April 2021

Image credit: Marzia Munafo

Research articles

    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    De novo macrocyclic peptides dissect energy coupling of a heterodimeric ABC transporter by multimode allosteric inhibition

    Erich Stefan et al.
    By random nonstandard peptide integrated discovery, combinatorial macrocyclic peptides were leavaged that target a heterodimeric ABC transport complex and explore fundamental principles of the substrate translocation cycle.
    1. Neuroscience

    Response-based outcome predictions and confidence regulate feedback processing and learning

    Romy Frömer et al.
    Computational modeling, and empirical behavioral and EEG results show that learning relies not only on comparing current events to past experience, but integrates response-based outcome predictions and confidence.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    IL-33 promotes innate lymphoid cell-dependent IFN-γ production required for innate immunity to Toxoplasma gondii

    Joseph T Clark et al.
    Upon Toxoplasma gondii infection, IL-33 plays a critical role in driving early anti-parasite responses by innate lymphoid cells rendered responsive to its effects by infection.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    CD8+ T cell self-tolerance permits responsiveness but limits tissue damage

    Emily N Truckenbrod et al.
    Identification and characterization of the responses of T lymphocytes that are specific for 'self' tissue antigens, revealing the functional limits of immune tolerance.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    The transcription factor Rreb1 regulates epithelial architecture, invasiveness, and vasculogenesis in early mouse embryos

    Sophie M Morgani et al.
    Loss of the transcription factor Rreb1 results perturbs epithelial architecture during mouse development resulting in invasive cell behaviors, severe cardiovascular defects, and embryonic lethality.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Flagellar energetics from high-resolution imaging of beating patterns in tethered mouse sperm

    Ashwin Nandagiri et al.
    Calculations of flagellar energetics from beating patterns in sperm reveal that internal dissipation by dynein motors and other passive structures within the flagellum significantly exceeds external hydrodynamic dissipation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Epigenetic analysis of Paget’s disease of bone identifies differentially methylated loci that predict disease status

    Ilhame Diboun et al.
    PDB-associated differences in DNA methylation are reproducible and reflect key environmental modulators of bone homeostasis including viral processes, vitamin D metabolism, as well as mechanical sheer load.
    1. Neuroscience

    EEG-based detection of the locus of auditory attention with convolutional neural networks

    Servaas Vandecappelle et al.
    Convolutional neural networks can decode whether a person is listening to a speaker on the left or right solely from 1 to 2s of EEG data.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Molecular insights into substrate recognition and discrimination by the N-terminal domain of Lon AAA+ protease

    Shiou-Ru Tzeng et al.
    The N-terminal domains enable Lon protease to discriminate and capture selected protein species for degradation by exposed hydrophobic patches and flexible linkages to the hexameric core complex.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    ImmunoCluster provides a computational framework for the nonspecialist to profile high-dimensional cytometry data

    James W Opzoomer et al.
    ImmunoCluster permits nonspecialist users to interrogate liquid and imaging mass, and flow cytometry datasets, resolving novel layers of cellular heterogeneity and insight, as well as producing publishable outputs and figures.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    TAZ-CAMTA1 and YAP-TFE3 alter the TAZ/YAP transcriptome by recruiting the ATAC histone acetyltransferase complex

    Nicole Merritt et al.
    The C terminal fusion partners of TAZ-CAMTA1, YAP-TFE3 and potentially other TAZ/YAP fusion proteins in cancer recruit epigenetic modifiers that modulate a baseline TEAD-based transcriptional program.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    ZC3H4 restricts non-coding transcription in human cells

    Chris Estell et al.
    An unbiased proteomics approach in human cells identifies ZC3H4 and shows that it is important for controlling the transcription of unstable RNA synthesized upstream of promoters and over enhancers.
    1. Neuroscience

    GABAB receptor auxiliary subunits modulate Cav2.3-mediated release from medial habenula terminals

    Pradeep Bhandari et al.
    The direct interaction of R-type Ca2+ channel Cav2.3 and GABAB receptor auxiliary subunits in the active zone of medial habenula terminals scales synaptic strength independent of GABAB receptor activation.
    1. Neuroscience

    The causal role of auditory cortex in auditory working memory

    Liping Yu et al.
    Auditory cortex is essential for information encoding and maintenance in auditory working memory, especially during the early delay period.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    eNOS-induced vascular barrier disruption in retinopathy by c-Src activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin

    Takeshi Ninchoji et al.
    Vascular leakage from pathological vessels in retinopathy aggravates the disease, but endothelial junction stability and barrier integrity can be restored by blocking formation of nitric oxide.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Common virulence gene expression in adult first-time infected malaria patients and severe cases

    J Stephan Wichers et al.
    Parasites with pathogenic variant surface antigens are common in adult malaria patients with a naive immune status.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The final step of 40S ribosomal subunit maturation is controlled by a dual key lock

    Laura Plassart et al.
    Cryo-EM and functional studies reveal how combined action of proteins RPS26/eS26 and RIO1 allows late precursors to the human small ribosomal particle to be matured into fully translation-competent 40S subunits.
    1. Cell Biology

    Compartment-specific opioid receptor signaling is selectively modulated by different dynorphin peptides

    Jennifer M Kunselman et al.
    Different dynorphins, which signal similarly from the cell surface, can differentially localize G protein-coupled receptors to specific subcellular compartments and cause divergent receptor fates and distinct spatiotemporal patterns of signaling.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Optimal evolutionary decision-making to store immune memory

    Oskar H Schnaack, Armita Nourmohammad
    Actively regulated immune memory differentiation, with a preference for cross-reactive receptors with moderate affinity against pathogens as opposed to high-affinity receptors, confers a long-term benefit to the host.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Electrical synaptic transmission requires a postsynaptic scaffolding protein

