoa require GIV for specialized compartmentalized signaling to support efficient capacitation while inhibiting premature acrosome reaction.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    TRPC3 and NALCN channels drive pacemaking in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons

    Ki Bum Um et al.
    The non-selective Na+ leak channel (NALCN) and the transient receptor potential 3 channel (TRPC3) cooperate in driving pacemaking in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Characterization of the ABC methionine transporter from Neisseria meningitidis reveals that lipidated MetQ is required for interaction

    Naima G Sharaf et al.
    NmMetQ is a lipoprotein that tethers to membranes via a lipid anchor and has dual function and localization, playing a role in NmMetNI-mediated transport at the inner membrane and moonlighting on the bacterial surface.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    An essential, kinetoplastid-specific GDP-Fuc: β-D-Gal α-1,2-fucosyltransferase is located in the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Giulia Bandini et al.
    The activity, localization, and essentiality of TbFUT1, together with its ability to complement Leishmania parasites lacking the homologous gene, suggest the presence of an uncommon and conserved mitochondrial fucosylation pathway required for kinetoplastid parasites viability.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural dynamics between anterior insular cortex and right supramarginal gyrus dissociate genuine affect sharing from perceptual saliency of pretended pain

    Yili Zhao et al.
    Seeing others genuinely experiencing pain vs. pretending to be in pain is distinctively tracked by neural processes related to affect sharing and self-other distinction, enabling individuals to precisely respond to others’ actual emotions and needs.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Linker histone H1.8 inhibits chromatin binding of condensins and DNA topoisomerase II to tune chromosome length and individualization

    Pavan Choppakatla et al.
    Linker histone H1.8 shapes mitotic chromosomes by tuning the number and size of condensin-dependent DNA loops and suppressing condensin and DNA topoisomerase II-dependent individualization.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cardiac pathologies in mouse loss of imprinting models are due to misexpression of H19 long noncoding RNA

    Ki-Sun Park et al.
    Maternal loss of imprinting at the Igf2/H19 locus reduces expression of H19 lncRNA and thereby leads to progressive cardiac pathologies in a mouse Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome model.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The development of active binocular vision under normal and alternate rearing conditions

    Lukas Klimmasch et al.
    A new computational model explains how alternate rearing conditions affect the development of binocular vision.
    1. Cancer Biology

    NF1 regulates mesenchymal glioblastoma plasticity and aggressiveness through the AP-1 transcription factor FOSL1

    Carolina Marques et al.
    Neurofibromatosis type 1 gene (NF1) signaling is causally linked to the acquisition of a mesenchymal gene expression program in gliomas through the regulation of the AP-1 transcription factor FOSL1.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Receptor repertoires of murine follicular T helper cells reveal a high clonal overlap in separate lymph nodes in autoimmunity

    Markus Niebuhr et al.
    Repertoires of autoreactive murine follicular T helper cells synchronize transiently within one individual.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    An in vitro stem cell model of human epiblast and yolk sac interaction

    Kirsty ML Mackinlay et al.
    Human yolk sac-like cells, which share characteristics with the post-implantation human hypoblast, can model the interaction between the epiblast and hypoblast that occurs during early human development.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Insulin-producing β-cells regenerate ectopically from a mesodermal origin under the perturbation of hemato-endothelial specification

    Ka-Cheuk Liu et al.
    Genetic analyses revealed the remarkable plasticity of mesodermal cells to differentiate across the germ layers to form insulin-producing β-cells, which are normally of endodermal origin.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dual mechanisms of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the inspiratory rhythm-generating network

    Nathan A Baertsch et al.
    Opioids cause hyperpolarization and pre-synaptic suppression among a subset of preBötzinger Complex neurons to impair respiratory rhythmogenesis.
    1. Ecology

    How will mosquitoes adapt to climate warming?

    Lisa I Couper et al.
    Mosquitoes may be likely to adapt to climate warming given their short life cycles and strong temperature sensitivity, but key data gaps identified here constrain current estimates of adaptive potential.
    1. Cell Biology

    KLF10 integrates circadian timing and sugar signaling to coordinate hepatic metabolism

    Anthony A Ruberto et al.
    Krüppel-like factor 10 coordinates the hepatic circadian transcriptome and protects the liver from the adverse effects of increased sugar consumption.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    A CTP-dependent gating mechanism enables ParB spreading on DNA