    Abagael M Lasseigne et al.
    A postsynaptic, intracellular, scaffolding protein is necessary to build neuronal gap junctions, revealing an unanticipated complexity of molecular and functional organization of electrical synapses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural effects of propofol-induced unconsciousness and its reversal using thalamic stimulation

    André M Bastos et al.
    Understanding how general anesthesia changes neural dynamics in the cortex and thalamus can lead to its safer use and shed light on the nature of consciousness.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Simple biochemical features underlie transcriptional activation domain diversity and dynamic, fuzzy binding to Mediator

    Adrian L Sanborn et al.
    Transcriptional activation domains achieve rapid, dynamic, specific interaction with Mediator through binding of an unstructured peptide to multiple hydrophobic surfaces without particular amino acid side chain interactions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Medical education and distrust modulate the response of insular-cingulate network and ventral striatum in pain diagnosis

    Giada Dirupo et al.
    Behavioral and neural data converge in showing that medical experience reduces reactions to others' pain and distrust toward the target affects the processing of his feedback.
    1. Neuroscience

    GABAA presynaptic inhibition regulates the gain and kinetics of retinal output neurons

    Jenna Nagy et al.
    Elimination of GABAA receptors from the axon terminals of specific retinal bipolar cell types alters the sensitivity and kinetics of retinal output.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    The mechanism underlying transient weakness in myotonia congenita

    Jessica H Myers et al.
    Transient weakness in myotonia congenita is caused by depolarization secondary to activation of persistent Na+ current in skeletal muscle.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Chloroplast acquisition without the gene transfer in kleptoplastic sea slugs, Plakobranchus ocellatus

    Taro Maeda et al.
    The newly opened genome of a kleptoplastic mollusk, Plakobranchus ocellatus, indicated that sequestered plastids retain their activity within the animal cell without horizontal algal gene transfer to the animal nucleus.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Protomer alignment modulates specificity of RNA substrate recognition by Ire1

    Weihan Li et al.
    Biochemical analysis and computational modeling reveal how cells mechanistically control the quality of their proteomes and demonstrate that the precise alignment of subunits in oligomeric complexes can profoundly affect enzymatic properties.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Quantitative analyses reveal extracellular dynamics of Wnt ligands in Xenopus embryos

    Yusuke Mii et al.
    Wnt distribution is regulated by a dynamic exchange of its abundant scaffold-bound and rare freely diffusing populations, providing insights into a conceived dilemma of speed and stability of tissue patterning.
    1. Neuroscience

    Variability in the Munc13-1 content of excitatory release sites

    Maria Rita Karlocai et al.
    Different numbers of Munc13-1 molecules build up the specialized regions of the presynaptic plasma membrane called the release sites.
    1. Medicine

    Asprosin-neutralizing antibodies as a treatment for metabolic syndrome

    Ila Mishra et al.
    Anti-asprosin monoclonal antibodies, a promising pharmacotherapy for the treatment of metabolic syndrome-associated hyperglycemia, obesity, and dyslipidemia.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Vascular-derived SPARC and SerpinE1 regulate interneuron tangential migration and accelerate functional maturation of human stem cell-derived interneurons

    Matthieu Genestine et al.
    Species-specific timing of interneuron migration across mice and humans is regulated by two vascular-derived factors, SPARC and SerpinE1.
    1. Cell Biology

    Adiponectin preserves metabolic fitness during aging

    Na Li et al.
    Adiponectin is an essential regulator for healthspan and is indispensable for sustaining a normal lifespan.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Single mosquito metatranscriptomics identifies vectors, emerging pathogens and reservoirs in one assay

    Joshua Batson et al.
    How large-scale single mosquito metatranscriptomics can define the mosquito’s complex microbiota and its blood meal sources, and contribute critical epidemiological information needed to control vector borne disease transmission, is shown.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    CRISPR-based functional genomics in human dendritic cells

    Marco Jost et al.
    A CRISPR-based method enables targeted knockouts and genetic screens in human dendritic cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Constructing an adult orofacial premotor atlas in Allen mouse CCF

    Jun Takatoh et al.
    A new three-step monosynaptic premotor tracing strategy in adult mice, together with registration to the Allen mouse common coordinate framework, uncovered precise spatial relationships of distinct orofacial premotor circuits in the brainstem.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    HIV-1 uncoating by release of viral cDNA from capsid-like structures in the nucleus of infected cells

    Thorsten G Müller et al.
    HIV-1 capsids enter the host cell nucleus, where they are partially disrupted to release the viral genome upon completion of reverse transcription.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Plant Biology

    Widespread premature transcription termination of Arabidopsis thaliana NLR genes by the spen protein FPA

    Matthew T Parker et al.
    The expression of Arabidopsis NLR immune response genes is modulated by premature transcription termination, and this has implications for understanding NLR regulation and evolutionary dynamics.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Methionine restriction breaks obligatory coupling of cell proliferation and death by an oncogene Src in Drosophila

    Hiroshi Nishida et al.
    Src, an oncogene, promotes both cell proliferation and cell death simultaneously, which can be regulated by dietary methionine.
    1. Cell Biology

    A robust method for particulate detection of a genetic tag for 3D electron microscopy

    James Rae et al.
    Development of a new system for gold particle detection of a genetic tag for electron microscopy.
    1. Neuroscience

    Attenuated dopamine signaling after aversive learning is restored by ketamine to rescue escape actions

    Mingzheng Wu et al.
    Interconnected ventral tegmental area and medial prefrontal cortex circuits causally link dopamine dynamics, aversive learning, and the effects of a promising rapidly acting antidepressant ketamine.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Toxoplasma TgATG9 is critical for autophagy and long-term persistence in tissue cysts

    David Smith et al.
    ATG9-dependent autophagy is an essential pathway for long-term survival within the cyst in the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and could be exploited in future studies seeking interventions against persistent Toxoplasma infection.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Mechanistic theory predicts the effects of temperature and humidity on inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and other enveloped viruses

    Dylan H Morris et al.
    Viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, retain infectivity longer at low temperatures and extreme relative humidities because these conditions slow down the chemical reactions that inactivate those viruses.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    An agnostic study of associations between ABO and RhD blood group and phenome-wide disease risk

    Torsten Dahlén et al.
    The relationship between blood groups and disease is detangled, without preconceived ideas, using population-wide data, with millions of participants and lifetime follow-up, identifying not only previously known relationships but also new insights.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    High infectiousness immediately before COVID-19 symptom onset highlights the importance of continued contact tracing

    William S Hart et al.
    Fitting a mechanistic model to data from SARS-CoV-2 source-recipient pairs generates improved estimates of changes in infectiousness during infection, indicating substantial transmission shortly before symptom onset.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Medicine

    A Mendelian randomization study of the role of lipoprotein subfractions in coronary artery disease

    Qingyuan Zhao et al.
    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction traits appear to have heterogeneous effects on coronary artery disease, giving support to the HDL function hypothesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Learning excitatory-inhibitory neuronal assemblies in recurrent networks

    Owen Mackwood et al.
    The synaptic structure in mouse V1 is explained by a synergy of homeostatic plasticity in incoming and outgoing synapses of inhibitory interneurons, establishing a stimulus-specific balance of excitation and inhibition.
    1. Ecology
    2. Neuroscience

    Probing the decision-making mechanisms underlying choice between drug and nondrug rewards in rats

    Youna Vandaele et al.
    In a drug choice setting, rats’ preference is initially driven by deliberative processes but shifts to more automatic selection processes after extended training, in accordance with the sequential choice model.
    1. Neuroscience

    DIAPH3 deficiency links microtubules to mitotic errors, defective neurogenesis, and brain dysfunction

    Eva On-Chai Lau et al.
    DIAPH3 safeguards integrity of microtubule cytoskeleton during division of neural progenitor cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Two opposite voltage-dependent currents control the unusual early development pattern of embryonic Renshaw cell electrical activity

    Juliette Boeri et al.
    A simple mechanism, based on the synergy of two major opposing voltage-dependent currents that are ubiquitous in neurons, produces functional diversity of developing Renshaw cells in the embryo.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    How cells determine the number of polarity sites

    Jian-geng Chiou et al.
    Minimal essential features of Rho GTPase systems are elucidated that regulate the number of distinct domains developed by a cell’s polarity machinery, which in turn governs cell shape.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Trading mental effort for confidence in the metacognitive control of value-based decision-making

    Douglas G Lee, Jean Daunizeau
    Intra-individual variability in choice, response time, subjective effort, confidence, and choice-induced preference change and certainty gain is explained by a cost–benefit model of cognitive resource allocation.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    The biomechanical role of extra-axonemal structures in shaping the flagellar beat of Euglena gracilis

    Giancarlo Cicconofri et al.
    The 'spinning lasso' geometry of Euglena's beating flagellum is revealed, and a model based on the antagonistic forces exchanged by axoneme and paraflagellar rod is proposed to explain its emergence.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Selection for increased tibia length in mice alters skull shape through parallel changes in developmental mechanisms

    Colton M Unger et al.
    Artificial selection for increased tibia length in mice made their skulls longer, narrower, and flatter, suggesting that even distant skeletal regions can evolve as correlated responses to selection acting locally.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Defects in translation-dependent quality control pathways lead to convergent molecular and neurodevelopmental pathology

    Markus Terrey et al.
    Disruption of quality control pathways that function at distinct steps to mitigate errors in translation evoke similar cellular responses and pathologies.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Sensing the world and its dangers: An evolutionary perspective in neuroimmunology

    Aurora Kraus et al.
    The investigation of neuroimmunology in non-model organisms is critical to diversify the field and identify primordial principles that govern neuroimmune communication across taxa.
    1. Neuroscience

    Pruriception and neuronal coding in nociceptor subtypes in human and nonhuman primates

    Amanda Klein et al.
    MRGPRD and MRGRPX1 are co-expressed in primate DRG neurons, but β-alanine and BAM8-22, preferentially activate CMH-subclasses, and co-activating different cutaneous nociceptors by pruritogens does not change itch sensation to pain.
    1. Cell Biology

    SARS-CoV-2 requires cholesterol for viral entry and pathological syncytia formation

    David W Sanders et al.
    A high-throughput microscopy screen for drugs that modulate SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated membrane fusion identifies an essential role for cholesterol in both virus entry and syncytia formation.
    1. Cell Biology

    Tyramine induces dynamic RNP granule remodeling and translation activation in the Drosophila brain

    Nadia Formicola et al.
    Tyramine-dependent signaling triggers decondensation of neuronal RNP components and rapid translation activation of target mRNAs.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Transcriptional profiling of mouse peripheral nerves to the single-cell level to build a sciatic nerve ATlas (SNAT)

    Daniel Gerber et al.
    Establishing transcriptional profiles of nerve-inhabitant cells as resource to foster the fundamental understanding of peripheral nerves.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Post-transcriptional repression of circadian component CLOCK regulates cancer-stemness in murine breast cancer cells

    Takashi Ogino et al.
    The expression of the major circadian component CLOCK is a key regulator of stemness in breast cancer cells, which can be a novel strategy for breast cancer treatment.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Co-regulation and function of FOXM1/RHNO1 bidirectional genes in cancer

    Carter J Barger et al.
    FOXM1 is co-expressed with its bidirectional gene partner RHNO1, and the two genes promote DNA repair, cell growth and survival, and chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Ongoing repair of migration-coupled DNA damage allows planarian adult stem cells to reach wound sites