    Adam SB Jalal et al.
    A structural and biochemical approach shows that CTP binding and hydrolysis regulate nucleation, spreading, and recycling of a chromosome segregation protein ParB.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Single-cell RNA analysis identifies pre-migratory neural crest cells expressing markers of differentiated derivatives

    Ezra Lencer et al.
    Pre-migratory and early migratory neural crest cells in zebrafish are transcriptionally diverse, with some cells expressing genes associated with differentiated derivatives while still in the neural tube.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatially patterned excitatory neuron subtypes and projections of the claustrum

    Sarah R Erwin et al.
    The claustrum comprises spatially patterned excitatory neuron subtypes with distinct molecular and projection properties.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    HIF1α is required for NK cell metabolic adaptation during virus infection

    Francisco Victorino et al.
    During pathogen infection, natural killer cells require hypoxia-inducible factor-1α for optimal metabolism to prevent apoptosis, thereby reducing viral load and protecting against morbidity.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Spinal lumbar dI2 interneurons contribute to stability of bipedal stepping

    Baruch Haimson et al.
    Spinal dI2 interneurons relay peripheral and intraspinal feedback to premotor networks in the spinal cord and the cerebellum to ensure the stability of bipedal stepping.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Patterns of within-host genetic diversity in SARS-CoV-2

    Gerry Tonkin-Hill et al.
    Characterisation of within-host diversity of SARS-CoV-2 provides insights into the mutational and selective mechanisms driving its evolution and has important implications for using within-host variation to inform transmission inference efforts.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Sustained expression of unc-4 homeobox gene and unc-37/Groucho in postmitotic neurons specifies the spatial organization of the cholinergic synapses in C. elegans

    Mizuki Kurashina et al.
    Genetic analyses using a simple nervous system of the nematode revealed the novel function of the cell fate-determining transcriptional repressor complex in the differentiated neurons to determine the precise synapse position.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Rad53 checkpoint kinase regulation of DNA replication fork rate via Mrc1 phosphorylation

    Allison W McClure, John FX Diffley
    DNA replication fork rate in budding yeast is regulated in response to DNA damage by phosphorylation of two proteins, Mrc1 and Mcm10, by the Rad53 protein kinase.
    1. Cell Biology

    Intracellular functions and motile properties of bi-directional kinesin-5 Cin8 are regulated by neck linker docking

    Alina Goldstein-Levitin et al.
    Precise hydrogen-bond stabilization of the neck linker docking onto the catalytic motor domain, is crucial for motor activity and intracellular functions of the bi-directional mitotic kinesin-5 Cin8.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Imaging cytoplasmic lipid droplets in vivo with fluorescent perilipin 2 and perilipin 3 knock-in zebrafish

    Meredith H Wilson et al.
    Fluorescent perilipin zebrafish lines are powerful new tools for studying lipid droplet dynamics in health and disease.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Scaled, high fidelity electrophysiological, morphological, and transcriptomic cell characterization

    Brian R Lee et al.
    High-quality, multimodal, electrophysiological, morphological, and transcriptomic data collection from a single cell using a refined Patch-seq protocol.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Loss of N1-methylation of G37 in tRNA induces ribosome stalling and reprograms gene expression

    Isao Masuda et al.
    Biochemical and genome-wide analysis demonstrates that m1G37 is important for tRNA aminoacylation and for the entire elongation cycle of protein synthesis.
    1. Ecology

    Gaps in global wildlife trade monitoring leave amphibians vulnerable

    Alice C Hughes et al.
    Almost 98% of amphibian species have no regulation on their international trade, yet as 17% (1215 species) are in trade with 45% of individuals coming from the wild, including 445 Endangered/Data Deficient species, this poses a risk to species survival.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    LMO2 is essential to maintain the ability of progenitors to differentiate into T-cell lineage in mice

    Ken-ichi Hirano et al.
    LMO2 plays an important role in the maintenance of T lymphocyte competence and survival of pre-thymic progenitors by regulating the expression of Bcl11a and Tcf7 genes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    The cAMP effector PKA mediates Moody GPCR signaling in Drosophila blood–brain barrier formation and maturation

    Xiaoling Li et al.
    A polarized Moody/protein kinase A pathway plays an unrecognized central role in controlling the enormous cell growth and blood–brain barrier integrity in a highly coordinated spatiotemporal manner in brain homeostasis.
    1. Cancer Biology

    A feedback loop between the androgen receptor and 6-phosphogluoconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) drives prostate cancer growth

    Joanna L Gillis et al.
    A positive feedback loop between the androgen receptor and a key pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, 6PGD, in prostate cancer promotes tumour cell proliferation, survival and intracellular redox control.
    1. Neuroscience