    Sounak Sahu et al.
    Adult stem cells acquire increased DNA damage as they migrate to a wound site and require active DNA repair mechanisms for normal migration.
    1. Neuroscience

    Anticipation of temporally structured events in the brain

    Caroline S Lee et al.
    The brain contains a hierarchy of anticipatory signals, with more anterior regions showing anticipation that reaches further into the future.
    1. Neuroscience

    High-resolution imaging of skin deformation shows that afferents from human fingertips signal slip onset

    Benoit P Delhaye et al.
    Synchronous recording of skin deformations at the contact with a transparent surface and of tactile afferents from the fingertip reveals that afferents signal incipient slip.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Identification of functionally distinct macrophage subpopulations in Drosophila

    Jonathon Alexis Coates et al.
    Drosophila macrophages are a heterogeneous population of cells containing subpopulations with enhanced responses to injury that display considerable variation in their abundance across development.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The cis-regulatory effects of modern human-specific variants

    Carly V Weiss et al.
    A genome-wide catalog of the regulatory effects of variants that separate modern humans from archaic humans.
    1. Cell Biology

    UBTD1 regulates ceramide balance and endolysosomal positioning to coordinate EGFR signaling

    Stéphanie Torrino et al.
    UBTD1 coordinates EGFR signaling by modulating ceramides level through ASAH1 ubiquitination and EGFR degradation through SQSTM1/p62 ubiquitination, which together impact cell proliferation.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Confinement discerns swarmers from planktonic bacteria

    Weijie Chen et al.
    For the same bacterial strain, the swarming phenotype can be biophysically discerned from swimming phenotype based on the motion pattern under circular confinement on a soft agar.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    T cell self-reactivity during thymic development dictates the timing of positive selection

    Lydia K Lutes et al.
    Developing T cells whose TCRs have relatively low reactivity experience very brief TCR signaling events, experience delayed positive selection, and retaina preselection gene expression signature as they mature.
    1. Neuroscience

    Corollary discharge promotes a sustained motor state in a neural circuit for navigation

    Ni Ji et al.
    A primary sensory interneuron in the thermotaxis circuit of C. elegans integrates sensory input and corollary discharge to drive persistent navigational states and movement towards preferred environments.
    1. Neuroscience

    Creating and controlling visual environments using BonVision

    Gonçalo Lopes et al.
    BonVision is an open-source software for real-time rendering and control of 2D and 3D visual environments that also enables easy replication of experiments.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Differences in interactions between transmembrane domains tune the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors

    Jordana K Thibado et al.
    Homo- and heterodimeric group II metabotropic glutamate receptors show diverse modes of interaction between transmembrane domains that control their distinct assembly and activation properties.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Tissue-specific modulation of gene expression in response to lowered insulin signalling in Drosophila

    Luke Stephen Tain et al.
    Multi-omic profiling of gene expression in response to reduced insulin/IGF-like-signalling reveals tissue-specific regulation of DNA damage and lysosomal mannosidase regulation of tissue homeostasis as pro-longevity responses.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    Bacterial–fungal interactions in the neonatal gut influence asthma outcomes later in life

    Rozlyn CT Boutin et al.
    Overgrowth of the yeast Pichia kudriavzevii within the neonatal gut microbiota increases allergic airway disease severity later in life and may be inhibited by short-chain fatty acids.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    A cross-sectional study of functional and metabolic changes during aging through the lifespan in male mice

    Michael A Petr et al.
    A comprehensive cross-sectional assessment reveals functional decline in mice consistent with increased energetic cost of physical activity with age through metabolic rewiring in multiple organs.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    The biphasic and age-dependent impact of klotho on hallmarks of aging and skeletal muscle function

    Zachary Clemens et al.
    Transcriptomic analysis using a novel information-based network entropy approach provides mechanistic insights into the ability of Klotho to successfully ameliorate age-related sarcopenia in old mice, but not oldest-old mice.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    In vitro proteasome processing of neo-splicetopes does not predict their presentation in vivo

    Gerald Willimsky et al.
    Analysis of neo-splicetope-specific T cell responses strongly questions the idea that in vitro proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing reaction simulates the in vivo situation with the same high fidelity as the in vitro generation of non-spliced epitopes.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Characterization and functional analysis of cathelicidin-MH, a novel frog-derived peptide with anti-septicemic properties

    Jinwei Chai et al.
    The novel cathelicidin cathelicidin-MH was identified from the skin of M. heymonsivogt frog, which protects against lipopolysaccharide- and cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis, effectively ameliorates multi-organ pathology, especially in lung.
    1. Medicine

    Sensitivity of ID NOW and RT–PCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in an ambulatory population

    Yuan-Po Tu et al.
    Although the ID NOW platform is less sensitive than RT–PCR for identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it provides high positive and negative predictive values in low-prevalence populations.
    1. Medicine

    Insights from a Pan India Sero-Epidemiological survey (Phenome-India Cohort) for SARS-CoV2

    Salwa Naushin et al.
    Widespread asymptomatic SARS-CoV2 infection affected nearly 100 million Indians by September 2020 with a subsequent decline in new cases, which may be attributable to increased population immunity, albeit seeing reduced neutralization activity at 6 months this respite may be temporary.
    1. Neuroscience

    Robust and distributed neural representation of action values

    Eun Ju Shin et al.
    Action-value signals previously found in many brain areas can be accounted for neither by concurrent serial correlations in neural activity and action value nor by signals for other decision variables.
    1. Ecology

    Plant-associated CO2 mediates long-distance host location and foraging behaviour of a root herbivore

    Carla CM Arce et al.
    The larvae of the western corn rootworm use root-emitted CO2 to successfully locate the most suitable host plant.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Ecology

    Nutrient dominance governs the assembly of microbial communities in mixed nutrient environments

    Sylvie Estrela et al.
    There are regularities in how specific nutrients combine together to shape the taxonomic composition of self-assembled communities, with some types of nutrients dominating other types.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Therapeutic inhibition of keratinocyte TRPV3 sensory channel by local anesthetic dyclonine

    Qiang Liu et al.
    Identifying and understanding that local anesthetic dyclonine targets TRPV3 channels will help to conceive therapeutic interventions.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Competitive binding of STATs to receptor phospho-Tyr motifs accounts for altered cytokine responses

    Stephan Wilmes et al.
    IL-27 exerts differential activation of STAT1 and STAT3 via IL-27Ra and GP130, respectively, leading to a kinetic decoupling of its gene expression program, which contributes to tune its immuno-modulatory activities.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Downregulation of glial genes involved in synaptic function mitigates Huntington's disease pathogenesis

    Tarik Seref Onur et al.
    Cross-species transcriptomic analysis and high-throughput behavioral assays in a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease show that downregulation of glial genes involved in synaptic function compensates for disease-related excitotoxicity.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Repeated introductions and intensive community transmission fueled a mumps virus outbreak in Washington State

    Louise H Moncla et al.
    Social networks can be the primary risk factor for mumps infection and transmission, regardless of age and vaccination status.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of HIV-1 gp41 with its membrane anchors targeted by neutralizing antibodies

    Christophe Caillat et al.
    The structure of gp41with its membrane anchors highlights the flexible linkage of the transmembrane regions and the fuson peptides, which generates an asymmetric conformation, a potential target of MPER bNAbs.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spontaneous and evoked activity patterns diverge over development

    Lilach Avitan et al.
    Spontaneous and evoked patterns of neural activity in the larval zebrafish tectum become less similar over development, in contrast with a previous hypothesis for the computational role of spontaneous activity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genetic determinants facilitating the evolution of resistance to carbapenem antibiotics

    Peijun Ma et al.
    High-level transposon insertional mutagenesis and a broader spectrum of resistance-conferring mutations for selected carbapenems facilitate the evolution of carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumonia clinical isolates.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Evolutionarily conserved sperm factors, DCST1 and DCST2, are required for gamete fusion

    Naokazu Inoue et al.
    Mammalian fertilization is accomplished through integrating various molecular pathways that include evolutionarily conserved factors, DCST1 and DCST2.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Defective apoptotic cell contractility provokes sterile inflammation, leading to liver damage and tumour suppression

    Linda Julian et al.
    In the absence of ROCK1 activation by caspases, apoptotic cells don’t undergo typical morphological changes, leading to sterile inflammation in the liver that increases tissue damage and suppresses tumor formation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    DCC regulates astroglial development essential for telencephalic morphogenesis and corpus callosum formation

    Laura Morcom et al.
    Axon guidance molecules DCC and NTN1 regulate astroglial-mediated interhemispheric remodelling required for corpus callosum formation in humans and mice.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Multiscale analysis of single and double maternal-zygotic Myh9 and Myh10 mutants during mouse preimplantation development

    Markus Frederik Schliffka et al.
    During mouse preimplantation development, the complete loss of actomyosin contractility abolishes cytokinesis but not apico-basal polarisation, lineage specification, or fluid accumulation, which are the critical steps to the formation of the blastocyst.
    1. Neuroscience

    Rapid recycling of glutamate transporters on the astroglial surface

    Piotr Michaluk et al.
    Rapid membrane turnover is the main 'redeployment' route for the immobile fraction of surface-expressed astroglial glutamate transporters that confine excitatory transmission to the synaptic cleft.
    1. Cell Biology

    The Nesprin-1/-2 ortholog ANC-1 regulates organelle positioning in C. elegans independently from its KASH or actin-binding domains

    Hongyan Hao et al.
    The giant KASH protein ANC-1 maintains the integrity of the cytoplasm to anchor nuclei, ER, and other organelles within the cell.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Live-cell single-molecule tracking highlights requirements for stable Smc5/6 chromatin association in vivo

    Thomas J Etheridge et al.
    In vivo single-molecule imaging demonstrates that Smc5/6 chromatin association depends on ATP hydrolysis and dsDNA binding, requires Nse6 and is modulated by Brc1 after DNA damage.
    1. Neuroscience

    Synaptic learning rules for sequence learning

    Eric Torsten Reifenstein et al.
    Through mathematical analysis and computer simulations, the neuronal underpinnings of feasible models of sequence learning are delineated.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    A convolutional neural network for the prediction and forward design of ribozyme-based gene-control elements

    Calvin M Schmidt, Christina D Smolke
    Machine learning has been applied to develop predictive models for designing RNA gene-control elements with targeted gene-regulatory activities.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Improving oligo-conjugated antibody signal in multimodal single-cell analysis

    Terkild B Buus et al.
    Oligo-conjugated antibodies are a powerful tool but require thorough optimization to reduce background signal, increase sensitivity, and reduce sequencing costs.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Heterogeneity in transmissibility and shedding SARS-CoV-2 via droplets and aerosols

    Paul Z Chen et al.
    Broader case variation in respiratory viral load, and in shedding virus via droplets and aerosols, for SARS-CoV-2 than influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 facilitates greater transmission heterogeneity in the COVID-19 pandemic than the 2009 flu pandemic.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neuronal complexity is attenuated in preclinical models of migraine and restored by HDAC6 inhibition

    Zachariah Bertels et al.
    In models of chronic migraine, neuronal complexity is diminished in head-pain processing regions but restored through HDAC6 inhibition, which increases tubulin acetylation and cytoskeletal flexibility, and CGRP receptor blockade.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Inverse regulation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm dispersal by polyamine signals