    Separable pupillary signatures of perception and action during perceptual multistability

    Jan W Brascamp et al.
    When conscious visual perception changes, the observer's pupils simultaneously signal the accompanying change in visual cortical representation, and specific neuromodulatory activity that helps translate the altered visual experience into behavior.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Medicine

    Human immunocompetent Organ-on-Chip platforms allow safety profiling of tumor-targeted T-cell bispecific antibodies

    S Jordan Kerns et al.
    Novel human models of the lung and intestine are described and validated as preclinical in vitro tools for predictive profiling of T-cell-bispecific antibodies with expected on-target off-tumor risk.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Tonic interferon restricts pathogenic IL-17-driven inflammatory disease via balancing the microbiome

    Isabelle J Marié et al.
    Overlapping action of type I, II, and III interferons maintains microbiome homeostasis, prevents IL-17-driven myeloproliferative disease, and protects against inflammatory bowel disease.
    1. Cell Biology

    A bone-specific adipogenesis pathway in fat-free mice defines key origins and adaptations of bone marrow adipocytes with age and disease

    Xiao Zhang et al.
    A novel secondary adipogenesis pathway is defined that is unique to the bone marrow and is activated with age and in states of metabolic stress.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Quantitative control of noise in mammalian gene expression by dynamic histone regulation

    Deng Tan et al.
    Ubiquitous transcriptional factor-CBP/p300 interaction induces epigenetic and transcriptional bimodality, which can be utilized to tune mean gene expression and noise independently.
    1. Neuroscience

    Left-right side-specific endocrine signaling complements neural pathways to mediate acute asymmetric effects of brain injury

    Nikolay Lukoyanov et al.
    In addition to the well-established involvement of descending neural tracts, the left-right side-specific endocrine mechanism may contribute to signaling from injured brain to spinal motor circuits.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genetic surveillance in the Greater Mekong subregion and South Asia to support malaria control and elimination

    Christopher G Jacob et al.
    Large-scale genetic surveillance of malaria implemented by National Malaria Control Programmes informs public health decision makers about the spread of strains resistant to antimalarials.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Temporal pattern and synergy influence activity of ERK signaling pathways during L-LTP induction

    Nadiatou T Miningou Zobon et al.
    ERK activation during induction of long-term synaptic plasticity is enhanced by synergistic interactions among signaling pathways mediated by the synaptically located GTPase-activating protein, and each pathway contributes to different ERK temporal dynamics.
    1. Neuroscience

    Causal neural mechanisms of context-based object recognition

    Miles Wischnewski, Marius V Peelen
    Context-based object recognition causally relies on both scene- and object-selective cortex, with scene-selective cortex generating expectations (at 160-200 ms after onset) that disambiguate object representations in object-selective cortex (at 260-300 ms after onset).
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Distinct roles of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms for establishing tension and elasticity during cell morphodynamics

    Kai Weißenbruch et al.
    The mechanical response of adherent cells in structured environments is shown to be shaped by the intricate interplay between the three different isoforms of an essential molecular motor.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Twisting of the zebrafish heart tube during cardiac looping is a tbx5-dependent and tissue-intrinsic process

    Federico Tessadori et al.
    The three-dimensional and asymmetrical transformations undergone by the zebrafish linear heart tube during looping morphogenesis are under the control of cardiac-intrinsic cues.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Analysis of the mechanosensor channel functionality of TACAN

    Yiming Niu et al.
    Electrophysiological and structural data do not support a mechanosensitive channel function for TACAN.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    TMEM120A is a coenzyme A-binding membrane protein with structural similarities to ELOVL fatty acid elongase

    Jing Xue et al.
    Cryo-EM structure of human TMEM120A reveals that it is a coenzyme A-binding protein and is unlikely to function as a mechanosensitive channel as was recently proposed.
    1. Neuroscience

    Learning to stand with unexpected sensorimotor delays

    Brandon G Rasman et al.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Binocular rivalry reveals an out-of-equilibrium neural dynamics suited for decision-making

    Robin Cao et al.
    The statistics of binocular rivalry at different combinations of image contrast is reproduced quantitatively by competing out-of-equilibrium populations of independent neural assemblies with idealized attractor dynamics.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Variation in the modality of a yeast signaling pathway is mediated by a single regulator

    Julius Palme et al.
    Yeast cells can tune the modality of a nutrient response on physiological and evolutionary timescales by adapting the expression and sequence of a sensor protein.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Galectin-9 regulates the threshold of B cell activation and autoimmunity

    Logan K Smith et al.
    Galectin-9-deficient mice develop spontaneous autoimmunity, driven by a decreased threshold of B cell activation and enhanced auto-antigen delivery to the spleen by increased B1a-derived autoantibodies.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cis-regulatory variants affect gene expression dynamics in yeast

    Ching-Hua Shih, Justin Fay
    Allele differences in gene expression dynamics are associated with insertions and deletions and are caused in part by multiple variants within the same promoter region.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Hsp40s play complementary roles in the prevention of tau amyloid formation

    Rose Irwin et al.
    Chaperones from different families and classes synergistically target different stages of tau aggregation, thus preventing pathological amyloid formation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Purkinje cell outputs selectively inhibit a subset of unipolar brush cells in the input layer of the cerebellar cortex

    Chong Guo et al.
    Purkinje cell collaterals regulate processing in the input layer of the cerebellum by providing fast stochastic GABAA-mediated and slow GABAB-mediated inhibition to a specialized subset of unipolar brush cells.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Neural mechanisms of modulations of empathy and altruism by beliefs of others’ pain

    Taoyu Wu, Shihui Han
    Beliefs of others’ pain provide a cognitive basis of human empathy and altruism by modulating empathic brain activity.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Naa12 compensates for Naa10 in mice in the amino-terminal acetylation pathway

    Hyae Yon Kweon et al.
    Mice doubly deficient for Naa10 and Naa12 display embryonic lethality, with both enzymes compensating for each other with amino-terminal acetylation of proteins in mouse development.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Unexpected plasticity in the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei

    Sarah Schuster et al.
    Parasite life cycles may be more flexible than traditionally thought, potentially allowing single-cell infections of insect vectors and transmission between hosts even at very low parasite densities.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Glypicans define unique roles for the Hedgehog co-receptors boi and ihog in cytoneme-mediated gradient formation

    Eléanor Simon et al.
    The glypicans Dally-like protein and Dally reveal functional non-redundancy of the Hedgehog co-receptors Boi and Ihog through independent interactions and specifically regulate cytoneme dynamics via the Ihog FNIII domain, thus setting long-range signaling.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Expanding the MECP2 network using comparative genomics reveals potential therapeutic targets for Rett syndrome

    Irene Unterman et al.
    A novel comparative genomics framework identifies MECP2 network proteins targeted by existing drugs, with three drugs validated in an in vitro Rett syndrome model.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Discovery and characterization of Hv1-type proton channels in reef-building corals

    Gisela Rangel-Yescas et al.
    Proton channels are present in reef-building corals and constitute important molecular players that should help understand calcification and the response of these organisms to ocean acidification.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The need for practical insecticide-resistance guidelines to effectively inform mosquito-borne disease control programs

    Alice Namias et al.
    With standardized insecticide-resistance assays failing to inform mosquito-control efficacy due to genotype-by-environment effects, practical resistance monitoring under relevant local conditions is needed to correlate resistance, mosquito-control efficacy, and disease epidemiology.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Met and Cxcr4 cooperate to protect skeletal muscle stem cells against inflammation-induced damage during regeneration

    Ines Lahmann et al.
    Met and Cxcr4 signaling protects muscle stem cells from the noxious environment during acute inflammation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Adipocyte NR1D1 dictates adipose tissue expansion during obesity

    Ann Louise Hunter et al.
    Clock protein NR1D1 regulates white adipose tissue expansion and development of obesity-related pathology.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Characterization of cephalic and non-cephalic sensory cell types provides insight into joint photo- and mechanoreceptor evolution

    Roger Revilla-i-Domingo et al.
    Molecular, cellular and behavioral genetic approaches in Platynereis dumerilii indicate that r-Opsins can act as ancient, light-dependent modulators of mechanosensation, and suggest that light-independent mechanosensory roles of r-Opsins evolved secondarily.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Unsupervised machine learning reveals key immune cell subsets in COVID-19, rhinovirus infection, and cancer therapy

    Sierra M Barone et al.
    Rare, virus-specific immune cells in human blood are automatically identified by machine learning algorithm T-REX and characterized for signature features needed for tracking and isolation.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Ancient viral genomes reveal introduction of human pathogenic viruses into Mexico during the transatlantic slave trade

    Axel A Guzmán-Solís et al.
    The characterization of ancient B19V and HBV genotype A4 viruses circulating during Colonial epidemics provides new insights into the pathogens that were introduced to the Americas after the European colonization.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Precise optical control of gene expression in C elegans using improved genetic code expansion and Cre recombinase