    Andrew A Bridges, Bonnie L Bassler
    The global pathogen Vibrio cholerae monitors environmental polyamines to garner information about numbers of ‘self’ versus ‘other’ in the vicinity, and in response, to remain or disperse from biofilms.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Exceptional stability of a perilipin on lipid droplets depends on its polar residues, suggesting multimeric assembly

    Manuel Giménez-Andrés et al.
    The amphipathic helix of perilipin 4 relies on the organization of its polar residues to form a remarkably immobile and stable protein layer on the surface of lipid droplets.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Coordination between nucleotide excision repair and specialized polymerase DnaE2 action enables DNA damage survival in non-replicating bacteria

    Asha Mary Joseph et al.
    Live-cell imaging shows that replication-independent specialized polymerase action is a consequence of lesion processing via NER and impacts cellular survival under stress outside replicative phases of the cell cycle.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Channel nuclear pore complex subunits are required for transposon silencing in Drosophila

    Marzia Munafò et al.
    By linking export and licensing of a piRNA precursor transcript, channel nuclear pore complex subunits Nup54 and Nup58 are specifically required to silence transposons in the Drosophila ovary.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    PMCA-generated prions from the olfactory mucosa of patients with Fatal Familial Insomnia cause prion disease in mice

    Edoardo Bistaffa et al.
    The olfactory mucosa of patients with fatal familial insomnia contains traces of infectious prions, and their analyses could support the clinical diagnosis and elucidate disease-specific mechanisms.
    1. Neuroscience

    Circuit organization of the excitatory sensorimotor loop through hand/forelimb S1 and M1

    Naoki Yamawaki et al.
    Cell-type-specific circuit analysis reveals a highly polysynaptic pattern of excitatory feedforward connections along the somatosensory-to-motor loop, from cuneate via VPL thalamus to S1 and M1 cortex and corticospinal neurons.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Microbiota-derived short chain fatty acids modulate microglia and promote Aβ plaque deposition

    Alessio Vittorio Colombo et al.
    Experiments in a mouse model for Alzheimer’s disease using germ-free and conventionally housed animals reveal that microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids promote the deposition of cerebral Aβ plaques.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    AAV-Txnip prolongs cone survival and vision in mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa

    Yunlu Xue et al.
    AAV-Txnip prolongs vision in mouse models of blindness, enhancing lactate catabolism, mitochondrial health, and ATP production in a condition that likely has a limited glucose supply.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Allosteric communication in DNA polymerase clamp loaders relies on a critical hydrogen-bonded junction

    Subu Subramanian et al.
    Deep mutagenesis of a clamp-loader complex reveals a critical hydrogen-bonded junction that is important for allosteric communication in oligomeric AAA+ ATPases.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Converting endogenous genes of the malaria mosquito into simple non-autonomous gene drives for population replacement

    Astrid Hoermann et al.
    Minimal genetic modifications of endogenous mosquito genes allow the tissue-specific expression of anti-malarial effectors and convert them into efficient non-autonomous gene drives.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Cell competition removes segmental aneuploid cells from Drosophila imaginal disc-derived tissues based on ribosomal protein gene dose

    Zhejun Ji et al.
    Cell competition is an important mechanism selecting against aneuploid cells.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Lipoprotein DolP supports proper folding of BamA in the bacterial outer membrane promoting fitness upon envelope stress

    David Ranava et al.
    The envelope stress factor DolP associates with the outer membrane protein assembly machinery and supports proper folding and functioning of BamA contributing to preserve envelope integrity.
    1. Cell Biology

    A genetic screen identifies new steps in oocyte maturation that enhance proteostasis in the immortal germ lineage

    Madhuja Samaddar et al.
    A whole-genome genetic screen links new aspects of oocyte maturation to proteostasis renewal in the immortal Caenorhabditis elegans germ-cell lineage and reveals similarities to somatic cell maintenance during aging.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Membrane binding controls ordered self-assembly of animal septins

    Agata Szuba et al.
    Nanoscaleimaging reveals that animal septins form dense filamentous networks on biomimeticlipid membranes, explaining how septins may regulate cell surface rigidity.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Associations of topic-specific peer review outcomes and institute and center award rates with funding disparities at the National Institutes of Health

    Michael S Lauer et al.
    An analysis of peer review and funding outcomes of NIH research applications shows that funding disparities of topics preferred by African American Black investigators are not due to peer review preferences or biases.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Mouse aging cell atlas analysis reveals global and cell type-specific aging signatures

    Martin Jinye Zhang et al.
    Comprehensive single-cell transcriptome analysis reveals global and tissue-specific aging markers and characterizes the heterogeneous aging status of different cell types and tissues in mouse.
    1. Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Quantifying noxious-evoked baseline sensitivity in neonates to optimise analgesic trials

    Maria M Cobo et al.
    Measuring individual differences in noxious-evoked baseline sensitivity in neonates can substantially reduce sample sizes required in neonatal analgesic trials.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Distinct clonal evolution of B-cells in HIV controllers with neutralizing antibody breadth

    Deniz Cizmeci et al.
    Extended somatic hypermutation and clonal evolution associated with antibody neutralization breath in HIV controllers with low plasma viral loads provide promise for HIV vaccine development.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The essential role of Dnmt1 in gametogenesis in the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

    Joshua T Washington et al.
    The maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 is required for the transition of spermatogonia to spermatocytes both during larval testis development and adult sperm replenishment in the insect Oncopeltus fasciatus.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct neuronal populations contribute to trace conditioning and extinction learning in the hippocampal CA1

    Rebecca A Mount et al.
    Large-scale imaging analysis of CA1 reveals that distinct neural networks are involved in trace conditioning versus extinction learning, shedding light on how the hippocampus encodes different types of memory.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Molecular tracking devices quantify antigen distribution and archiving in the murine lymph node

    Shannon M Walsh et al.
    Antigen-phosphorothioate DNA conjugation provides a vaccination strategy where stable barcodes facilitate the detection and quantification of antigen using single-cell RNA sequencing.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Morphological and genomic shifts in mole-rat ‘queens’ increase fecundity but reduce skeletal integrity

    Rachel A Johnston et al.
    In cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats, transitioning to 'queen' results in extensive gene regulatory and morphological remodeling, but also costs to skeletal integrity that scale with reproductive investment.
    1. Neuroscience

    Gamma rhythms and visual information in mouse V1 specifically modulated by somatostatin+ neurons in reticular thalamus

    Mahmood S Hoseini et al.
    Gamma rhythms and representation of visual information in the primary visual cortex are specifically modulated by somatostatin+ but not parvalbumin+ neurons in reticular thalamic nucleus.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Robo recruitment of the Wave regulatory complex plays an essential and conserved role in midline repulsion

    Karina Chaudhari et al.
    Axon repulsion in response to the midline repellent slit depends on an evolutionary conserved interaction between the Roundabout receptor and the wave regulatory complex.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Medicine

    Effects of an urban sanitation intervention on childhood enteric infection and diarrhea in Maputo, Mozambique: A controlled before-and-after trial

    Jackie Knee et al.
    Onsite sanitation maybe insufficient to interrupt transmission of enteric infections in high-burden urban settings, though risk of some infections may be reduced among children protected from birth.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Human airway cells prevent SARS-CoV-2 multibasic cleavage site cell culture adaptation

    Mart M Lamers et al.
    Cell culture adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 is prevented on human airway cells with an active serine protease-mediated entry pathway, allowing the production of genetically stable virus stocks for laboratory experiments.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Artistoo, a library to build, share, and explore simulations of cells and tissues in the web browser

    Inge MN Wortel, Johannes Textor
    By letting users build interactive simulations directly in a web browser, Artistoo unlocks new ways to communicate, teach, and collaborate in computational biology research.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Medicine

    Augmenter of liver regeneration regulates cellular iron homeostasis by modulating mitochondrial transport of ATP-binding cassette B8

    Hsiang-Chun Chang et al.
    Mammalian cellular iron homeostasis and the maturation of the cytosolic iron sulfur cluster proteins are dependent on the mitochondrial protein import machinery.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    NusG is an intrinsic transcription termination factor that stimulates motility and coordinates gene expression with NusA

    Zachary F Mandell et al.
    The general transcription elongation factor NusG functions as an intrinsic termination factor in Bacillus subtilis and together with NusA coordinates global gene expression including the motility regulon.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Spatiotemporal recruitment of RhoGTPase protein GRAF inhibits actomyosin ring constriction in Drosophila cellularization

    Swati Sharma, Richa Rikhy
    The RhoGTPase domain containing protein GRAF recruits to the cleavage furrow during myosin II assembly to hydrolyze Rho-GTP and restrict actomyosin contractility for regulating the time of onset of constriction during Drosophila cellularization.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Simultaneous trimodal single-cell measurement of transcripts, epitopes, and chromatin accessibility using TEA-seq

    Elliott Swanson et al.
    Simultaneous multimodal measurement of chromatin accessibility, gene expression, and protein expression provides a unified view of the molecular underpinnings of immune cell state in health and disease.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Infection with a newly designed dual fluorescent reporter HIV-1 effectively identifies latently infected CD4+ T cells

    Jinfeng Cai et al.
    A novel reporter model system serves as a valuable tool for studying latent HIV-1 infection and identifies potent latency reversing agent.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Medicine

    Inflammation rapidly recruits mammalian GMP and MDP from bone marrow into regional lymphatics

    Juana Serrano-Lopez et al.
    Endotoxemia recruits fast-acting anti-inflammatory innate myeloid progenitors from bone marrow into regional lymphatics through release of pre-formed Ccl19 secondary to NF-κB-independent, Traf6/IκB kinase-dependent signaling.
    1. Neuroscience

    Robust vestibular self-motion signals in macaque posterior cingulate region

    Bingyu Liu et al.
    Macaque posterior cingulate region carries vestibular dominant self-motion signals with plentiful temporal components that could be useful for process of path integration.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    CEM500K, a large-scale heterogeneous unlabeled cellular electron microscopy image dataset for deep learning

    Ryan Conrad, Kedar Narayan
    'Cellular Electron Microscopy 500,000 images' (CEM500K) is a highly heterogeneous, information-rich, non-redundant, unlabeled EM dataset curated to pre-train DL algorithms for better model generalization on EM segmentation tasks.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural signatures of vigilance decrements predict behavioural errors before they occur

    Hamid Karimi-Rouzbahani et al.
    Declined coding of sensory information in the brain reflects human vigilance decrements and allows prediction of behavioural errors.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Single-dose BNT162b2 vaccine protects against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection

    Nick K Jones et al.
    A fourfold reduction in the rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers ≥12 days after a single dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) has been found.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A calcineurin-mediated scaling mechanism that controls a K+-leak channel to regulate morphogen and growth factor transcription

    Chao Yi et al.
    Calcineurin regulates an electrophysiological mechanism that activates the transcription of specific developmental genes in a heirarchical manner to scale fish appendages.
    1. Neuroscience

    Slowing the body slows down time perception

    Rose De Kock et al.
    The perception of time is influenced by movement environments, with slower movements associated with shorter perceived time intervals.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Evolution of the complex transcription network controlling biofilm formation in Candida species

    Eugenio Mancera et al.
    The transcription networks controlling biofilm formation in Candida species exhibit 'structural' similarities, but show gradual substitutions of transcription regulators and frequent changes in target genes.
    1. Neuroscience

    Stimulus-dependent relationships between behavioral choice and sensory neural responses

    Daniel Chicharro et al.
    New stimulus-dependencies of choice-related signals in sensory neurons uncovered by new analytical results and methods.
    1. Cell Biology

    Glucose restriction drives spatial reorganization of mevalonate metabolism

    Sean Rogers et al.
    Genetic and biochemical analyses, coupled with fluorescence imaging, reveal that spatial compartmentalization of HMG-CoA Reductases at yeast ER-lysosome contacts modulates mevalonate pathway flux during glucose restriction, enabling metabolic adaptation.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The metal cofactor zinc and interacting membranes modulate SOD1 conformation-aggregation landscape in an in vitro ALS model

    Achinta Sannigrahi et al.
    How do the metal cofactors present in the protein SOD1 collaborate with the interacting membrane to define the role of this protein in the disease ALS?
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Membrane transporter dimerization driven by differential lipid solvation energetics of dissociated and associated states

    Rahul Chadda et al.
    Differences in the lipid solvation energetics of associated and dissociated states is a primary driving force for membrane protein oligomerization, presenting a molecular mechanism for lipid regulation in biology.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cerebrospinal fluid proteome maps detect pathogen-specific host response patterns in meningitis

    Anahita Bakochi et al.
    Statistical analysis and LASSO regression modeling provide insights into pathogen-specific host response patterns in cerebrospinal fluid from different disease etiologies to support future classification of pathogen type based on host response patterns in meningitis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Excitation of medium spiny neurons by ‘inhibitory’ ultrapotent chemogenetics via shifts in chloride reversal potential

    Stephanie C Gantz et al.
    Modifying membrane potential by an 'inhibitory' chloride conductance such as PSAM4-GlyR is inherently unstable because the normally low intracellular concentration of chloride is readily increased by influx of chloride.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Colistin kills bacteria by targeting lipopolysaccharide in the cytoplasmic membrane

    Akshay Sabnis et al.
    Modulation of cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide levels sensitises bacteria to polymyxin antibiotics, revealing a novel combination therapeutic approach.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Discovery and characterization of a novel family of prokaryotic nanocompartments involved in sulfur metabolism

    Robert J Nichols et al.
    A protein-bounded organelle-like compartment from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is upregulated under sulfur starvation and contains a cysteine desulfurase cargo enzyme.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    High social status males experience accelerated epigenetic aging in wild baboons

    Jordan A Anderson et al.
    Among the factors that predict fitness in wild baboons, dominance rank in males, but not in females, is the best predictor of epigenetic aging.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology

    An NKX2-1/ERK/WNT feedback loop modulates gastric identity and response to targeted therapy in lung adenocarcinoma

    Rediet Zewdu et al.
    Genetically engineered murine models reveal novel mechanisms of cell identity regulation in lung cancer and provide insights into the complex interplay between lineage specifiers and oncogenic signaling pathways in this disease.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Ligand sensing enhances bacterial flagellar motor output via stator recruitment

    Farha Naaz et al.
    Sensing of ligands by chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli not only causes changes in the rotational bias of the flagellar motors but also increases motor speed via temporary recruitment of stators.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Uncovering the computational mechanisms underlying many-alternative choice

    Armin W Thomas et al.
    A comparison of different computational models reveals that looking behavior, during value-based choices from 9, 16, 25, or 36 snack foods, actively influences the subjective values of the available alternatives.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Medicine

    Identification of human glucocorticoid response markers using integrated multi-omic analysis from a randomized crossover trial

    Dimitrios Chantzichristos et al.
    A human experimental model for physiological glucocorticoid exposure and glucocorticoid withdrawal identifies a multi-omic cluster, including microRNA miR-122-5p and metabolites, associated with glucocorticoid-responsive genes.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Development and characterization of a chronic implant mouse model for vagus nerve stimulation

    Ibrahim T Mughrabi et al.
    Long-term, dose-controlled vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is feasible in mice using a multi-lab validated implantation procedure, allowing therapeutic testing of VNS in many disease models.
    1. Neuroscience

    Impaired spatial learning and suppression of sharp wave ripples by cholinergic activation at the goal location

    Przemyslaw Jarzebowski et al.
    Elevated cholinergic activity disrupts offline hippocampal state and impairs memory formation highlighting the need for a precise timing of cholinergic activity in learning and memory.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Unmasking coupling between channel gating and ion permeation in the muscle nicotinic receptor

    John R Strikwerda, Steven M Sine
    Mutating a highly conserved intramembrane salt bridge unmasks structural and functional coupling between channel gating and ion permeation in the muscle nicotinic receptor.
    1. Neuroscience

    The role of oxytocin in delay of gratification and flexibility in non-social decision making

    Georgia Eleni Kapetaniou et al.
    Oxytocin was found to significantly improve non-social decision making in a healthy sample, suggesting a domain-general function of the hormone, in contrast to its previously hypothesized social domain specificity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Likelihood approximation networks (LANs) for fast inference of simulation models in cognitive neuroscience

    Alexander Fengler et al.
    A novel method and software provides researchers with the capability to rapidly, flexibly, and robustly perform Bayesian parameter estimation of theoretically meaningful models in cognitive neuroscience that were heretofore intractable.
    1. Neuroscience

    IGF-1 facilitates extinction of conditioned fear

    Laura E Maglio et al.
    Insulin-like growth factor-1 activates the prefrontal cortex and improves the extinction of aversive memories.

Magazine

    1. Physics of Living Systems

    Tumor Biology: Cells under pressure

    Dhiraj Indana, Ovijit Chaudhuri
    1. Neuroscience

    Remodeling Synapses: From mice to men

    J Christian Althaus, Michael A Sutton