    Lloyd Davis et al.
    A method combining optimised genetic code expansion and optogenetics allows dissection of neural circuits with single-cell precision in freely moving animals.
    1. Medicine

    Risk of motor vehicle collisions after methadone use

    Ya-Hui Yang et al.
    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can alleviate opioid dependence, however, drivers receiving MMT were at high risk of motor vehicle collisions in the present study, particularly the first 90 days of MMT.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Evolution of diversity in metabolic strategies

    Rodrigo Caetano et al.
    Analytical and numerical analyses reveal that the number of coexisting species exceeds the number of resource only for the structurally unstable case of linear tradeoff.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    Ciliary and extraciliary Gpr161 pools repress hedgehog signaling in a tissue-specific manner

    Sun-Hee Hwang et al.
    Signaling specifically in cilia by a cAMP generating G-protein-coupled receptor directs tissue-specific morphogenesis.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Rolling controls sperm navigation in response to the dynamic rheological properties of the environment

    Meisam Zaferani et al.
    Rheological properties of the environment regulate sperm swimming and navigational behavior through suppression or reactivation of sperm rolling around its longitudinal axis.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Ciliary chemosensitivity is enhanced by cilium geometry and motility

    David Hickey et al.
    Chemical receptors located on cilia can achieve particle capture rates that are many times higher than receptors located on a flat epithelial surface.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Identification of abscission checkpoint bodies as structures that regulate ESCRT factors to control abscission timing

    Lauren K Williams et al.
    Cytoplasmic bodies sequester important abscission machinery to delay completion of cytokinesis in response to mitotic errors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Gjd2b-mediated gap junctions promote glutamatergic synapse formation and dendritic elaboration in Purkinje neurons

    Sahana Sitaraman et al.
    A protein that is a building block of intercellular bridges between neurons promotes their ability to grow dendrites and make synapses.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The genomic consequences of hybridization

    Benjamin M Moran et al.
    A synthesis of recent hybridization literature reveals emerging patterns in the evolution of genomes after hybridization, processes proposed to explain those patterns, and important open questions to direct future hybrid genomics research.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A low Smc flux avoids collisions and facilitates chromosome organization in Bacillus subtilis

    Anna Anchimiuk et al.
    Bacterial chromosome folding by DNA loop extrusion is here shown to rely on avoidance of SMC collisions by low SMC abundance, clustering of loading sites, efficient translocation, and rare unloading.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Endomembrane targeting of human OAS1 p46 augments antiviral activity

    Frank W Soveg et al.
    Prenylation of human oligoadenylate synthetase 1 isoform p46 mediates endomembrane targeting and increases its antiviral activity against positive-strand RNA viruses that utilize the host endomembrane system for replication.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    CLAMP and Zelda function together to promote Drosophila zygotic genome activation

    Jingyue Duan et al.
    Maternal CLAMP functions as a novel pioneer transcription factor to open chromatin and plays a targeted yet essential role in Drosophila zygotic genome activation.
    1. Cell Biology

    Selective dephosphorylation by PP2A-B55 directs the meiosis I-meiosis II transition in oocytes

    S Zachary Swartz et al.
    Time-course phosphoproteomics reveals that selective dephosphorylation is critical for directing the MI/MII transition and that, through its inherent phospho-threonine preference, PP2A-B55 imposes specific phosphoregulated behaviors that distinguish the two meiotic divisions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cortical magnification in human visual cortex parallels task performance around the visual field

    Noah C Benson et al.
    In humans, the surface area of early visual cortex across polar angle is distributed in a pattern that correlates strongly with radial asymmetries in behavioral performance on visual tasks.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Within-host evolutionary dynamics of seasonal and pandemic human influenza A viruses in young children

    Alvin X Han et al.
    The longer duration of seasonal influenza virus infection in young children may provide opportunities for within-host evolution as a result of maintenance of genetic diversity through mutation-selection balance.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Pharmacological rescue of impaired mitophagy in Parkinson’s disease-related LRRK2 G2019S knock-in mice

    Francois Singh et al.
    The most common Parkinson’s disease-associated mutation, LRRK2 G2019S, impairs mitophagy in clinically relevant cells within the mouse brain and this defect can be reversed using a novel LRRK2 inhibitor.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Instability in NAD+ metabolism leads to impaired cardiac mitochondrial function and communication

    Knut H Lauritzen et al.
    Transgenic mice and cell models provide evidence of a pathophysiological mechanism that connects mtDNA damage to cardiac dysfunction via reduced NAD+ levels and loss of mitochondrial function and communication.
    1. Neuroscience

    The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in reward valuation and future thinking during intertemporal choice

    Elisa Ciaramelli et al.
    During decisions between smaller-immediate rewards and larger rewards available in the future, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is critical to represent the value of rewards, not the future.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Role of direct and indirect social and spatial ties in the diffusion of HIV and HCV among people who inject drugs: a cross-sectional community-based network analysis in New Delhi, India

    Steven J Clipman et al.
    Beyond well-recognized individual-level risk factors, HIV and hepatitis C transmission among people who inject drugs are further impacted by social and spatial network composition, and spaces in particular may represent efficient means for disseminating interventions that diffuse through the network.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Medicine

    NICEdrug.ch, a workflow for rational drug design and systems-level analysis of drug metabolism

    Homa MohammadiPeyhani et al.
    NICEdrug.ch is a resource allowing systematic and large-scale computational analysis of drug biochemistry, enzymatic targets, and toxicity in the context of cellular metabolism.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    EPHX1 mutations cause a lipoatrophic diabetes syndrome due to impaired epoxide hydrolysis and increased cellular senescence

    Jeremie Gautheron et al.
    Disruption of epoxide hydrolysis inducing oxidative stress and cellular senescence is a novel mechanism responsible for lipoatrophic monogenic diabetes.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal cancer enhances TRAIL sensitivity via death receptor 4 upregulation and lipid raft localization

    Joshua D Greenlee et al.
    Oxaliplatin-resistant colorectal cancer cells exhibit unregulated death receptor 4 expression with increased receptor palmitoylation and translocation into lipid rafts, increasing their sensitivity to apoptosis via TRAIL.
    1. Neuroscience

    Physiological and motion signatures in static and time-varying functional connectivity and their subject identifiability

    Alba Xifra-Porxas et al.
    BOLD fMRI fluctuations induced by head motion and variations in cardiac and breathing activity lead to artifactual patterns in functional connectivity as well as recurrent patterns in time-varying functional connectivity.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    A precisely adjustable, variation-suppressed eukaryotic transcriptional controller to enable genetic discovery

    Asli Azizoglu et al.
    A new gene expression tool enables precise control of protein dosage over a large range and paves the way for new genetic discoveries.
    1. Neuroscience

    An oscillating computational model can track pseudo-rhythmic speech by using linguistic predictions

    Sanne ten Oever, Andrea E Martin
    An oscillating computational model combined with a predictive internal linguistic model can track naturally timed speech in which pseudo-rhythmicity is related to the predictability of words within their sentence context.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The development of Nanosota-1 as anti-SARS-CoV-2 nanobody drug candidates

    Gang Ye et al.
    Potent and low-cost Nanosota-1 drug candidates block SARS-CoV-2 infections in vitro and in animal models and act preventively and therapeutically.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Natural variation in the consequences of gene overexpression and its implications for evolutionary trajectories

    DeElegant Robinson et al.
    The genetic background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains influences responses to gene overexpression.
    1. Neuroscience

    Interpreting wide-band neural activity using convolutional neural networks

    Markus Frey et al.
    A novel deep-learning framework shows how to interpret and decode raw neural recordings, avoiding the need for strong prior hypotheses, revealing a novel representation of head direction.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of splicing factor SRSF1 is required for development and cilia function

    Fiona Haward et al.
    A mouse model where the splicing factor SRSF1 was prevented from accumulating in the cytoplasm revealed reduced translation of thousands of mRNAs and postnatal phenotypes particularly affecting multiciliated cells.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Deep learning detects cardiotoxicity in a high-content screen with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Francis Grafton et al.
    Deep learning combined with induced pluripotent stem cell technology is an effective method to interrogate cellular phenotypes and predict patterns of cardiotoxicity in vitro.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Uniparental nuclear inheritance following bisexual mating in fungi

    Vikas Yadav et al.
    Discovery of a novel mode of sexual reproduction, termed pseudosexual reproduction, in fungi where both parents are required for mating but only one contributes to the meiotic progeny, similar to hybridogenesis in animals.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Contrasting effects of Western vs Mediterranean diets on monocyte inflammatory gene expression and social behavior in a primate model

    Corbin SC Johnson et al.
    Modern human diet patterns alter primate behavior and monocyte gene expression leading to monocyte polarization–experimental evidence of the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis.